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July 1981 
USA S2.95/DM 9.80 








Make a Scene 
With Your Micro 

Computerists 

Exhibit Their Art 



DESKTOP COMPUTING 1 







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07 



VDTs: Are They Hazardous? □ 6800 Mailing List □ Word Processor 
Extraordinaire □ Strolling on Wall Street with Your Micro □ Atari's Assembler 
Editor D Add Extra Drive to Your Heath D Orbit the Planets on Your Apple Q 
Build a Multi-Purpose Power Supply □ Inside Info on HDOS Disk Structure 



Now! Color for Your 



• • 




Introducing COLOflAMA-50 
Percom's SS-50 Bus Color VDG 



Featuring . . . 

• Eleven display formats including 8-color semigraphics, 4- 
color graphics. 2-color high density graphics and 2-color 
alphanumerics. 

Moreover, two- and four-color displays may be switched 
between primary and complementary color sets under soft- 
ware control or from the keyboard. 

Full graphic resolutions range from 64 x 64 picture elements 
to 256 x 192 picture elements. 

• Instant display control: The COLOR4MA-50™ is memory 
mapped: your MPU has direct, instant access to display RAM 
and display control registers. 

• Low-cost Modulator Option for Color TV Interface: The 
COLORAMA-S0 m provides for installation of an inexpensive 
RF modulator such as Radio Shack PN 277-122 for operation 
using a color TV. 




SS-50 Bus 
Department Store 



Nobody supports the 
SS-50 bus like Percom 



J SS-50 Bus/Single-Board Computers with I/O ports & 

memory 
J Static and Dynamic RAM cards — memory expansion 

kits 
J LFD-400/800 1-. 2- and 3-drive mini-disk systems 
J Color and monochrome memory-mapped display 

controllers 
J Extendable 7-slot SS-50 bus motherboards 
J Versatile prototyping boards: SS-50 and SS-30 bus 
J Field-proven software: monitors, operating systems, 

drivers, editors, assemblers, debuggers and HLLs. 



For quality Percom SS-50 bus products, see your nearby 
authorized Percom dealer. To order direct, call toll-free, 
1-800-527-1592. Prices and specifications subject to change without 
notice. Prices do not include shipping and handling. 



Mix in Sound: With the 
optional modulator in- 
stalled, you can comple- 
ment your colorful displays 
with software -controlled audio. 



Introductory 
Price 

$219.95 



• Extended Addressing: The COLORAMA-50 m is compatible 
with the SS-50A bus and the extended-address SS-50C bus. 
Map the board into any of the sixteen 64-Kbyte banks of the 
1-Mbyte SS-50C address space. The COLORAMA-50 ,M card 
"defaults" to the first (lowest) bank for the SS-50A bus. 

• Cassettee I/O Option: Add a few inexpensive components to 
the on-card circuitry provided and use an audio cassette for 
program/data storage. 

• Provision for On-Card Firmware: Put your display operating 
system, cassette control program, etc. right on the COLOR4- 
MA-50™ card in a 2516 (5-volt 2716) EPROM. Resides in the 
top 2-Kbyte of the card memory space. 

• Operating Software: Included in the comprehensive users 
manual is a listing of a display operating system and cassette 
controller that may be implemented as a callable subroutine 
function from BASIC or existing operating systems. The 
programs are optionally available in a plug-in ROM for 
just $69.95. 

System Requirements 

The COLOR4MA-50™ is pin- and outline-compatible with the 
Percom System-50™ bus. the SS-50A (SS-50) bus and the 
SS-50C bus. The composite video-sync signal output will directly 
drive a color (or BW) video monitor. The output may be mod- 
ulated for operation with a standard (NTSC) TV set. A modulator 
is not included. The COLOR4MA-50™ card occupies 8-Kbytes 
of memory in the upper half of a 64-Kbyte memory space. 
Included on-card is 1-Kbyte of display RAM A/hich will 
accommodate alphanumeric displays, semigraphic displays and 
two low-density full-graphic displays. For the higher density 
graphic displays, additional display RAM is required. The option- 
al RAM ICs may be installed on the card. 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY INC 

211 N KIRRY GARLAND TEXAS 75042 

(214)272 3421 



• 1 



PEflOCM 



™ trademark of Percom Data Company. Inc. 



with ten multi-user megabytes 





CompuStar's 8-inch Winchester 





CompuStar Cable Assembly 



If you could think of just one way to im- 
prove our phenomenally popular Super- 
Brain, what would it be? More disk 
storage? Well, we already thought about 
it. And for only a few thousand dollars for 
a whopping 10 megabytes of lightning- 
fast storage, it's nothing short of another 
major breakthrough! From the company 
that wrote the book on price/perfor- 
mance . . . Intertec. 

Our New CompuStar™ 10 Megabyte 
Disk Storage System (called a DSS) 
features an 8 inch Winchester drive 
packaged in an attractive, compact 
desktop enclosure. Complete with disk, 
controller and power supply. lust plug it 
into the Z80 adaptor of your SuperBrain 
and turn it on.* It's so quiet, you'll hardly 
know it's there. But, you'll quickly be as- 
tounded with its awesome power and 
amazing speed. 

" Some models require hardware/software modification. 



The secret behind our CompuStar DSS 
is its unique controller/multiplexor. It 
allows many terminals to "share" the 
resources of a single disk. So, not only 
can you use the DSS with your Super- 
Brain, you can configure multiple user 
stations using our new series of Compu- 
Star™ terminals, called Video Processing 
Units or VPU's™. 

Four CompuStar VPU's are available. 
At prices starting at less than $2,500. 
Some models are designed to operate as 
stand-alone microcomputers, with inter- 
nal disk storage. Just like your Super- 
Brain. Each model features its own 64K of 
RAM and can be "daisy-chained" into a 
powerful multi-user network. Just connect 
one VPU into the next. Using easy-to- 
install cable assemblies. Connect up to 
255 users in a single system. One at a 
time. As you need them. 



Whether you need an extra 10 
megabytes for your SuperBrain or an 
enormous multi-user network, the 
CompuStar™ DSS solves your storage 
shortage problems. Sensibly. And 
economically. Plus, your investment is 
protected by a nationwide service net- 
work with outlets in most major U.S. 
cities. Providing efficient on-site or depot 
maintenance. 

Get a demonstration of this extraor- 
dinary new system today. Call or write 
now for the name and address of your 
nearest CompuStar dealer. 

= INTE3TEC 

Cdata 

= SYSTEMS. .3 

2300 Broad River Rd. Columbia. S.C. 29210 
(803) 798-9100 TWX: 810-666 2115 




MICROCOMPUTING 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 
EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smythe 

EDITORIAL MANAGER 

Jeff DeTray 

PUBLICATIONS MANAGER 

Edward Ferman 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Dennis Brisson 

ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR 

Susan Gross 

COPY EDITOR 

Eric Moloney 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANT 

Linda Stephenson 

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTS 

Pat Graham, Nancy Noyd 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Robert Baker, Ken Barbier, Frank Derfler, 
Jr., Rod Hallen, Peter Stark, Sherm Wantz 

PRODUCTION MANAGER/PUBLICATIONS 

Nancy Salmon 

ASSISTANT PRODUCTION MANAGER 

Michael Murphy 
ART DIRECTOR 

Diana Shonk 

ADVERTISING GRAPHICS 

Robert Drew, Bruce Hedin. Steve Baldwin, 

Jane Preston 

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 

Joan Ahern, Fiona Davies, Linda Drew, 

Bob Dukette, Sandra Dukette, Gary 

Graham, Kenneth Jackson, Ross Kenyon, 

Theresa Ostebo, Dianne Ritson, Deborah 

Stone, Susan Symonds, Thomas 

Villeneuve, Donna Wohlfarth 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

William Heydolph, Terrie Anderson, 

Bill Suttenfield 

TYPESETTING 

Barbara Latti, Sara Bedell, Michele 

DesRochers, Stephen Jewett, Luann 

Keddy. Mary Kinzel, Karen Stewart 

CORPORATE CONTROLLER 

Charles Garniss, Jr. 

EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT 

Leatrice O'Neil 

ACCOUNTING MANAGER 

Knud Keller 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

Debra Boudrieau 

CIRCULATION 

Doris Day, Pauline Johnstone, 

Dion Owens, designer 

BULK SALES MANAGER 

Ginnie Boudrieau 

ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT 

Matthew Smith 

ADVERTISING 
603-924-7138 

Kevin Rushalko, Mgr. 

Louise Caron, Hal Stephens, 

Marcia Stone 



APPUCATIONS 

143 68OO Disk-Based Mailing List Dr. Gordon w wotfe 

Here's a timesaving approach to handling subscription lists. 

150 Eiectronic Orrery Fredj.Guntner 

Simulate planetary motbn using high-resolutbn graphics. 

167 Get on the PET Instrument Bus Kepa zubeidia 

The PET as a real-time bus controller. 

BUSINESS 

126 Put Your Micro on Wall Street DexHart 

This BASIC program gives you portfolio values at a glance. 

GENERAL INTEREST 

34 Right on Target with Winchester Martin Moore 

The latest rung on the mass storage ladder is hard disk. 

42 Video Dismay Terminals Eric Moloney 

Are they hazardous to your health? 

44 Ionizing Radiation and VDTs Dr .Gordon w.woife 

How much is too much? 

GRAPHICS 

92 TRS-80 Graphics on the Heath HI 9 d c shoemaker 

BASIC subroutines let you reformat graphics. 

94 6800 High-Speed, High-Resolution Graphics Terry Mayhugh 

At last-graphics as good as any, and it doesn't eat up memory. 

104 A One-Two Punch for CBM/PET Graphics i w Froeiich 

This hardware /software combo delivers a knockout graphics display. 

108 Mix It Up On Your Apple R.Daniel Bishop 

Display text on your screen while using Apple's HIRES page-2 graphics. 

116 New, Improved Sorcerer Graphics AvramR.vener 

Use graphics routines in a BASIC program. 

120 Hot Rod Graphics DornGreenwood 

Test your driving skills and the OP'S graphics capability. 



SWTP 

Apple 

PET 



Heath 



SWTP 



PET 



Apple 



Sorcerer 



OSI 




4 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Contents: July 1981 



HARDWARE PROJECTS 



6809 



j c Hassan Construct a Modular, Multi-Purpose Power Supply 

It can serve as a test fixture or power a small system. 

David r Rawson Clock/ Ca lendar for the 6809 

No complexities needed to implement time and date. 

George Young A Proven Formula to Program 2716s 

6502 + two 6522s + four DIP cables = 2716 programmer. 



61 



132 



162 



Atari 



Heath 



CP/M 



Robert w. Baker Atari's Assembler Editor 

Write assembly-language programs for your Atari. 

Kirk l Thompson Shift into Extra Drive on Your Heath 

Expand your H-89 with this new H-77 floppy drive. 

Glenn a Hart Word Processor Extraordinaire 

Here's an in-depth look at WordStar. 



REVIEWS 
74 



80 



152 



Heath 



e Tom Jorgenson Dissecting the HDOS Diskette 

Here's inside information on Heath's DOS. 



TUTORIAL 
66 



Publisher's Remarks-6 

PET-pourri-lO 

Dial-up Directory-16 

Computer Blackboard-20 

As the Word Turns-24 

Micro Quiz-26 

Micro-Scope-28 

Letters to the Editor-32 

Graphics Contest-84 



DEPARTMENTS 

Classifieds-172 

Dealer Directory- 173 

New Products-198 

New Software-206 

Reader Reviews-212 

Corrections-215 

Book Reviews-216 

Calendar-220 

Perspectives-221 



Volume V 

No. 7 



Page 84. 



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This month: 

If a picture is worth IK words, then this 
month's issue of Kilobaud Microcomput- 
ing can be measured in megabytes. 

Our exploration of the world of graphics 
begins with the results of our graphics con- 
test (p. 84). Entries were submitted in one 
of four categories— black and white and 
color video, and printer and plotter hard 
copy — and the results show the complexi- 
ty you can achieve with a little program- 
ming skill and creativity. 

As the graphics articles in this issue 
point out, graphics are for more than just 
cartoon animation or for games; they can 
be used to display statistics, in plotting and 
as a convenient aid in scanning data. 

It is anticipated that the computer 
graphics field will triple within the next 
four years, due, in large part, to the grow- 
ing uses of graphics in business. As this 
field continues to expand, we'd like to see 
more articles about how micrographics are 
being used as business tools. 

— The Editors 

Next month: 

Next month Kilobaud Microcomputing 
will take a look at the popular Apple II and 
the much-heralded Apple III computers. 
We'll examine some unique applications 
for the versatile Apple II and find out what 
delayed the widespread introduction of the 
Apple III. 

This month's cover: 

The first place prize winner in Kilobaud 
Microcomputing's first annual graphics 
contest was entitled "Mountains," by Ben 
Lanterman (12162 Haldane Court, Bridge- 
ton, MO 63044). Ben's color video compo- 
sition was produced with VersaWriter on a 
48K Apple II microcomputer. 

Photo inset: Shugart Technology's 
ST500 series 5.25-inch disk drive system. 
(Photo courtesy Seagate Technology) 

Kilobaud Microcomputing (ISSN 0192-4575) is published 
monthly by Wayne Green, Inc., 80 Pine St., Peterborough 
NH 03458. Subscription rates in U.S. are $25 for one year 
and $53 for three years. In Canada: $27 for one year only, 
U.S. funds. Foreign subscriptions (surface mail)— $35 for 
one year only, U.S. funds. Foreign air mail subscriptions 
—$62 for one year only, U.S. funds. Canadian Distributor: 
Micron Distributing, 409 Queen St. West, Toronto, Ontar- 
io, Canada M5V 2A5. In Europe, contact: Monika Nedela, 
Markstr. 3, D-7778 Markdorf, W. Germany. South African 
Distributor: KB Microcomputing, PO Box 782815, Sand- 
ton, South Africa 2146. Australian Distributor: Electronic 
Concepts, Attention: Rudi Hoess, 55 Clarence Street, 
Sidney 2000, Australia. Second-class postage paid at Pe- 
terborough NH 03458 and at additional mailing offices. 
Phone: 603-924-3873. Entire contents copyright 1981 by 
Wayne Green, Inc. No part of this publication may be re- 
printed or otherwise reproduced without written permis- 
sion from the publisher. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 5 



PUBLISHER'S REMARKS 

That's 

Show Biz 



By Wayne Green 



Commodore 



Hops onto 
The Circuit 



Commodore Shows 

Commodore has been putting on a 
series of shows. But, unlike Radio Shack, 
they have allowed spaces for their sup- 
porting firms, not just their own prod- 
ucts. Radio Shack seems to pay lip ser- 
vice to their supporting manufacturers 
and software firms, but when it comes to 
letting them in on the act, even marginal- 
ly, no dice. 

The accompanying photos show some 
of the highlights of a Commodore show I 
recently attended in Boston. 

Since most of the advertising for the 
show was on local TV and in the newspa- 
pers, the turnout was mostly interested 
businessmen and their families, with on- 
ly a few hobbyists. I went down to see 
how the show went — and also to give a 
couple of talks on microcomputers. The 
turnout for the talks was not impressive, 
but those who did come were seriously 
interested and asked excellent questions. 

I had hoped to meet some of the Com- 
modore corporate people who were there, 
but they were far too busy talking with 




One of the big hits of the show— perhaps to the consternation of the PET and CBM 
contingents— was the new VIC-20. Here's Mike Tomczyk, center, the VIC-20 guru, 
explaining it to an amazed crowd. 



each other to meet many of us visitors. I 
was quickly introduced to several of 
them by Mike Tomczyk, Commodore 
marketing strategist, but was unable to 




Commodore recently moved into Boston for a weekend, taking up the grand ball- 
room at the Sheraton in the Prudential Center. Commodore did a good job of organ- 
izing the show, with big signs showing what each participating firm was doing. 

6 Microcomputing, July 1981 



talk with them. 

The show was interesting, but many of 
us wondered if it was cost-effective. They 
sure spent a bundle for such a sparsely 
attended show. 



IBM, Where Are You? 

Every so often one of the trade papers 
prints a story about IBM and their "about 
to be introduced" microcomputer. I don't 
think anyone in the industry is really 
anxious for the other shoe to drop. 

A recent story claimed that the IBM 
machine will be S-100 compatible, in 
which case IBM will have both gone 
against all precedent for them and have 
pulled off one of the best coups in the mi- 
cro business. Most of the early microcom- 
puters used the S-100 bus, with the re- 
sult that an enormous number of acces- 
sories and gadgets were built up around 
that standard. With the push of George 
Morrow, the S-100 has become an IEEE 
standard. 

The first major firm to jump off the bus 
was Commodore. Then came Heath, and 



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CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321-9390 

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TRS-80 is a trademark of the 
Radio Shack Division of Tandy 
Corporation. PLAIN JANE is a 
Trademark of Meta Technologies 
Corporation. 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

July 1, 1981 THRU 

July 31, 1981, 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject to change 
without notice. 



•Add $3.00 for shipping & handling. 
•$3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 
•Ohio residents add 6 1 /2% sales 
tax. 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 



1981 by Metatropics Corp. 



16K MEMORY ONLY $25.95! 

For TRS-80 Keyboard or Expansion 
interface. KEYBOARD requires jumpers: 
$2.00 Extra. These are 200 ns tested RAM 
for the TRS-80, APPLE or EXIDY. 



DISK DRIVES for the TRS-80 OR PMC-80: 



All of our drives come complete with power supply 
and chassis. They may be used with existing Radio 
Shack drives on the same cable! 40 track drives 
store 102K bytes single density, and 175K double 
density. 80 track drives have 175K single density 
and 345K double density! All drives guaranteed 90 
days, one year on power supply. 

40 track MPI drives $319.95 

40 track TEAC drives $315.95 

40 track TANDON drives $319.95 

80 track MPI drives $449.95 

80 track TEACdrives $429.95 

2 drive cable $ 25.95 

4 drive cable $ 39.95 

NEWDOS 80 OPERATING SYSTEM $139.95 

NEWDOS 80 PATCH Patches NEWDOS 80 to 
work with single or double density and the 

doubler $ 59.95 

PERCOM'S DOUBLER for double density 

operation! $219.95 

The DOUBLER works with the TRS or PMC 
expansion interfaces to allow you to use your drives 
in double density! You may still operate your drives 
as single density also! Comes with DBLDOS 
operating system which allows you to transfer 
single density files to doubleand vice versa! GREAT 
BUY! 

DISKETTES: VERBATIM DATALIFE! BOX OF TEN 
SOFT OR HARD SECTORED 5V $32.50 

WE HAVE DRIVES AND CONTROLLERS FOR THE 
MODEL III. CALL FOR PRICES!!! 



MODEMS AND TELE- 
COMMUNICATIONS 



LYNX Telecommunication 
system for the TRS-80 and 

PMC-80 $279.95 

Includes terminal software and 
connections for instant 
hookup' Can be connected to the TRS-80 or PMC- 
80 with or without an expansion interface! 

LEXICOM MODEM 300 BAUD Requires 

RS-232 $169.95 

THE SOURCE: Hook-up to the 

"SOURCE" $ 99.95 

ATARICONNECTION: Modem for 400/800, 

complete with software! $249.00 

APPLECONNECTION: Modem for 

APPLE II $279.95 




PMC-80, 16K LEVEL II 

COMPUTER $739.00 

The PMC-80 is a work alike to 
the TRS-80 mod I computer! 
Comes with Microsoft's BASIC 
in ROM. Built in cassette. 12" 
video monitor. Expandable to 
48K. 
Compatible to All TRS-80 MOD I Programs. 

PMC 80 without monitor $595.00 

RF— MOD for PMC to TV hookup $39.95 

PMC-80 EXPANDER 100 SYSTEM $644.00 

INCLUDES: 32K memory, S-100 bus. RS-232 
interface, Parallel printer driver, Disk controller. 
Fully compatable with TRSDOS, NEWDOS, VTOS, 
and all other TRS-80 Mod I disk software! 




APPLE II COMPUTERS 48K 

ATARI 400 

ATARI 800 COMPUTER 

ZENITH Z-89 48K, 1 DISK ALL IN ONE 
COMPUTER 



VIDEO MONITORS 



$1299.00 
$ 495.95 
$ 795.00 

$2495.00 



LEEDEX 100 12' B/W MONITOR $139.95 

SANYO 9' B/W MONITOR $199.95 



PRINTERS 



OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 All OKI'S have TRS-80 

Graphics!!! $420.00 

Comes with friction and pin feed, upper/lowercase, 

Graphics. 

EPSON MX-80 PRINTER: Word Processing Quality 

Printout with Graphics! Call 

NEC SPINWRITER with Tractor Feed . $2995.00 
DIABLO MODEL 1630 with Tractor $2695.00 

UNIVERSAL PRINTER STANDS $ 94.50 

Other Accessories: 

SUP-R-MOD RF Modulator for APPLE . . . $29.95 
ARCHBOLD SPEED-UP MOD FOR TRS MOD I. 

Allows up to 300% increase! $45.00 

MICROSOFT BASIC Decoded and other 

mysteries $29.95 

TRS-80 DISK and other mysteries $18.95 

ZBASIC BASIC COMPILER for MOD I and MOD III 
TRS-80 and PMC-80 Increase basic program 
speeds by up to 200 times!!!!! 
Tape $79.95 Disk $89.95 

Both For Only $99.95 Specify MOD I or MOD III 

WE HAVE HUNDREDS OF PROGRAMS FOR 

ALL THE POPULAR COMPUTERS! 

CALL FOR OUR FREE CATALOG 



Personal and Business Checks take 3 weeks to clear. For fastest delivery use Certified Checks, Money Orders, Credit Card, or COD 

We will try and beat any published price on any system! Call! 

SIMUTEK CALL TOLL FREE TO ORDER 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS ^ (800) 528-1149 

4877 E Speedway Blvd Please mention this magazine when ordering 

Tucson. Anzona 85712 ARIZONA RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX. 

(602) 323-9391 Technical Questions WE TAKE V|SA MASTER CARD. 

TPS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF RADIO SHACK A TANDY CORP APPLE IS A TRADEMARK OF APPLE INC 



8 Microcomputing, July 1981 



finally— as a capping blow— Radio Shack. 
As one after another of the S-100 firms 
mismanaged themselves into oblivion, 
only the seriously dedicated microcom- 
puter enthusiast remained involved with 
the S-100. Apple, which avoided the 
S- 100, was still small during the early mi- 
cro period, but now is in second place in 
sales. No firm in the top ten today is using 
the S-100. This has managed to kill off 
about 90 percent of the firms which were 
building S-100 compatible boards. 

The S-100, which was cooked up in a 
few minutes one day by Ed Roberts, the 
president of Mits, and producer of the 
first microcomputer, left a lot to be de- 
sired. The basic idea was good — to build 
the computer using a large enough bus 
structure so any type of board could be 
plugged in to expand the system. The 
IEEE committee and George Morrow 
have since developed the bus to the point 
where today it is probably the single most 
practical bus structure for a genuinely 
flexible computer system. With shielding 
and other special techniques, it is even 
possible to keep the noise radiation of the 
bus down to FCC-acceptable limits. 

With an S-100 system you can expand 
the uses of a computer system just about 
as much as you want. The CPU is on one 
board, the display generator often on an- 
other, memories on further boards, inter- 
faces on others, and so on. Thus a system 
can be used for business with word pro- 
cessing, color graphics, disk control, mu- 
sic generation, control purposes, and so 
on, without having to plug in outside 
boxes for each new application. 

Obviously, the cost of an S-100 system 
is going to be higher than the single 
board computers, but then IBM has never 
been a low-price outfit, and there is no 
reason to expect them to start now. 




The Neeco exhibit was typical of the dealer support. Note the small kids, who were 
there in large numbers. They got a real kick out of the computers and picked up a lot 
of literature for their folks. 



Programs 

Most of the interest these days is in pro- 
viding more business-oriented pro- 
grams, for most of the popular systems. 
There is still an unlimited need for pro- 
grams for publication by our magazines 
and books, as well as by Instant Software. 
Remember one thing — if your program 
runs in one of the magazines we don't 
publish, we can't consider it for Instant 
Software, and you could lose a fortune. 

What programs are needed? Of partic- 
ular interest are programs for helping 
specific types of businesses. For in- 
stance, small towns need a program to 
help them keep track of their voters, land 
owners, taxes, assessments and so on. 




Sure, Instant Software had a booth. Reese Fowler, the head of software procure- 
ment for Instant Software, is answering questions, while Sherry, on the right, shows 
copies of Microcomputing. 



Printers need programs to help them esti- 
mate print jobs. Virtually every type of 
business can be helped by specialized 
computer programs, which can then be 
sold by Instant Software. 

General programs, such as inventory, 
are important, too. These come in a wide 
variety of shapes and sizes, each geared 
to special needs. Some of these variables 
can be handled in the initializing of the 
program if you build in the flexibility, 
while others will just have to be geared 
for certain applications. I suspect that we 
will end up with perhaps a dozen or two 
inventory programs that are stocked by 
stores, each with different ways of han- 
dling things. It is useful to remember to 
put routines in your programs that will 
enable data to be accessed by other pro- 
grams when needed, such as for totaling 
inventory assets. 

Games are not very important right 
now. Good adventure games are selling 
and will be considered for publication. 
Most computerized versions of board 
games have declined in sales. Utilities 
are good sellers, as are diagnostics. 

Educational programs are getting start- 
ed, but no one knows yet where they are 
going. It would seem reasonable that pro- 
grams which can replace tutors would 
help sell systems. Many of these are drill 
programs in math, languages and so on. 
Educators with a programming bent 
might see what they can do. 

If you're not into original program- 
ming, perhaps you'd like to try your hand 
at conversions. Programs for the TRS-80 
can be converted to run on most other 
systems, though the graphics can be 
tricky at times. If you want to have at 
this, let us know what system you'd like 
to tackle. We have over 1000 programs 
accepted for publication, most of which 
can be made to run on at least a half- 
dozen popular systems. D 



Microcomputing, July 1981 9 



DEI-POURRI 



By Robert W. Baker 



8032 Data 
Handlers 



Database 
Programs 
Reviewed 



OZZ, the Information Wizard 

OZZ is a general-purpose database pro- 
gram. Designed specifically for the 8032 
CBM with an 8050 disk, it was written by 
the Bristol Software Factory and is being 
sold through Commodore. It's written en- 
tirely in machine language, and is thus 
very fast, though dependent on the CBM 
ROMs. It's not quite as powerful or flexi- 
ble as Jinsam, but it does have several 
very nice features all its own. 

OZZ requires a matched set of disk- 
ettes to maintain up to ten data files, de- 
pending on the size of the files. To con- 
serve space, each data file only uses as 
much space as necessary and can be ex- 
tended at any time. The maximum size 
of any one data file is 364K with a single 
8050 disk unit (two diskettes). The maxi- 
mum number of records within any one 
data file is 64,000 records. For each data 
file created, there's about a 68. 8K over- 
head: 60K for a printed document for- 
mat, 7.8K for a calculator program and 
IK for file management. 

One of the nicest features of OZZ is the 
way the data file format is defined. A spe- 
cial editor allows you to effectively draw a 
picture of how you want each data record 
to look. You simply define boxes to con- 
tain the information along with head- 
ings, titles, comments, etc. Each box also 
defines the data type (text or numeric) 
and the length of the field. For numeric 
fields you can even define the exact deci- 
mal position within the field. You have 
complete freedom in defining the format; 
everything is placed wherever desired on 
the CBM display. However, the maxi- 
mum total length for all fields in the rec- 
ord cannot exceed 252. 

The first text field defined within the 
record is always used as the key field. 
This is used whenever you want to access 
a particular record by name. This fact is 
very important and must be kept in mind 
when first creating a data file. The key 
field must be something that will be 
unique for every entry in the data file. Al- 



so, once entered, this field should not be 
changed at any time. 

Once you've defined the file format, it 
can be saved on the disk as a named file. 
The name is then used to later reference a 
particular data file, and any subsequent 
commands will refer to that file until an- 
other is selected. 

Adding or editing records is easy. The 
file format is displayed on the screen and 
the cursor appears in the first box. If 
you're editing a record, the existing data 
is also displayed within each field. All 
you do now is position the cursor and fill 
in or change the boxes. Normal, full- 
screen editing is provided so you can eas- 
ily correct mistakes and make appropri- 
ate changes. 

Several methods of retrieving informa- 



The current OZZ package 

from Commodore 

is a well-documented 

and very useful product. 



tion are provided to handle your varying 
demands. You can find records by the 
key field, asking for a record by its name. 
For convenience, you can use an asterisk 
( * ) for abbreviated names with character 
matching. You can also specify a particu- 
lar record number within the data file, or 
even perform a sequential search both 
forwards or backwards. More powerful 
searching allows you to specify particu- 
lar pieces of information within a record 
you want to find. 

Another powerful feature of OZZ is a 
built-in calculator. It lets you make calcu- 
lations based on information in the data 



files. The calculator can be operated un- 
der direct control or can be programmed 
to perform a number of calculations suc- 
cessively. Numeric fields of the data rec- 
ords are referenced by their associated la- 
bels. 

The calculator memory can contain an 
additional 16 newly defined working vari- 
ables if required. The calculator is accu- 
rate to 14 significant places for addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, division and 
percentage calculations. The results of 
any calculation can be posted into the 
data record, displayed or saved on the 
calculator memory. When programming 
the calculator, up to 16 calculation steps 
can be entered in any one calculator pro- 
gram. For added convenience, calculator 
programs can be saved on disk as named 
files for later recall. 

For printed output, OZZ has a docu- 
ment editor that's used to define how 
printed documents are to be generated 
and what they contain. This editor is 
much like the one used to define the data 
file format. It allows you to draw the lay- 
out of the document on the computer 
screen, defining fields, labels, headers, 
footers, etc. You can even insert break- 
points in the format that tell OZZ when to 
stop printing and get new information 
from the data file. As expected, the docu- 
ment formats can also be saved on disk as 
named files for later recall. 

Combining the many features of OZZ, 
you can easily list a data file in a specific 
document format while performing cal- 
culations defined by a calculator pro- 
gram. Optionally the data records can al- 
so be updated. Another feature allows se- 
lectively listing a data file depending on 
an analysis mask. Any number of criteria 
can be set in the mask to list only the ex- 
act records desired. 

There are several other functions pro- 
vided that allow deleting records, print- 
ing whatever is currently displayed on 
the screen, or even verifying the data- 
base. You can also display a list of all data 
files, showing the record length and 



I 



10 Microcomputing, July 1981 



THE MOST INCREDIBLE 

LITTLE WORKER 

NEXT TO YOUR SECRETARY 

CAN SIT RIGHT 



NEXT TO YOUR SECRETARY 




The Zenith Z69 sub-compact: o dual Z60 
microcomputer, a video terminal, and a 
floppy-disk drive ... all in a single, desktop 
stand-alone. 

The Z89: a subcompact microcomputer that 
needs about as much space on a desk as a portable 
TV set. 

And needs about as much technical training to 
operate. Because the Z89 uses the industry- 
standard CP/M ™ operating system, it accepts a 
vast variety of existing software. Most microcom- 
puter programmers already know it, and anyone 
trained on larger systems adapts to CP/M* in a 
flash. The Z89 also uses standard, currentiy availa- 
ble software on both 5 l A " and 8" floppy disks, yet 
is capable of more sophisticated operation using 
extended languages such as Microsoft BASIC, 
COBOL, FORTRAN, and PASCAL. 

The keyboard follows the standard typewriter 
format, with every touch of a key confirmed by an 
audible click. Numbers are duplicated in calculator 
format, with up to 18 decimal-place accuracy. And 
the large-capacity non-glare video display is easy 
on the eyes. 

The Z89 is a sub-compact desktop unit with a 
memory of up to 64K bytes of RAM — more than 
enough for word processing, accounts payable, 



accounts receivable, inventory control, and many 
other business, scientific, and technical applica- 
tions . . . without a zillion different cords hanging 
out of the back. 

And now, for you tech-spec freaks, some impor- 
tant jargon regarding standardization and 
flexibility: 

Disk data: Choice of internal or external storage, or combi- 
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10-sector hard-sector media single-side single-density) for 
lowest media cost 8" disk drives (double-side double-density) for 
greater storage; also standard IBM single-side single-density 
format for exchanging data with other computer systems. 
Available in either 48K or 64K systems. 

Zenith is a boot-loaded RAM system, so it can accommodate the 
latest software on the market, and anything new that's likely to 
come along in the future. Twin serial input/output ports let you 
interface with just about any printer or modem on the market — 
handy whether you already have them now, or want to add them in 
the future. And with five different Zenith models, from a basic 48K 
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**See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 11 



number of records in each data file. 

The current OZZ package from Com- 
modore is a well-documented and very 
useful product. However, it lacks several 
features that could make it much more 
powerful and certainly more flexible. The 
biggest problem is the lack of provisions 
for changing a record format. If you want- 
ed to later change the format of a data file, 
you'd have to create an entirely new data 
file and reenter the entire database. 

Also, there's no way to interface a data 
file with other programs like Word Pro or 
VisiCalc. In fact, there's no mention of 
the file formats in the documentation 
that would allow you to create your own 
interface. Lastly, there's no way to define 
additional sort keys or to extract a sub- 
portion of an existing data file. 

Commodore has mentioned that future 
additions and enhancements are planned 
to correct some of these shortcomings. 
There may even be a few related utility 
programs provided, rather than incorpo- 
rating a number of new features within 
OZZ itself. Even so, OZZ is still a very 
useful and potentially powerful program. 

Create-A-Base 

Create-A-Base is another high-quality, 
versatile database program, this one 
coming from Micro Computer Industries 



What kind of person 
reads the "OLCTD"? 

So far, our subscribers include medical doctors, a 
few printing companies, Data Processing executives, 
and lots of just plain folks like you who enjoy the 
fascinating world of hobbiest information retrieval 
and exchange via the telephone. That is what "The 
On-Line Computer Telephone Directory" is all about. 
Useful data, not egotistical hype, is what we offer 
to our readers. They appreciate it -- and you will 
too. 



Almost as spectacular 
as Artesian New Year... 

The On-Line Computer Telephone Directory celebrates 
one year of publication with a double-sized edition 
featuring articles describing the user operation of 
hobbiest bulletin board systems like ABBS, CBBS, 
Message-80, Remote NorthStar, NetWork and FORUM-80. 
Also featured -- "The Compleat RS-232 Primer" and a 
reprint of "ASCII Control Codes Explained". All 
this along with the usual 200-plus list of computer 
Bulletin Board Numbers! Join the celebration and 
subcribe today! 



The On-Line Computer 
Telephone Di rector y ^ 356 

To subscribe to the OLCTD (a quarterly publication) 
send $9.95 (for one year) or $15.95 (for two years) 
to: 

OLCTD, P.O. Box 10005 

Kansas City, MO 64111 

MasterCard / VISA accepted 

Please include your card number, expiration 
date and signature with your charge order. 



( 1520 East Mulberry, Suite 170, Fort Col- 
lins, CO 80524). The program was de- 
signed to be simple and easy to use, and 
really lives up to this claim. The user is 
prompted through all functions with a 
friendly question and answer dialogue. 
Owners of older CBM/PET systems are 
out of luck, however, since Create-A-Base 
only works on the 8032 CBM with a 4040 
or 8050 disk drive. 

On the other hand, the program will op- 
erate correctly with a number of different 
printers: CBM, NEC Spinwriter, Tally 
8024 or any ASCII printer. Math func- 
tions are also included so the program 
can be used to set up inventory, accounts 
receivable and other common book- 
keeping operations. 

The program comes with an extensive 
65-page manual, divided into four basic 
sections. The first section gives basic in- 
formation on preparing your system to 
use Create-A-Base. The second section 
contains simplified lessons to give the be- 
ginning user hands-on experience in us- 
ing the many features provided. After 
working through the lessons you should 
have a very good idea of how to use the 
program for your particular applications. 
The third section gives a brief explana- 
tion of each command, including the spe- 
cial command functions. The last section 
is really an appendix, containing techni- 
cal data, a list of two-letter state abbrevia- 
tions and information in case you should 
run into difficulties with the program. 

The Create-A-Base program modules 
are written in BASIC and require a spe- 
cial ROM installed in the usually empty 
UD12 socket of the 8032. This socket is 
the last empty socket toward the rear of 
the main logic board. The Word Pro 4 
ROM normally goes in the UD 1 1 socket 
just in front of UD12. Unfortunately, the 
UD12 socket is also used by the VisiCalc 
ROM. Complete instructions are includ- 
ed for installing the ROM; just follow nor- 
mal precautions for handling MOS de- 
vices. 

When first loaded, Create-A-Base lets 
you select whether or not you want 
sound, and the type of printer being used. 

However, it does not let you specify the 
printer address in case it is not device # 4 
on the IEEE bus. The program then re- 
quests the data file name to be created or 
used. You can, if desired, enter a special 
command at this point to display the disk 
directory, sort a database or create a 
Word Pro formatted file. When a file 
name is specified, the main command se- 
lection menu is displayed and the pro- 
gram waits for further input. 

When first creating a data file, you 
have a choice between two major struc- 
tures. One allows up to 24 fields or 220 
characters per record with 650 records 
maximum. The other allows up to 12 
fields or 105 characters but 999 records 
maximum. Thus, you must choose be- 
tween having maximum characters and 
minimum records, or minimum charac- 



ters and maximum records. There is no 
in-between with Create-A-Base. 

As with other database programs, 
Create-A-Base has many commands for 
adding, editing, listing or deleting rec- 
ords. You can also rename fields within 
records or even add new fields to existing 
data files. Other functions allow you to 
easily merge or transfer data files. A sep- 
arate sort module allows sorting on any 
one field or a pair of fields. You can recall 
records by record number or a sort key 
field. 

Output can be in a standard format or 
user-defined formats. A number of pa- 
rameters are selectable to design the out- 
put however desired. The program can 
save up to nine different formats for each 
data file. You can even do calculations 
with totals, enter headings, print by a se- 
lect code, format numbers as dollar and 
cents or integers, etc. For mailing labels 
there are three predefined formats in the 
most commonly used layouts. 

Other special commands allow merg- 
ing, transferring and scratching files. 
You can merge different data files or even 
transfer files from a 2040 disk to an 8050 
or 4040 disk. There's even a method of 
reading sequential files to develop files 
that can be manipulated by Create-A- 
Base. 

Other nice features include the ability 
to create input files for Word Pro 4 and 
being able to display the disk directories. 
The list of features and commands is 
rather extensive; you really have to play 
with the program to see all that it can do. 

After trying Create-A-Base for a few 
weeks, I found it to be a very fine product 
and nicely documented. It provides a 
host of features, many of which can be 
very handy at times. The program is easy 
to use and data entry is very straightfor- 
ward. Create-A-Base may not be quite as 
fast or powerful as Jinsam, but for small- 
scale users it just might be very attrac- 
tive depending on your needs. 

As more and more high-quality soft- 
ware packages such as Create-A-Base, 
OZZ and Jinsam become available, 
choosing what is best for a certain user 
with a particular application gets harder 
and harder. If at all possible, try to see a 
local dealer and experiment with various 
software packages before running out to 
buy. Many of the better-quality products 
are being displayed at the various Com- 
modore shows across the country. At- 
tending various computer shows also 
gives you an excellent opportunity to try 
different software packages, sometimes 
side by side for easy comparison. 

A New Product 
For an Old PET 

Optimized Data Systems has an adapt- 
er for the old style 8K PET that allows the 
use of industry standard 2114 lK-by-4 
RAMs as a replacement for defective 
22-pin 6550 memory chips. The 2114 



12 Microcomputing, July 1981 



memory chips are much less expensive 
and more readily available than the 
6550, typically selling for as little as one 
third the cost of a 6550. 

The PH-001 RAM adapter is a small, 
4.25 by 2.7 inch, double-sided printed 
circuit board that normally plugs into the 
6550 sockets on the PET main logic 
board. It provides space for up to eight 
21 14s (4K). If more than eight 6550s re- 
quire replacement, a second adapter can 
be used. Even though the adapter uses 
two 6550 sockets for connection, both 
6550 ICs can still be installed in sockets 
on the adapter. Therefore, the adapter 
can be installed prior to any 6550 failure 
and be ready for use when one does oc- 
cur. For each 6550 failure, one 2 1 14 is in- 
stalled on the adapter. Low-power 21 14s 
(21 14L) with an access time of 450 ns or 
faster should be used. 

Both the 2 1 14 and 6550 are IK by four- 
bit static NMOS memory devices. The 
primary differences between them are in 
pin configurations and the use of an in- 
ternal IK chip select decoder in the 6550. 
The PH-001 adapter board uses a 
74LS139 dual decoder to provide the 
necessary IK chip selects as well as a val- 
id write strobe for all 21 14s on the board. 
There is a one-to-one correspondence be- 
tween 6550 address and data lines and 
those in the 21 14s. Therefore, any mem- 
ory diagnostic programs you use that re- 
fer to memory locations or bits will still 
correspond properly to the 2114 loca- 
tions. 

In addition to replacing defective 
6550s, the PH-001 adapter can be used 
as a low-cost 4K byte memory expansion 
for the PET. This requires constructing a 
cable between the PH-001 wire- wrap 
sockets and the PET memory expansion 
connector. Directions are included in the 
user instructions supplied with the 
adapter board, telling how to make the 
proper connections. By merely plugging 
a second adapter into the first one, a total 
of 8K can be easily added. Another sec- 
tion of the user instructions even tells 
how the adapter can be used for screen 
RAM replacement if necessary. This also 
requires building a simple interface 
cable, for which instructions are given. 

The PH-001 adapter board is available 
in several versions to suit your budget — 
bare board, complete parts kits, or fully 
assembled. Prices range between about 
$9 and $25, while postage and handling 
are extra. Overall, it's a nicely made, 
high-quality package that's priced just 
right. 

For more information and latest pric- 
ing on the RAM adapter or various PET 
programs also available, write Optimized 
Data Systems, PO Box 595, Placentia, CA 
92670. 



Food for Thought 

I've come up with a little programming 
idea in the last few weeks that I think has 



great potential. Unfortunately, I really 
haven't had time to explore it further, so I 
thought I'd at least briefly tell what I've 
been thinking about. Maybe someone out 
there can come up with a real -life use for 
this, or expand upon the original idea. 

We all know the problems caused by 
the various ROM sets that may exist in 
any given PET/CBM system. The prob- 
lems get even worse when writing as- 
sembly-language programs, since they 
tend to interface directly with the ROM 
routines or low memory pointers. 

My idea is simple. Suppose you're writ- 
ing an assembly-language program but 
you intend to use disk files, perform intri- 
cate calculations or do something that 
would normally be quite easy in BASIC. If 
you try to do this same function in assem- 
bly language, it could get complicated. If 
you decide to take advantage of the exist- 
ing ROM routines, then you'd normally 
be locked to a particular ROM version. 
Any changes in the ROMs would require 
a reassembly, or at least a few patches to 
the original program. However, there 
may be an easy way to avoid all this. 

Why not write your main program in 
assembly language as planned, but re- 
turn to BASIC to do special functions? 
This is just the opposite of the common 
practice of using short assembly-lan- 
guage routines within a main BASIC pro- 
gram. You can use predetermined areas 
of memory to pass parameters between 
your main assembly-language program 
and your BASIC subroutines. One byte 
could be used to indicate a desired func- 
tion to be performed, while additional 
pointers and counters could be used to 
pass strings or numeric values. 

The whole thing works like this: 

You change the top of memory pointer 
to reserve an area for the machine-lan- 
guage program while leaving sufficient 
memory for the simple BASIC program. 
The first line of the BASIC program is an 
SYS command that branches to the first 
instruction of the assembly-language 
program. 

Now your assembly-language program 
executes and goes about its business un- 
til it needs a function from the BASIC 
subroutines. It first sets a flag byte to in- 
dicate the number of the function to be 
performed, then sets any parameters 
needed by the subroutine in predeter- 
mined areas of memory. The program 
then sets a continue address and returns 
to BASIC via a 6502 RTS instruction (op 
code $60). 

The PET will now fetch the next BASIC 
statement after the SYS command that 
originally passed control to the assembly- 
language program. All the BASIC pro- 
gram has to do now is read the flag byte 
via a PEEK instruction and branch to the 
indicated subroutine based on the num- 
ber read. This can easily be done with a 
simple ON X GOSUB 100,200,300, . . . 
statement. 

The selected subroutine then gets the 



SNAPP II EXTENDED BASIC A family of en- 
hancements to rhe Model II DASIC interpreter. 
Port of the package originated with rhe best of 
APPARAT INC s thoughts in implementing 
NEWDOS DASIC The system is written entirely in 
machine language for SUPER FAST execution 
The extensions are fully integrated into Model II 
BASIC and require NO user Memory and NO 
user disk space The package is made up of the 
following six modules 

XDASIC — Six single key stroke commands to list 
the first lost previous next or current program 
line or to edit the current line Includes quick 
way to recover DASIC program following a NEW 
or system or accidental re-boot Ten single 
character abbreviations for frequently used 
commands AUTO CLS DELETE EDIT KILL 
LIST MERGE NEW LLIST and SYSTEM 
XREF — A powerful cross-reference facility with 
output to display and/or printer Trace a vari- 
able through the code Determine easily if a 
variable is in use 

XDUMP — Permits the programmer to display 
and/or print the value of any or all program 
variables Identifies the variable type for all 
variables Each element of any array is listed 
separately 

XRENUM — An enhanced program line renum- 
bering facility which allows specification of an 
upper limit of the block of lines to be renum- 
bered supports relocation of renumbered 
blocks of code and supports duplication of 
blocks of code 

XFIND — A cross reference facility for key words 
and character strings also includes global re- 
placement of keywords 

XCOMPRESS — Compress your DASIC programs 
to an absolute minimum Removes extraneous 
information merge lines even deletes state- 
ments which could not be executed Typically 
saves 30-40% space even for programs with- 
out REM statements' Also results in 7-10% im- 
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Microcomputing, July 1981 13 



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SCOTCH DISKETTES 

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*Free set of 3M instructional programs 

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APPLE II SOFTWARE 

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Typing Teacher (teaches touch typing)* $4.00 
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required parameters from a known area 
of memory via PEEK statements. After 
completing the desired function the re- 
turn parameters are placed back in mem- 
ory with appropriate POKE statements. 
An additional status byte might be set to 
indicate successful completion or an er- 
ror. The BASIC subroutine then returns 
to the next statement after the ON X GO- 
SUB. . . statement. 

Two PEEK commands get the desired 
continue address, and an SYS to that ad- 
dress returns to the calling assembly-lan- 
guage program. A GOTO statement 
should follow the last SYS command to 
take the BASIC program back to the 
PEEKs and ON X GOSUB . . . statements 
to repeat the whole process the next time 
a BASIC subroutine is called. 

Therefore, the simple BASIC program 
might look like: 

10 SYS ( ) 

20 X = PEEK( ) 

30 ON X GOSUB 100.200.300 

40 X = PEEK( . . . ) 

50 X=X + (256*PEEK(. . .)) 

60 SYS(X) : GOTO 20 

100 REM SUBROUTINE— FUNCTION *1 



190 RETURN 



200 REM SUBROUTINE— FUNCTION *2 



290 RETURN 

With this simple structure, you can 
easily perform a string of calculations, 
open or close a disk file, read or write data 
records or whatever else desired. You 
don't have to worry about what happens 
to the ROMs, since you're using the stan- 
dard BASIC interface to the ROM rou- 
tines. 

Also, you don't have to be concerned 
with the pointers in low memory since 
BASIC takes care of them. However, you 
are losing some speed by relying on BA- 
SIC to do part of your work for you. On 
the other hand, if you don't quite under- 
stand how to do certain functions in as- 
sembly language, this method gives you 
an easier way to handle difficult prob- 
lems. 

Somehow this whole idea seems use- 
ful, but I haven't found a place to use it 
yet. If anyone comes up with additional 
ideas or a real-life application, I'd be more 
than happy to hear from you. 



Miscellaneous 

Commodore's newsletter is finally 
back in print, but under a new name. In- 
terface will be published six times a year 
and should appear on a regular basis, 
since they now have a full-time editor. 
Subscriptions are $15 for six issues and 
inquiries should be addressed to: Com- 
modore Business Machines, Inc., Attn: 



Editor, Commodore Interface, 681 Moore 
Road, King of Prussia, PA 19406. 

Eastern House Software, authors of the 
MAE assembler, are now publishing their 
own EHS Gazette. It contains program- 
ming hints, updates and notes on their 
products, information on various new 
products, and, of course, advertising for 
items sold by EHS. Information con- 
tained in the Gazette can be copied and 
reproduced. The EHS Gazette is free to 
anyone sending an SASE with appropri- 
ate postage to: EHS Gazette c/o Eastern 
House Software, 3239 Linda Drive, Win- 
ston-Salem, NC 27106. 

Philip Chao of Rochester, NY, is trying 
to organize a program exchange between 
various PET user groups. He has written 
most user groups explaining his ideas of 
creating a disk library for the PET. Any 
user group that contributes to the library 
will have access to anything currently in 
the library for simply the cost of disks 
and postage. To help keep the work load 
to a minimum, the disk library will only 
be available to user groups, and not to in- 
dividuals. Also, only entire disks will be 
copied; individual programs will not be 
provided. 

If your group is interested and hasn't 
been contacted, write Philip W. Chao, 
Strong Memorial Hospital, PO Box 387, 
Rochester, NY 14642. When submitting 
programs for the library, please keep in 
mind that you should include only origi- 
nal software generated by members of 
the group. Programs from magazine arti- 
cles should not be included unless specif- 
ically stated that they are in the public 
domain. If you read the masthead in 
Compute magazine, you'll find that any 
program published remains the property 
of the original author. Besides, it makes 
sense not to submit magazine programs. 
If everyone submitted a copy of the same 
program, you'd only be wasting time and 
valuable disk space. If in doubt about the 
true origins of any program, don't distrib- 
ute it. 

For those that haven't heard, Commo- 
dore has a 64K memory expansion for 
the 8032 system. This gives you a 96K 
CBM system, but BASIC can still only use 
32K. Details on the new expansion board 
haven't been released as yet but should 
be out by the time this appears. 

For owners of all model CBMs, Spima 
Computer of West Germany is offering a 
line of 64K memory expansion units. 
From the photographs, it appears to be a 
nicely made separate box that sits next to 
the CBM with an interconnecting ribbon 
cable. Unfortunately, the information in- 
cluded was all in German. For more infor- 
mation you can write: Spima Computer 
GMBH, Turbinenstrasse 4, 6800 Mann- 
heim 31, West Germany. D 



Address correspondence to Robert W. 
Baker, 15 Windsor Drive, Atco, NJ 
08004. 



14 Microcomputing, July 1981 







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DIAL-UP DIRECTORY 

Novation Unveils 
New Modem Line 



By Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 

Apple-Cat II 

Modem Terms 

Explained 



This month I'm going to get into some 
modem terminology. You won't need 
this information often, but when you do, 
you might not find it anywhere else. I'll 
also take a look at an exciting new versa- 
tile product, the Novation Apple-Cat II. 

Apple-Cat II 

Novation has developed an LSI tech- 
nology modem module which will be- 
come the basis of a whole new family of 
microcomputer modems. The first prod- 
uct to use this modem module is the Ap- 
ple-Cat II. Novation carefully gives Apple 
computers the credit for the Apple name, 
but Apple shouldn't mind, because the 
Apple-Cat II gives the Apple II great new 
communications capabilities. 

The Apple-Cat II modem has two strong 
points: flexibility and total package inte- 
gration. The integrated system comes 
ready to plug in. It has all the needed ca- 
bles and interfaces and a powerful smart 
terminal software package on disk. 

The flexibility of the system is out- 
standing. It will not only provide full Bell 
103 standard 300 baud capability, but it 
will also operate at 1200 baud using the 
Bell 202 transmission standard. (See the 
following information on modem terms.) 
It has an option that will allow the mo- 
dem device to operate as a 45.5 baud, 
Murray /Baudot coded, Weitbrecht mo- 
dem for the use of the deaf community. 
That feature means that a deaf user can 
use ASCII signals for access to informa- 
tion utilities such as The Source or Com- 
puServe and still communicate with us- 
ers of older TTY equipment. (The change 
of mode is not quick; it may require a 
ROM replacement.) 

Telephone operations can be controlled 
from the keyboard or from software. The 
system will auto dial using either pulse or 
dual-tone dialing, will redial calls and will 
auto disconnect. The Apple-Cat II can be 
told to listen for a second dial tone before 
dialing additional numbers in case you 
are using a system where you have to 
reach an outside line. (Almost all other 
dialing modems simply wait a few sec- 
onds and assume they received the sec- 
ond dial tone. This can often be a false as- 

16 Microcomputing, July 1981 



sumption.) An optional module provides 
jacks so you can attach a telephone hand- 
set (not provided) and have a complete in- 
tegrated voice or data installation— you 
can even hang the handset on a special 
"cradle" on the side of the Apple II. 

Another modem system option will de- 
code the tones from push-button phones 
so you can command your system from 
long distance even without a terminal. 
Jacks are provided for control of a tape re- 
corder motor by the modem and for audio 
output to the recorder. Finally, the soft- 
ware to integrate the Apple-Cat II with a 
BSR X-10 remote control transmitter is 
optionally available on ROM. 

The combination of all of that software, 
tone decoding and remote controlling ca- 
pability should challenge the imagina- 
tion of any microcomputer user. 

The communications software (dubbed 
Comm-Ware by Novation) provides many 




This Novation modem module is about 
the size of a deck of cards. It will be the 
heart of a whole new line of modem 
products for microcomputers. 



features. It will save data in files, trans- 
mit either binary or text files, and allow 
off-line message preparation. It will 
transmit word processor files if they are 
standard ASCII. The only soft spot in the 
software I found is that it will not do 
prompted transmission. Systems like the 
ABBS, PMS and CompuServe want the 
transmission software to send message 
inputs a line at a time. They want to 
prompt each line with a character, such 
as a greater-than sign or question mark. 

The Comm-Ware program does pro- 
vide for variable rate transmission. If you 
set this speed properly, you can match 
the prompt rate of most systems, but you 
usually transmit more slowly than you 
need to or miss an occasional character. 
This is particularly true when Compu- 
Serve's EMAIL sends a new top-of-page 
header. It expects you to wait when it 
does this. Aside from the lack of prompted 
transmission, the Comm-Ware program 
provides for a very intelligent terminal 
capability. (At publication time. Nova- 
tion says they are upgrading the software 
for prompted transmission.) 

Most terminal functions may be per- 
formed at 1200 baud using the Bell 202 
signaling format, but a special Comm- 
Ware feature makes use of the 1200 baud 
mode to send files to another Apple-Cat II 
system. The system uses a unique proto- 
col, but it does open great possibilities for 
the transfer of messages between mes- 
sage systems and between individual 
Apple-Cat II users. 

Also, remember that the Novation mo- 
dem module which is the heart of the Ap- 
ple-Cat II will soon show up in modems 
for other microcomputers. These sys- 
tems should also be able to use the 
1200-baud file transfer program. 

The program runs from a helpful menu 
and has other nice features, such as a sta- 
tus line which shows the transmission 
parameters selected, program features 
activated, and free memory available; di- 



Address correspondence to Frank J. 
Derfler, Jr., PO Box 691, Herndon, VA 
22070. 



*l 




\ 



- 



UTILITY * 












■ 


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Type-'N-Talk^ an important technological 
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You operate Type-'N-Talk M by simply typ- 
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The endless uses of 
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Type-'N-Talk™ adds a whole new world of 
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program verbal reminders to prompt you 
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computer announce events. In teaching, 
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or wrong — even praise a correct answer. 
And of course, Type-'N-Talk "is great fun 
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Just enter English text and hear the verbal 



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Type-'N-Talk' "can be interfaced in several 
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rect entry of DOS commands; a self-test 
feature which loops back the modem in- 
ternally; extensive self-customizing to 
match various printer and external de- 
vice options; utilities to convert between 
integer, BASIC and binary files; and a 
"Hello" program which greets people 
dialing-in and allows them to leave mes- 
sages in RAM. 

Other communications software de- 
signed for integrated modems probably 
will not yet work with the Apple-Cat II. I 
understand that Bill Blue and other Ap- 
ple communications software types have 
been contacted by Novation, and I expect 
to see compatible versions of various pop- 
ular programs, including those in Pascal 
and CP/M, available soon. 

The basic Apple-Cat II sells for about 
$390 and requires a 48K Apple II or Ap- 
ple II Plus with a single disk drive and 
3.2, 3.2.1, or 3.3 Apple Disk Operating 
System. The Apple-Cat II hardware in- 
cludes a full duplex serial port with full 
handshaking for a printer, so you could 
eliminate that cost if you need that kind 
of printer interface. It is a well-designed 
product aimed at the Apple II owner who 
wants the ultimate in system flexibility. 
It isn't low-priced. If you get all of the ac- 
cessories (tone decoders, ROMs, etc.), the 
system can cost over $650, but it has in- 
tegrated capabilites found nowhere else 
at this time. 

Now, let's take a closer look at some 
modem terms, particularly the Bell 202 
standard used by the Apple-Cat II. 

Modem Terminology 

If you intend to buy a modem soon (and 
every reader of this column should have 
at least one by now!), you may be faced 
with a new decision. Along with deciding 
if you want to have originate and answer, 



acoustic or direct and full- or half-du- 
plex, you might also have to decipher 
numbers like 103, 113, 202 and 212. 
Let's briefly review those first terms, 
and then see what the numbers mean. 

The terms originate and answer are 
simply ways of designating which mo- 
dem on a circuit will use a high set of 
tones and which modem will use the low. 
In that way, their tones will not collide on 
the circuit. Typically, most modern mo- 
dems are switch-selectable between the 
high and low tone sets. 

Acoustic modems have rubber cups 
which hold a standard telephone handset 
over an audio microphone and small 
speaker. The tones are acoustically cou- 
pled to the telephone system. A direct- 
connection modem connects electrically 
to the telephone system— either through 
a phone jack or by insertion between the 
handset and the telephone. Direct con- 
nection does not mean that the modem is 
directly connected to the computer's 
data bus without the use of a serial port, 
although the phrase is sometimes im- 
properly used in that way. The type of 
modem which does not need a serial port 
is sometimes referred to as a bus decod- 
ing, integral or integrated modem. 

In modems, the terms full- and half-du- 
plex refer to the use of an echo circuit be- 
tween the modem and terminal. In a full- 
duplex circuit the distant end echoes 
back characters so you know the line is 
good and your data has been received. If a 
modem is placed in half-duplex, the mo- 
dem itself will provide the echo back to 
the terminal or computer serving as a ter- 
minal. This is probably useful only in two 
cases: first, when you want to do a local 
test to ensure that your data is getting out 
of the computer to the modem properly, 
and second, when for some reason the 




The Apple-Cat II provides a fully integrated modem with many special features for 
the Apple II computer. 






18 Microcomputing, July 1981 






distant end is not providing an echo and 
your terminal cannot display its own out- 
put. Being able to operate in half-duplex 
is not a vital capability in a modem. 

There Is Life after 300 Baud 

Now, for all those numbers. Many mod- 
ern modems like the Apple-Cat II will pro- 
vide different kinds of service. The most 
familiar service designator is the old 
standard Bell 103. The standards like 
Bell 103 simply describe the tones and 
signaling schemes modems use when 
talking to each other. The Bell standard 
113 is identical to 103 except it desig- 
nates an originate -only modem. 

The Bell 103/1 13 standard describes a 
signaling scheme using four tones (audio 
frequencies) which are varied to indicate 
the l's and O's. If you want to sound really 
technical, you can call this frequency 
shift keying, or FSK. The 103 signaling 
scheme is usually considered to be good 
only up to about 300 baud. At faster 
speeds, each tone pulse becomes very 
short. You have to have a very good re- 
ceiver to quickly detect and recognize the 
short tone burst. Some modems, notably 
the Potomac Micro-Magic, can operate re- 
liably up to 600 baud using the Bell 103 
FSK standard. At that speed, each bit is 
represented by a tone only 1.6 ms long. 

The 200 Series 

The Bell 200 series of modems (they 
call modems data sets) are medium- and 
high-speed units. The dial telephone net- 
work will not provide enough bandwidth 
to allow the transmission of 1200 baud 
frequency shifted data transmission in 
two directions simultaneously. Each end 
has to take turns using the channel. This 
sharing, called half-duplex operation 
(same words as above, but a slightly dif- 
ferent meaning when applied to a com- 
munications channel), must be coordi- 
nated between the terminals. Sharing is 
done through the use of request to send 
IRST) and clear to send (CTS) signals. 
Full-duplex channel operation can be 
done at medium speeds using two fre- 
quency bands and changing the phase 
of the signals instead of the frequency. 

The 202 standard modems (like the 
Apple-Cat II) are usually used in big sys- 
tems in applications called polling. Poll- 
ing systems periodically call up remote 
terminals to gather data. The data is 
dumped in primarily a one-way trans- 
mission. The 202 standard uses frequen- 
cy shifted tones and requires the use of 
RTS and CTS signals. It is commonly be- 
ing used by amateur radio operators to 
transfer data on the VHF bands. 

The 212 data set is a dual-mode unit 
which will operate at 300 baud using the 
103 standard or at 1200 baud using a 
special phase-shifted signaling pattern. 
Phase-shifted signaling is used at higher 
speeds because phase can be detected 
very quickly. The sine wave of a 1200 Hz 
tone takes about .8 ms to complete. That 
is about the minimum time it can be 



sampled except by the use of statistical or 
linear predictive techniques. 

A phase-shifted signal can be mea- 
sured in units of one cycle divided into 
360 degrees. That means that a signal 
could ideally be decoded in about .002 
ms. Bell 212 standard phase-shifted key- 
ing is used in high-speed interactive sys- 
tems including Telenet, Tymnet, Com- 
puServe and The Source. It is not com- 
patible with 202 signaling. 

Wait a minute! You mean I can't talk to 
my favorite information utility at 1200 
baud with an Apple-Cat II? Yup— for now, 
that's correct. Bell 202 FSK signaling 
was easy to provide within the advanced 
design of the Novation device, but it is not 
the system widely used for interchange 
with time-shared computer/information 
utilities like CompuServe and The 
Source. As the cost drops and the popu- 
larity increases, who knows? 

The 202 standard is widely used in 
polling systems, and there are many 
commercial modems available which 
provide the service; perhaps popularity 
and customer pressure will prevail. In 
the meantime, the 202 signaling scheme 
provides an economical way to exchange 
data at 1200 baud for users of modern 
LSI technology modem devides. 

If You Never . . . 

There is only one way to ensure you 
never make a mistake: never do any- 
thing. Well, I do make mistakes. For in- 
stance, in the April '81 issue I attributed 
the CP/M operating program to the wrong 
company. CP/M is a product of and trade- 
marked by Digital Research of Pacific 
Grove, CA. Similarly, in the March issue 
some telephone numbers were scram- 
bled, so I have included a new listing of 
People's Message Systems. 

If You Do . . . 

If you manufacture data communica- 
tions products or write data communi- 
cations software, send comments or 
questions to PO Box 691, Hern don, 
VA 22070. Include a stamped enve- 
lope if you want a reply. Electronic mail is 
welcome at TCB967 on The Source, 
70003,455 on CompuServe or the 
AMRAD CBBS (703-734-1 386). □ 



People's Message 

Anaheim, CA 
EllicottCity,MD* 
Freeport, TX 
Indianapolis, IN 
Los Angeles, CA 
Minneapolis, MN 
Mission Valley, CA 
Lake Forest, IL 
Palo Alto, CA 
Portola Valley, C A 
San Diego, CA 
Santa Cruz, CA* 
San tee, CA 
Shrewsbury, NJ* 

* not 24 hour 



Systems 

714-772-8868 
301-465-3176 
713-233-7943 
317-862-6191 
213-291-9314 
612-929-6699 
714-295-8280 
312-295-6926 
415-493-7691 
415-851-3453 
714-582-9557 
408-476-6181 
714-449-5689 
201-747-6768 




******** 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 19 



COMPUTER BLACKBOARD 



By Walter Koetke 



Software 
Shopping 



Getting the 
Most for 

Your Money 



Instructional Software 

The potential of microcomputers as in- 
structional tools seems unparalleled. Un- 
fortunately, the state of educational soft- 
ware is in its infancy. Software develop- 
ment lags behind hardware capability 
throughout the computing industry, but 
in education the gap is acute. 

This software gap can cause several 
problems. Educators and others who un- 
derstand the potential of the microcom- 
puter can easily oversell the reality of 
available instructional support. Because 
the majority of teachers are not really fa- 
miliar with the current state of software 
development until facilities are pur- 
chased, they are often severely disap- 
pointed. A more lasting danger is that the 
disappointed teacher will write off the mi- 
crocomputer as just another gadget and 
not again be willing to experiment with 
this new technology. Still others might 
take the best software they can find and 
assume that represents the epitome of 
microcomputer support. 

As a dedicated advocate of the use of 
computers to support instruction, I urge 
that you not oversell the concept. The 
positive aspects are so overwhelming 
that overselling is not necessary. Be sure 
that any discussion of the microcomput- 
er's educational potential is tempered by 
a discussion of the educational reality of 
the available software. 

As a consumer, you should distinguish 
potential from reality by insisting that 
software be demonstrated. When Ran- 
dom House and Radio Shack announced 
their joint venture into the educational 
marketplace, a rather impressive soft- 
ware catalog was produced detailing sev- 
eral desirable and possibly significant 
pieces of educational software. Where 
was the software? Could it be purchased 
locally? Could you arrange a demonstra- 
tion? No. In fact, the software wasn't 
available when the catalog was printed, 

20 Microcomputing, July 1981 




nor was it available some months later as 
this article was written. 

Unfortunately, the appearance of ad- 
vertisements and even catalogs prior to 
the completion of the actual software is 
not at all unique to the specific instance 
described. My point is not to discuss the 
motivation behind this business prac- 
tice, but to make you aware that it exists. 
Random House and the others who have 
done this almost certainly expect to 
eventually deliver everything they've ad- 
vertised — sometime. And when delivered, 
it will likely be very close in appearance 
and function to the product advertised. 

However, don't believe any software 
promises until you actually see the soft- 
ware operating. At the very least, be sure 
someone whose opinion you respect will 
say that he or she actually saw the soft- 
ware in operation. Only then should you 
seriously consider the instructional sup- 
port that specific software might provide. 
Never buy any microcomputer hardware 
for use with software that is still being de- 
veloped. You're almost certain to be dis- 
appointed. 



A general rule of thumb in the comput- 
er industry at large is that the cost of 
hardware and software will be about the 
same. For instructional applications of 
the microcomputer in education, I sug- 
gest the cost of software should be bud- 
geted at a level at least twice that of the 
hardware. Many teachers, however, have 
succeeded in convincing their adminis- 
trators to purchase microcomputer hard- 
ware only to discover that almost no 
money has been provided for software. 

An all too frequent request from many 
teachers is for help in spending their an- 
nual $100 to $200 software budget. 
There is no doubt that this amount of 
money is insufficient, but that is not a 
helpful answer. The fact remains that the 
stated sum is their budget and they want 
to make the best of it. 

I recently encountered a response to 
the very specific question, "How shall I 
spend $150 on instructional software for 
a TRS-80?" The response was written by 
Robert W. Jackson, Mead School, 2 An- 
drews Road, Greenwich, CT 06830. Bob 
is a teacher with a large collection of in- 
structional software and a good deal of j 
experience using microcomputers with 
students. Bob's response is included here 
with his permission and with very little 
change from the original: 

**I accept the challenge. We only have 
$150 to feed your 16K cassette-based 
TRS-80. First I must warn you that I am 
heavy into using games as a means of ap- 
proaching the traditional subjects. This 
is a personal approach which is not ac- 
cepted by many schools, which explains 
why I teach at the Mead School. The 
Mead School is a hotbed of innovative 
ideas. 

"Our first purchase was from Softside, 
6 South Street, Milford, NH 03055. We 

Walter Koetke, Putnam/North West- 
chester BOCES, Yorktown Heights, NY 
10598. 



wanted to purchase the December 1980 
issue of Softside and the tape for that 
month. For our $9.95 we received a great 
game magazine with programs for our 
kids to enter and some good tips. Kidnap 
is an adventure game which will teach 
kids typing and word skills, logic and 
common sense, and exercise their imagi- 
nations. Woid Problems alone is worth 
the $9.95. Space Dodge and Missile Eva- 
sion are extras. Also, we wanted to pur- 
chase ten short cassettes for $7.95. We 
will use these because they will hold two 
programs per side. This will save us a lot 
of time instead of trying to find programs 
on a 30-minute tape. 

"Our next purchase was from Basics 
and Beyond, Box 10, Amawalk, NY 
10501. The best math package for the 
TRS-80 is the Math K-8 from Radio 
Shack, but at $200 it is out of our budget. 
Basics and Beyond's Microcosm III costs 
$24.95 postpaid and consists of 20 pro- 
grams with sound (but they only run on 
16K machines). Two programs here are 
worth the whole package for us. These 
are Multiplication and Division, each of 
which is a step-by-step drill. Personally, I 
liked the music programs because Mead 
is right-brain-oriented. The rest of the 
package is a bonus. Many programs will 
be useful in other areas. If you happen 
upon some more money, I would also rec- 
ommend purchasing their Microcosm I 
and Microcosm II. 

"Now off to Radio Shack. We want to 
purchase their small gray amplifier for 
$ 1 1 .95 and a machine-language program 
called Space Warp (also sold under the 
name of Timetrek). The amplifier plugs 
into the cassette cable and gives us 
sound. Space Warp costs $14.95. We 
have now spent $70. 

"Next we write an order to Adventure 
International, Box 729, Casselberry, FL 
32707, for Wordchallenge, a versatile 
word-guessing game at $9.95. You can 
change the data statements and save this 
program on several cassettes, one for so- 
cial study words, one for English words, 
one for metric words, Spanish, French 
and so forth. 

"Now we can relax. We've covered 
math and language and we have about 
25 games to boot. Do not release all the 
games at once. Introduce them two at a 
time over the year. Kids quickly become 
bored once they have mastered a particu- 
lar skill. Next we'll explore literature. For 
$20 we will get a subscription to Creative 
Computing, which is full of useful pro- 
grams every month along with tips for 
c * computer literacy class and a few ed- 
ional articles for the principal. 80 Mi- 
( omputing is a good deal at $24 a 
y r, but the programs are too technical 
for us right now — maybe next year. 

"Next we want to purchase the Word 
Watch set of four programs for $7.95 plus 
postage from Instant Software, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. This is money well 
spent. We will have to gear the data down 



to the level of our kids, but these four pro- 
grams will pay for themselves. Wordrace 
is a two-player word game, and we like 
two-player games because that means 
two kids will get to use the few computers 
we have. Spelling Bee and Word Drill are 
just barely OK. Hidespell is good. 

"Ten dollars goes to Med Systems, PO 
Box 2674-W, Chapel Hill, NC 275 14, for a 
game called Playful Professor that 
teaches the basic four math functions 
and fractions. Our expenses so far are 
$122. 

"Your next $13 goes to Omnitek Sys- 
tems, 24 Marcia Jean Drive, Tewksbury, 
MA 01876, for Typing Tutor by Micro- 
soft. We are going to start a typing 
course. Next year when the administra- 
tor wants to purchase typewriters, we 
will tell him that word processors are the 
typewriters of the future, so he will spend 
the money on computers instead. This 
program will impress the rest of your 
staff and gain respect for the computer. It 
is based on timed response methods. It 
measures the time between strokes to de- 
termine which fingers are weak. 

"Our last hard-fought-for $15 goes to 
Program Design, Inc., 11 Idar Court, 
Greenwich, CT 06830, for a program 
called Vocabulary Builder 1. This set of 
programs teaches synonyms and ant- 
onyms using a simple drill format. 

"You may well be asking, 'Why so 
many different vendors?' It is good to get 
on as many mailing lists as possible so 
that we are informed of new software and 
hardware products. 

"Since we have not yet used all of our 
money, this is not the end of our hunt. 
With $4 from some other fund, we join 
the Computer Using Educators Group 
(Don Mckell, Independence High School, 
1776 Education Park Drive, San Jose, CA 
95133). This gets us four newsletters a 
year, and for $ 10 they will send us a disk 
full of public domain teacher- written pro- 
grams. 

"When time permits, we write a few 
programs of our own and then write to 
Dr. Earl Savage, Craig County Public 
Schools, PO Box 245, New Castle, VA 
24127. He will send a catalog of pro- 
grams for which we can trade our newly 
created programs. During the year our 
kids are typing programs from the new 
magazines to which we have subscribed. 
Other teachers come to us with ideas for 
programs that the kids can create. 

"Craig Walker is the author of the Ar- 
rowsmith Individualized Math program, 
which is free for the asking and is on both 
tape and workbook so you can use it 
either way. Contact him at 2299 North G 
Street, San Bernardino, CA 92404." 

There is both experience and thought 
reflected in Bob's response. If you find 
yourself in a situation similar to the origi- 
nal recipient of his advice, his comments 
should provide an excellent guide to a 
successful beginning. 



THE NEW 

NEVADA 
COBOL! 

At S149.95 you cant buy 
a better COBOL or one 
residing in less memory. 

Now with the new Nevada COBOL, you can 
use the programs developed by professional 
business programmers over the past twenty 
years to run the big IBM machines. And you can 
develop and tailor programs on your micro and 
run them on your micro or recompile and run 
them on any mainframe computer. What's more 
you can do it for about one-fifth the cost of 
comparable COBOL compiler systems 

Almost all the popular microcomputers 
work with the CP/M operating system we use 
including Apple, TRS-80. North Star, Superbram, 
Cromemco and so on 

Check the features; 
you II go Nevada COBOL. 

A powerful subset of ANSI- 74. Nevada COBOL 
reguires a scant I6K of RAM It's available on 8" 
CP/M standard single density or 5-1/4" diskettes. 
Price includes diskette and manual Price for 
manual only, $24.95. 

Four COBOL applications packages 
available too. 

Four COBOL applications packages ^re cur- 
rently available Each is priced at $24 95 for the 
diskette. The 73 page manual covering .ill four 
applications costs an additional $24 95 The 
manual carries complete COBOL source code 
listings and superior documentation 

Package #1 is the Budget Plan Report 
Generator Here's an extraordinary time saver 
and planning aid for both start-up and well 
established businesses. 

Package #2 is the Personal Financial Planner 
to give you some eye opening insights into your 
own personal spending habits 

Package #3 is Labels so you can print name 
and address labels. 

Package #4 is Pre-COBOL for use as a 
preprocessor of COBOL source programs A great 
programming aid. 

Order today or write for complete details. 

Phone (415) 751-1522 or address Ellis 
Computing, 600 41st Ave, San Francisco, CA 94121. 
Nevada Cobol is also available at Lifeboat 
Associates, Discount Software, West ico. Business 
Micro Products, Computer Information Exchange 
and other guality computer stores Mastercard, 
Visa, C.O.D.s. or checks accepted California orders 
please include sales tax. 

CP/M, TRS-80 and IBM are TM's of Digital Research, 
Tandy Corp. and IBM. respectively. 




^272 



ELLIS COMPUTING 

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY 



•See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 21 



"^— ^— — . . ■ _ , . . .— _ l t 

Now with added words!* 

ELECTRIC MOUTH 




for S.Ou, Elf II, Apple ^ QQ Q - 

1KS-80, Level II rrom «>i»«««J K " 

Now — teach your computer to talk, 
increasing interaction between you 
and your machine. 

Thai s ri^hl the BLBCTMC MOIJTH actually lets your computer talk! Installed 
and on line in just minutes il s ready for spoken language use in office, busi 
ness. industrial and commercial applications, and in games, special protects. 
KM) e<lui ation. security devices — there's no end to the ELECTRIC MOIJTH s 
usefulness Ijook at these features 

• Supplied with 143 letters/words/phonemes/numbers, capable of producing 
hundreds of words and phrases 

• Expandable on-board up to thousands of words and phrases with additional 
speech ROMs (see new speech ROM described below) 

• Kour rruxlels. that plug directly into S100. Apple Elf II and TRS-80 Level II 
computers 

• Gal ELECTRIC MOirrH to talk with either Basic or machine language (very 
easy to use complete instructions with examples included) 

• Uses National Semiconductor's Digitalker 

• Includes on-board audio amplifier and speaker, with provisions for external 
speakers 

• Installs in |ust minutes 

Principle of Operation: The ELECTRIC MOiriH stores the digital equivalents 
of words in ROMs When words phrases and phonemes are desired they 
simply are called for by your program and then synthesized into speech The 
ELECTRIC MOUTH system requires none of your valuable memory space ex- 
cept for a few addresses if Mad in memory mapped mode In most cases, output 
ports (user selectable) are used 



SPOKEN MATERIAL INCLUDED (Vox I) 



one eighteen at dollar 

two nineteen cancel down 

three twenty caae equal 

four thirty cent error 

five forty 400hertz lone feet 

■ix fifty HOhertz tone flow 

seven sixty 20ms silence fuel 

eight seventy 40ms silence gallon 

nine eighty 80ms silence go 

ten ninety 160ms silence gram 

eleven hundred 320ms silence great 

twelve thousand centi greater 

thirteen million check nave 

fourteen zero comma high 

fifteen again control higher 

sixteen ampere danger hour 

seventeen ana degree in 



inches number ss 



is 

it 

kilo 

left 

less 

lesser 

limit 

low 

lower 

mark 

meter 

mile 

milli 



of 

otf 

on 

out 

over 

parenthesis 

percent 

please 

plus 

point 

pound 

pulse; 

rate 



minus re 
minute ready 
near right 



second 

set 

space 

speed 

star 

start 

stop 

than 

the 

time 

try 

up 

volt 

weight 

a 

b 



t 

u 
v 
w 

X 

y 

z 



ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY NOW AVAILABLE (VOX II) 



abort 

add 

adjust 

alarm 

alert 

all 

aak 

assistance 

attention 

blue 

brake 

button 

buy 

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Celsius 

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cold 



complete 
continue 
copy 
correct 



cr 

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d«xir 
east 

ed 
emergency 
enter 
entry 
"er" 

eth' 
evacuate 
exit 
fail 

failure 
fahrenheit 
fast 
faster 



fifth 

fire 

first 

floor 

fourth 

forward 

from 

gas 

«et 

«omg 

green 

hale 

heat 

hello 

help 

hurts 

hold 

hot 

in 

incorrect 

intruder 

key 

level 



light 

load 

lock 

longer 

more 

move 

next 

no 

normal 

north 

not 

notice 

open 

operator 

or 

pass 

per 

power 

press 

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process 

pull 

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put 

quarter 

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ffegisterod TWicif.'iTHirk.s 

Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut 



TO ORDER 
Call 1011 Free: 800-243-7428 

To Order From Connecticut, or For Technical 
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ISN 



NETRONICS R&D LTD. 

333 Litchfield Road, New Milford.CT 06776 
Please send the items chocked below: 

D S100 "Electric Mouth" kit w/Vox I $ 99.95 

D Elf II "Electric Mouth" kit w/Vox I $ 99.95 

□ Apple "Electric Mouth" kit w/Vox I $119.95 

D TRS-80 Level II "Electric Mouth" kit w/Vox I $119.95 

□ VOX II (Second Word Set) % 39 95 

Add $20 fit) for wired tested units instead of kits VOX II postage & insurance 
$1 (H) all others $:) (X) |Mislage and insurance Conn res add sales tax 

Toial Enclosed $ 

D Personal Check D Cashier's Check/Money Order 

□ Visa □ Master Charge (Bank No. ) 

Accl.No. _ Exp. Date 



Signature 
Print 
Name 



Address 
City 

Stale 



zip- 



When today's software is compared 

to the instructional potential of the microcomputer, 

none of it seems very good. You should, however, 

select the best of that which is available 

and help evolve that potential. 



As is often the case in many situations, 
having money does not always mean our 
needs are readily filled. A teacher recent- 
ly asked me for suggestions regarding 
the most effective way to spend an avail- 
able $1000 on software for the Apple II 
which could be used to assist the teach- 
ing of reading. I invited this teacher to 
spend a day in the software resource cen- 
ter for which I'm responsible. She accept- 
ed this invitation. Because her interest 
was very specific, she was able to actual- 
ly run every piece of related software 
available as well as scan the advertise- 
ments in a representative sample of cur- 
rent magazines. 

At the end of the day, her quite correct 
conclusion was a surprise. She planned 
to purchase every piece of reading-relat- 
ed software she had sampled in the re- 
source center as well as purchase every 
piece of reading-related software she had 
seen advertised. The surprise was that all 
of these purchases did not even come 
close to consuming the entire $1000. 

The point is not that the resources ex- 
amined were inadequate. They were, in 
fact, very complete. There just isn't very 
much commercially available instruc- 
tional software— good or bad— that will 
assist the teaching of reading. Software 
development does indeed lag way behind 
hardware development. 

For those interested in the teaching of 
reading, there is some good news. Now 
you can spend your full $1000 allotment 
for software. Since the occurrence of the 
described incident, Borg- Warner Educa- 
tional Systems, 600 West University 
Drive, Arlington Heights, IL 60004, has 
released the large Critical Reading soft- 
ware package for $750. According to 
Borg-Warner: 

The Critical Reading program is de- 
signed to help a student think critically 
about written discourse. It introduces the 
student to basic rules of logic and pro- 
vides drill and practice in reasoning skills 
which will aid in overall comprehension 
of reading material. This program in- 
cludes automatic diagnostic and pre- 
scriptive pretests, instructional lessons 
with recycling capabilities, progress 
checks after each lesson to test the stu- 
dent's comprehension of materials and 
posttests. The management file on each 
disk stores student records in up to eight 
assigned reading groups. The manage- 
ment system also maintains and adapts 



individual student prescriptions on the 
basis of the entry diagnostic test and on- 
going student performance on the lesson 
material. Because of its self-pacing capa- 
bilities. Critical Reading may be used for 
developmental, remedial and gifted stu- 
dent instruction." 

I suggest taking a look at the Borg- 
Warner material. While there are certain- 
ly some valid criticisms regarding their 
software (see the February 1981 AEDS 
Monitor), the package is a good one. 
When today's software is compared to 
the instructional potential of the micro- 
computer, none of it seems very good. 
You should, however, select the best of 
that which is available and help evolve 
that potential. 

Several articles have explained the 
enormous cost of developing good in- 
structional software. The usual source of 
these articles is one of the more tradition- 
al publishers who has recently entered 
the software business or one of the ven- 
dors of minicomputers. My concern now 
is not to dispute the stated costs— per- 
haps another time. 

My concern is for the large number of 
good instructional programs that have 
been written by the teachers who are us- 
ing them with their own classes and 
which have been shared with almost no 
one beyond those classes. Each week the 
resource center for which I'm responsible 
discovers— usually by accident— another 
piece of very good teacher-produced soft- 
ware. Most of these are worth sharing 
with other teachers, and many are good 
enough to have commercial possibilities. 
If you have original instructional soft- 
ware that students enjoy, I urge you to 
explore the possibility of marketing your 
material. 

A good starting point would be any of 
the companies mentioned in the letter 
written by Robert Jackson. The only 
word of caution is to be sure your pro- 
gram is original. A slightly modified pro- 
gram you entered from a magazine may 
be super for your students, and I en- 
courage you to use this approach. Selling 
that material, however, is illegal. 

On the other hand, if you had an idea 
and then implemented the entire pro- 
gram yourself, by all means contact one 
or more of the publishers. Even with 
higher postal rates you're risking very lit- 
tle, and there's always the chance that 
you can sell a great many copies. □ 



22 Microcomputing, July 1981 





(LISP) 




Introducing 

LISP. The language 

that can think for itself. 

With SmartWare, your micro- 
computer possesses intelligence. Solves 
problems like never before. Actually can learn 
from its mistakes. And educates itself in much 
the same way your brain operates. It's a new 
concept in the way information is handled in 
microcomputers. 

We appropriately called our version of LISP, 
SmartWare. Because it's as limitless as the 
human imagination, mind, memory. 

An advanced, high-level language, LISP was 
first developed for use in artificial intelligence on 
large computers. And now, LISP is available from 
Datasoft for use on the Apple II. 

Store multiple programs in memory. It can 
take it. Program other languages into LISP. It's 
no problem. Because LISP offers greater capacity 
and power. And, it's a faster, more streamlined 
language. For example, just 2 lines in LISP could 
equal hours of BASIC programming. 

The facts: Relational data base capabilities. 
User and program definability. Pattern-directed 



invocation 

language. Uses 

syntax and data 

structures upon which esoteric applications 

may be implemented. Remembers data 

along with "relationships affecting it? Offers 

REAL power to micros. 48K diskette $125.00. 

At MIT, they say LISP is the language of 

the future. 

At Datasoft, we say, why wait. Ask your local 

computer dealer for SmartWare. Right now! And 

turn your computer on to thinking. 



SmarOteretjy 



i^35 



X=^ COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

19519 Business Center Dr., Northridge, CA 91324 

(213)701-5161 



Order through your local software dealer or send check or money order, plus S2.00 shipping and handling to Datasoft. 

•Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. 



ASTHEWORDTURNS 



By Eric Maloney 



Acronym 
Crisis 



Relief 

Needed 

ASAP 



The computeiist does not live by acro- 
nyms alone, but he'd give it a try in a 
tight pinch. 

Charles J. Sippl's Computer Diction- 
ary and Handbook devotes 19 pages to 
acronyms and abbreviations. The A's 
alone include A, ABC, ABM, ABO, abs, 
AC, ACA, ACD, ac/dc, ACI, ACIA, ACK, 
ACTS, ACU, AD, ADA, ADC, ADCCP, 
A/D, ADDAR, ADONIS, ADP, ADPC, 
ADPE, ADPS, ADR, ADS, ADX, AF, AFC, 
AFG, AGC, AIG, ALC, ALE, ALGOL, 
ALT, ALU, AM, A/M, AMC, AM-DBS, 
AMP, AMR, AM-SSB, ANACOM, ANA- 



,MAT 
RUfofcl=1 X2 = 

\0 REM READ VECTOR 
l = K GOTO 1910 20RA=3^ 
'5 REM READ VECTOR B NEi 
IND INVERSE OF MATRIX A ENI 
IMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 35 
I40 



RMINENT OF SQUARE 

1AT INV DET FUN< 

TTURN 



TRON, ANI, ANSI, ANT, AO, A-O, AMPL, 
AOC, AOS, APC, APD, APL, APOTA, 
APP, APRXLY, APT, APTS, APUHS, 
APULS, AQ, AQL, ARAM. ARC, ARL, 
ARM, A Q, ART, ARU, AS, ASC, ASCC, 
ASCII, ASD, ASK, ASLIB, ASLT, ASN, 
ASP, ASR, ASV, AT, A/T, ATE, ATS, 
AUTOPIC, AVD, AVE and AVL. 

It is no wonder that editors often feel 
like they're drowning in a vat of alphabet 
soup. 

A fresh new acronym crisis awaits the 
editor in nearly every manuscript. For in- 
stance, when are acronyms all capitals, 
and when are they all lowercase? Micro- 
computing lowercases ac (alternating 
current), afc (automatic frequency con- 
trol), cps (characters per second), rf (radio 
frequency) and swr (standing-wave 
ratio), among others. Why? Simple— 
that's the way we've always done it. 

Another problem: when do acronyms 
metamorphose into words? The English 
language is loaded with precedents: ra- 
dar (radio detecting and ranging), sonar 
(sound navigation ranging), scuba (self- 
contained underwater breathing appa- 
ratus), laser (light amplification by stim- 
ulated emission of radiation) and rem 
(roentgen equivalent man) are a few ex- 
amples. Computerese has several candi- 
dates, most notably computer languages 
such as BASIC (Basic), COBOL (Cobol) 
and FORTRAN (Fortran). 

Editors and computerists haven't yet 
made up their minds. One magazine 
prints BASIC, and the other prefers Ba- 
sic. One computerist PEEKs and POKEs, 
while his neighbor peeks and pokes. 

Unfortunately, many computerists 
have taken to capitalizing words that 
shouldn't be capitalized. Take Pascal, for 
instance — even Sybex's Microprocessor 
Lexicon lists it as PASCAL. But Pascal, 
unlike many other computer languages, 



is not an acronym— it is the name of a 
person. 

Speaking of computer languages, how 
many people can recall what COBOL, 
BASIC and FORTRAN stand for? Proba- 
bly not too many. I suspect that all three 
will become upper-lowercase words in 
time. 



Anthropomorphisms continue to creep 
insidiously into computerese. 

From Percom comes a news release 
with the following: "The burn-in test un- 
covers latent defects that might cause 
'infant mortality' failures." 

Meanwhile, a press release from Info- 
scribe includes the line "An elevated 
temperature testing room is being con- 
structed to ensure the elimination of in- 
fant mortality in electronic components." 

There is something disturbing about 
the phrase "infant mortality" when used 
in connection with electronic parts. The 
words death or die, when used in such a 
context as "my car died today," are collo- 
quial, so broad in meaning that they 
carry no loaded implications. But the 
term "infant mortality" refers to a set of 
social, economic and human problems 
that evoke a highly emotional reaction 
from many concerned people. Its use to 
denote malfunctions in electronic com- 
ponents borders on flippancy and bad 
taste. 

It certainly gets the point across. But a 
nice, neutral term like "early failure" 
more than suffices. 



In reference to the May column ("A 
Language of Their Own: Time to Reedu- 
cate Educators,'' p. 26), Raymond 
Kostanty of Wood-Ridge, NJ, writes that I 
shouldn't be too harsh on Webster for not 
including the word indepthly. 

"Here are two other words, both from 



24 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Sooner ov later, someone had to take all this proven 
microcomputer hardware and software technology and wrap 
it up in a portable package at a price that shocks the industry 
Adam Osborne decided to do it sooner. 

The OSBORNE 1®, from Osborne Computer Corpora- 
tion. You get full CP/M® disk computer capabilities— 
Z80A® CPU, 64K bytes of RAM memory, a full business 
keyboard, a built-in monitor, and two floppy drives with 
100K bytes each of storage. You get two interfaces, 
the IEEE 488 and the RS-232C. Just connect a 
printer, via either interface. 

Software? You get 
CP/M®, CBASIC-2®, 
Microsoft BASIC®, the 
WORDSTAR® word 
processing system with 
theMAILMERGE® 

mailing list feature, ^ 

andtheSUPERCALC* W 

electronic spread- ^^ 

sheet package. 
All standard. 
All for $1795. 



And it's portable. When the keyboard is 
clipped over the display panel, only the 
weatherproof plastic case is exposed. 
(There are even optional modem 
electronics, couplers, battery packs, 
and external monitor connections, 
providing practically unlimited system portability.) 

It's all business. The OSBORNE 1 delivers significant 
productivity at an irresistable price. At $1 795, it's immediate 
and lasting success as a personal business computer is, 

quite simply, inevitable. 





I 
















. *3- 





COMPUTER CORPORATION 

26500 Corporate Avenue Hayward , California 94545 (41 5) 887-8080 



• 368 



Orders for the Osborne 1 Computer can be placed 
over the telephone at (41 5) 887-8080. Your order 
will be forwarded by the factory for delivery by 
your nearest authorized Osborne 1 dealer. 



Phrases — The Long vs the Short 



a number of 

according to our records 

as a result 

at an early date 

at the present time, at this point in time 

at this stage 

at your earliest convenience 

available evidence indicates 

due to the fact that 

enclosed please find 

finalized our decision 

for the purpose of 

for what reason 

has the capability of 

in accordance with 

in actuality 

in addition 

in addition to 

in advance of 

in as much as 

in conjunction with 

in juxtaposition to 

in order for 

in order that 

in order to 

in our opinion 

in some cases 

in the amount of 

in the event that 

is unable to 

it goes without saying 

it is obvious that 

make a determination 

manifests itself as 

more importantly 

prior to 

reflects a balance of 

until such a time as 

with the result that 

each and every 

were unable to 

all of 

up to this point 

in spite of 

a variety of 



many 

we find 

thus, hence, therefore 

soon, now 

now, right now, to date, at present 

to date, so far 

soon, now 

unavailable evidence can't indicate 

anything; omit available 

because 

here's 

decided 

for, to 

why 

can 

by, under 

actually 

besides, also, too 

besides, on top of 

before 

since, because 

along with, and, with 

side-by-side with, next to 

for 

so that 

to 

we believe 

sometimes 

for 

if, in case 

can't 

clearly, obviously 

clearly, obviously 

decide 

shows up as 

more important 

before 

shows 

until 

so that 

each, every 

couldn't 

all (keep of if the next word is a pronoun) 

so far 

despite 

many 



the May issue, he also forgot the list: the 
verb trash ('Trash Your Typewriter,' on 
the cover) and the verb keyboard ('Those 
members with terminals keyboard their 
articles into a file . . . ,' on the 15th line of 
page 94)." 

Well, I'll defened the word trash; it's a 
rough, unsightly bit of slang, which is 
precisely what we wanted in that situa- 
tion. Keyboard, on the other hand, is 
pretty dreadful as a verb, particularly 
when there's a nice clean one like type 

waiting to be used. 

***** 

Last month's column listed 14 net- 
works or products that end with "net." 
Since then, 13 more have popped up: Hi- 
Net, FundsNet, Avnet, Omninet, M/NET, 
IBS-NET, CSNet, Arpanet, Phonenet. In- 
ternet, Z-NET, DECnet and AGNET. 
Fishnet and Hairnet haven't arrived yet, 
but it's only a matter of time. 

Raymond Kostanty (see above) sub- 
mits the accompanying list, "Phrases— 
The Long vs the Short." It's surprising 
how much you can tighten a piece of 
writing by knocking out some of the un- 
wieldy verbiage. □ 



MICRO QUIZ 



What Does This Program Do? 

What is the sum of all of the different 
values that Z takes on during the execu- 
tion of the following program? 
DIMS(IO) 
S(l)=l 
Z= -1 
FORI = 2TO10 

S(I) = S(I-l) + 2 

Z= -S(I)*S(I-1)/Z 
NEXT I 

(continued on page I 72) 



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26 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Mnppkz computer 

48k 
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CALL FOR PRICES: 
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DISK SOFTWARE 




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verters, FLIP FLOPS. SHIFT REGISTERS. COUNTERS and user defined MACROS. Up to 40 user defined, 
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□ RED BARON: Can you outfly the RED BARON 7 This fast action game simulates a machine gun DOG 
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□ FREE CATALOG All programs are supplied on disk and run on Apple II w/Disk & Applesoft ROM Caid & 
TRS-80 Level II and require 32K RAM unless otherwise noted Detailed instructions included Orders ship 
ped within 5 days. Card users include card number Add SI 50 postage and handling with each aider 
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P.O. Box 2084 142 Carlow, Sunnyvale, CA 94087 
For phone orders - 408-738-4387 
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•See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 27 



MICROSCOPE 



The Best 
Of the West 



Compiled by Eric Maloney 

Computer Faire 

Trots Out 
More of the Same 



Erstwhile reporter Dennis Bathory 
Kitsz submits the following report on the 
West Coast Computer Faire last April: 

This year's West Coast Computer Faire, 
the sixth annual event of its kind, was 
marked primarily by large quantities of 
the same old thing: look-alike computers, 
violent game software, sexist T-shirts 
and hype. There was old technology re- 
packaged (Commodore's VIC computer), 
old software not repackaged (those Apple 
"music" programs), old technology in 
new guises (a 60-pound prototype of a 
"portable" businessperson's computer) 
and peculiarly matched electronic de- 
vices (a 30-megabyte disk drive on a 
TRS-80). Bizarreness abounded, such as 
the plywood-encased barroom version of 
Atari computers, and a beautifully de- 
signed Stratos microcomputer in a for- 
the-person-who-has-every thing teak- 
wood cabinet. The show was also notable 
for its absentees, particularly the folks 
from Apple, who had nothing to show 
and may well have traded their company 
back for the VW bus. 

Nevertheless, the Faire was an exciting 
event because almost the entire range of 
present microcomputer technology and 
ideas was visible, and because nearly 



35,000 people attended the three-day 
show. Among the most interesting ideas 
on exhibit: John Bell Engineering's min- 
iature control microcomputer kits: a fast 
Fourier transform program showing the 
frequency spectrum of music in a real- 
time bar graph: a Canon desk computer 
armed with built-in double Exatron 
stringy floppies: and the newer Sinclair 
ZX-81 micro using programmed logic ar- 
rays to reduce its chip count to a half- 
dozen (and prevent bootlegging). 

Other items of moderate interest in- 
cluded a complete computer kit that is 
software compatible with the TRS-80, 
but with high resolution and color graph- 
ics; the heavy use of Epson MX-80 print- 
ers for demonstrations on many ma- 
chines: high-quality video terminals with 
excellent resolution and gray scale: and 
voice input7output software/hardware 
with considerable improvements of accu- 
racy and clarity. 

There was evidence of the continued 
fall of prices for small hardware. Once 
over $200, complete sets of eight 16K dy- 
namic RAM chips (fast, 200 ns types) 
were available by show's end for $17. Al- 
so very costly at one time, type 2716 
erasable memories (2048 bytes) were 



selling for $7. Static RAMs were inexpen- 
sive, with workhorse 2102 memories 
selling for 50 cents and 21 14 and 21 18 
memories available for $3 and $10, re- 
spectively. 

This year's Computer Faire was truly 
the show of the word processor. At least 
two dozen new systems were in evi- 
dence, from full-featured, complicated, 
office-style systems to stripped-down 
programs for under $10. The real break- 
through in word processing, however, 
was the appearance of two functioning, 
expandable, 20,000-word-plus diction- 
aries that work accurately and quickly: 
Hexspell and Microproof, both currently 
for the TRS-80. Entire documents can be 
proofread for words not found in the pro- 
gram's dictionary, and these are present- 
ed for inclusion or alteration. The pro- 
grams are fast: Microproof completed a 
2000-word document in under 30 sec- 
onds. 

People were also news at the Faire: 
Adam Osborne presented his new micro- 
computer: Wayne Green and Sherry 
Smythe courted TRS-80 users on the 
floor; Steven Ciarcia pulled circuit boards 
from every pocket; Robert Purser [Pur- 
ser's Guide) was at his dapper best. Carl 




Pag 



3? Characters per Line 
er Set table Tabs 
"haracters 
Dei- board 

Low Prof I . Case 
Kumer jc/Fur 

and Mar | 
-ammable fund ic 
Terminal Status Reports 

"ammable Scrolling Regions: 
awing Capabi lities 
Hoc* Mode Communications 



* .11 Video - 

* High Resoiut tarn Display 

* Multiple Page I 

* Dynamic Video Mei ;»t 

* Hon Volatile Me»c r i$t 

* Programmable P*s*tr I 

* Bidirectional Smc: 

* Automatic XON 

» Self Test Dug .cs 

* ANSI Standard Escape Sea 

* Terminal Down-line Loads. 

cal Editing Functions 



DIRECT 800/B Video Display Processor 



View of the main floor of the West Coast Computer Faire. Near- 
ly 35. OOO people attended the three-day event. 

28 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Direct Video video display processor combines high-resolution 
graphics and gray scale for a versatile, interactive display. 




mmr <* * — ** t« v* ^ 



* ^ 



v< tn m m «. 






if i tmmmf 



in i \mmmmmmm 



"") h i i i 



'" 




The Commodore VIC was shown at the Faire; a line of children 
queued up to play games using the VIC's color graphic display. 



LNW-80 is a complete TRS-80 compatible kit. It offers an ex- 
panded keyboard, color and high-resolution graphics. All 
TRS-80 software will run unmodified on the LNW-80; the bare 
board costs under $100. 



Helmers, Don Lancaster, Sol Libes, 
David Ahl and many others conducted 
seminars and met attendees. 



EYP Delay 

Six months ago, AT&T was moving 
full-steam ahead with a free experiment- 
al electronic yellow pages service in Aus- 
tin, TX. But the Texas Daily Newspaper 
Association has set up a roadblock by 
convincing the state Public Utilities 
Commission to delay the project until a 
variety of questions concerning AT&T's 
role in data communications are cleared 
up. 

The PUC ruled that the project was not 
experimental but a home marketing test, 
and therefore required a public hearing 
and commission certification. AT&T ap- 
pealed the ruling to a Texas state district 
court, but the court upheld the PUC deci- 
sion. Joining the TDNA against AT&T 
were Datapoint Corp. and Tandy Corp. 

The public hearings are slated to begin 
July 6. 

The proposed Austin videotext service 
is the latest step by AT&T to enter the 



electronic information services business. 
The company has also launched video- 
text experiments in Albany, NY, and 
Coral Gables, FL, the latter with Knight- 
Ridder Newspapers. 

The controversy surrounds a ruling by 
the Federal Communications Commis- 
sion called the Computer Inquiry II 
which reinterpreted a 1956 consent de- 
cree that barred AT&T from entering un- 
regulated telecommunications markets. 
The FCC said that AT&T could be an in- 
formation provider as well as a carrier as 
long as it established a separate subsidi- 
ary for that purpose. 

The Justice Department disagreed, 
and in March AT&T went to a US district 
court in New Jersey to clarify the mean- 
ing of the 1956 consent decree. 

The newspaper industry has fought 
AT&T every step of the way. The feeling 
is that AT&T — whose assets exceed the 
combined assets of the entire newspaper 
industry — is in a position to completely 
dominate the electronic information 
market, thus seriously cutting into news- 
papers' classified advertising revenues 
and infringing upon their function as an 





1980 


1985 


1990 


Video 








Programmable 


220 


275 


295 


Non-Programmable 


90 


5 





Total Video 


310 


280 


295 


Nonvideo 








Nonvideo Games 


510 


675 


820 


Learning Aids 


220 


295 


360 


Electronic Chess and Similar 


170 


220 


275 


Home Arcade Games 


40 


50 


65 


Total Nonvideo 


940 


1240 


1520 



Total Electronic Game Market 1 250 1 520 1815 

Ten-year projection of manufacturers' sales of electronic games, in millions of 
dollars. (Source: International Resource Development, Inc.) 



information provider. 

As one publisher said at the 1980 Inter- 
national Newspaper Advertising Execu- 
tives conference, "he who owns the data- 
base owns the ballgame." 

The Coral Gables experiment, called 
Viewtron, was coordinated by KRN sub- 
sidiary Viewdata Corp. of America and 
AT&T subsidiary Southern Bell. 

Micros vs Video Games 

The electronic games market will sta- 
bilize, says a recent report from Interna- 
tional Resource Development, but faces a 
"major threat" from the growth of home 
computers. 

The nonvideo segment has managed to 
avoid problems by incorporating hard- 
ware and software — as in electronic 
chess — in such a manner that a micro- 
computer program can't duplicate it. 
But, the report says, it will make little 
sense for the home computerist to buy 
video games when he can pick up a mi- 
crocomputer software package for much 
less. 

The IRD says that electronic games 
manufacturers will take three courses of 
action: 

• Some companies, such as Bally, will 
withdraw from the market. 

• Others, such as APF Electronics, will 
make games that can be upgraded to 
computers. 

• Finally, some companies will start 
making microcomputers. Atari is the 
most obvious example of this strategy. 

The report says that success in the 
electronic games market will come to 
those who incorporate such new technol- 
ogies as voice synthesis and holography. 

Educators on Piracy 

The Wyoming Science and Mathemat- 
ics Teaching Center at the University of 
Wyoming in Laramie has issued a policy 
statement of software piracy which it 



Microcomputing, July 1981 29 



hopes will be adopted at the National 
Council of Teachers of Mathematics this 
fall. 

"If a program's listing or written docu- 
mentation contains a claim to authorship 
or if the media has electronic guards 
against copying or listing the program, 
unauthorized reproduction of the pro- 
gram will be deemed as constituting lar- 
ceny," the statement reads. 

The SMTC is involved in exchanging 
teacher-authored software and evaluat- 
ing commercial software. The Center has 
issued a second statement which says 
that it "will not participate in the unau- 
thorized reproduction or exchange of any 
computerized courseware which bears 
an explicit or implicit copyright." 

"I have not seen a similar statement 
from any other school and I would like to 
see this kind of commitment become 
common," says John C. Russell of the 
Center. 



TILOGO 

Texas Instruments has released its 
own version of LOGO, the children's 
computer language developed by 
Seymour Papert and the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology LOGO lab. 

TI LOGO runs on the TI 99/4 micro- 
computer. The child uses the keyboard to 



draw geometric shapes and figures and 
make them move. LOGO is designed to 
stimulate the child to analyze his task, 
and in the process become conscious of 
how he solves problems. The program 
lets them try different solutions to a prob- 
lem, modifying the solution until the cor- 
rect one is reached. 

TI LOGO is retailing for $299.95. The 
software requires the TI-99/4, a monitor, 
disk drive, disk controller and memory 
expansion unit. 

Cable in Boston 

A hint of things to come in cable televi- 
sion was provided by the only two com- 
panies left in the running for Boston's 
cable franchise. 

Cablevision Systems of Woodbury, NY, 
and Warner-Amex, owner of the QUBE 
system in Columbus, OH, disclosed their 
offers to the city of Boston last April after 
six other bidders dropped out. 

Most interesting were the provisions 
for community access to the cable. Both 
bidders were required by the city to offer 
in their proposal 5 percent of their gross 
revenue to a nonprofit corporation for 
community access and local program- 
ming called the Boston Access and Infor- 
mation Corp. In addition, Cablevision of- 
fered $500,000 to the BAIC during the 



first two years, $500,000 toward a down- 
town studio, and an undetermined num- 
ber of two-way viewing centers. 

Warner-Amex, meanwhile, offered $1 
million to the BAIC over the first two 
years, a fully-equipped downtown studio, 
seven community access studios, a city 
hall studio and 20 public viewing cen- 
ters. 

Cablevision would provide a maxi- 
mum of 72 channels for $8 a month, 
while Warner-Amex would provide 62 
channels for $9.95. Warner-Amex would 
also provide their two-way interactive 
QUBE system for $3.95 and 1 1 free chan- 
nels for elders. 

Other features of the Warner-Amex 
service would include the three "super- 
stations" from Chicago, Atlanta and New 
York; two national sports channels; Ca- 
ble News Network, and the children's 
network Nickelodeon. 

Cablevision would offer the Cable 
News Network, two national sports chan- 
nels, the Chicago and Atlanta supersta- 
tions and a variety of other special-inter- 
est channels. 

The firms' six competitors dropped out 
apparently because of the 5 percent allot- 
ment of the BAIC. This is on top of 3 per- 
cent that will go into the city's coffers. 
Several bidders stated simply that 8 per- 
cent was too much.D 



IT'S ABOUT TIME! 



SUPERCLOCK II™ 



A COMPLETE 
CLOCK/CALENDAR 
SYSTEM FOR THE 

APPLE II. 



FEATURES: 

• Timing from milliseconds to 99 years 

• 12/24 Hour formats plus day of week 

• Does not use C800-CFFF address space 

• Automatic dating of files stored on disk 

• Automatic updating of PASCAL'S Filer 

• Up to four software controlled interrupts 

• Full battery operation for up to 10 years 




K«tnloc 

!e I 
2 Hit et clou - MPfLt'.on it 

I ■ :.£» le 21 ft 

•E TIME 

II • 
ll[l II 

1 1 
1 1 



SUPERCLOCK II COMPLETE SYSTEM $159 




TIME-CLOCK II program automatically keeps track of the 
time you spend on your computer for each job, client, pro- 
gram, etc. Then prints out a detailed report. Requires 
SUPERCLOCK II, Applesoft, and disk $30 



west side electronics 

P.O. Box 636D, Chatsworth, CA 91311 Phone (213) 884-4794 

All orders - add $3 50 for postage, insurance, and handling ($7.00 

outside Continental USA). California residents add 6% sales tax. 

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30 Microcomputing, July 1981 




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COMPUTER 

BUYER'S 
GUIDE 

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BUYER'S GUIDE 



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• Commodore Business Machines • Compucolor • 
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• Southwest Technical Products • Tektronix • Texas 
Instruments • Toshiba • Vector Graphic • Wang 
Laboratories • Xerox • Zenith Data Systems • Zilog. 

Other chapters include discussions on microcomputer 
theory, applications, independent software vendors and a 
range of display and printing terminals. 



1981. Are you sufficiently informed on this important 
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Webster's MICROCOMPUTER BUYER'S GUIDE 

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Microcomputing, July 1981 31 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 



Super Service 

Being fully aware of your continuous 
concern for honesty, service and depend- 
ability on the part of your advertisers, I 
thought I would let you know of my fan- 
tastic experiences that I've had with one 
of your advertisers. 

Aardvark Technical Services of Walled 
Lake, MI, has been absolutely unbeliev- 
able. Owner Rodger Olsen must have an 
in with the postal service. I can phone in 
an order on Friday and have it in Naples, 
FL on the following Monday. 

Not only that, but you can even reach 
this extremely knowledgeable gentle- 
man on the phone (at certain stated 
hours). I feel any mail-order house, 
whether it be software, hardware or 
whatever, can certainly enjoy success 
and resultant wealth by following the ser- 
vice product guarantee, follow-up and 
first-person cooperativeness demonstrat- 
ed by Mr. Olsen and his associates. Our 
own firm's success is certainly in part 
due to Mr. Olsen's well-run firm. 

Ron Haltermon 

Vice President 

Car-ron Enterprises, Inc. 

Computahome Division 

Naples, PL 



Shorter, Quicker, but 
Harder to Program 

Edward Rager's Scramble program 
[Microcomputing, January 1981, p. 78) 
sacrifices memory and execution time to 
shorten program development time 
(structured programming does the same 
thing). 

Listing 1 is a rendering of Scramble for 
the TRS-80 II (Microsoft BASIC) that ate 




programming time to conserve memory 
and execution time. It generates scram- 
bles of any word of length greater than 1 
in the same order Rager's program gen- 
erates them. Contrary to Rager's, it does 
not print the same scramble more than 
once when the word has repeated letters. 
Since Scramble may never have been 
written had the programming been diffi- 
cult, and I would never have revised it 
had the program not been written, may- 
be there's a place for structured program- 
ming after all. 

William A. McWorter, Jr. 

Mathematics Dept. 

Ohio State University 

Columbus, OH 



10 DEFINTA - Z:INPUT"WORD TO SCRAMBLE* ;A$:N = LEN(A$):DIMP(N):B$ = MID$(A$. 1. l):FORI = 2TON: 

T$ = MID$(A$.1. 1 ):IFINSTR(B$.T$) = OTHENBS = B$ + T$ 
20 NEXTI:M = LEN(B8):DIMF(M+ l.l):FORI= 1TOM:T$ = MID$(B$.I.1):T = 0:FORK= lTON:T = T + SGN(INST 

R(MID$(A$.K.1).T$)).NEXTK:F(I.1) = T:NEXTI:K=1 
30 FORI = KTON:FORJ = P(I) + 1TOM:IFF(J.O) = F(J. l)THENNEXTJ:GOTO50 
40 F(P(I).0) = F(P(I).0) - 1:P(I) = J:F(J.0) = F(J.0) + 1:NEXTI:L = L+ l:FORS 5 lTON:LPRINTMID$(B$.P(S).l);:NE 

XTSrLPRINT* ";:l = N:IF(L+ 1)«(N + 1)>80THNL = 0:LPRINT 
50 F(P(I).0) = FtP(D.O) - 1 :P(I) = 0:K = I - 1 :IFK<>OTHEN30 
60 LPRINT:LPRINT:RUN 



POSPT OTSP 



TAP TPA ATP APT PTA PAT 

STOP STPO SOTP SOPT SPTO SPOT TSOP TSPO TOSP TOPS TPSO TPOS OST 
OTPS OPST OPTS PSTO PSOT PTSO PTOS POST POTS 

I I I I I I I 

TILLS TILSL TISLL TLILS TLISL TLLIS TLLSI TLSIL TLSLI TSILL TSLIL TSLLI ITLLS ITLSL 

ITSLL ILTLS ILTSL ILLTS ILLST ILSTL ILSLT ISTLL ISLTL ISLLT LTILS LTISL LTLIS LTLSI 

LTSIL LTSLI LITLS LITSL LILTS LILST LISTL LISLT LLTIS LLTSI LLITS LLIST LLSTI LLSIT 

LSTIL LSTLI LSITL LSILT LSLTI LSLIT STILL STLIL STLLI SITLL SILTL SILLT SLTIL SLTLI 
SLITL SLILT SLLTI SLLIT 

Listing 1. 



Plain Talk 

In regard to Eric Maloney's article, "A 
Language of Their Own: Time to Reedu- 
cate Educators'' (May, p. 26), I want to 
voice a hearty "amen!" to the 
points made. Having been a 
public school teacher for 16 
years, I have cringed more than 
once at the spoken and written drivel 
coming from certain administrators, con- 
sultants or college of education types 
who fancy they are being paid by the syl- 
lable. Indeed, their misuse of the lan- 
guage is one of many reasons why educa- 
tion is constantly under the public gun. 
However, since Mr. Maloney seemed to 
allow no exceptions to his indictment, I 
must remind your readership of what I 
suspect Mr. Maloney would acknowl- 
edge: there are many, many fine teachers 
across our 50 states who are in positive, 
productive contact with children and are 
not guilty of the charges in question. I 
suspect those teachers who are compe- 
tent and confident in the classroom, feel- 
ing no need to escape to seats of greater 
authority, reflect the competence and 
confidence in simple, clear, concise lan- 
guage. 

One more suspicion I must express. 
Members of other professions such as 
medicine and law surround themselves 
with a complex language all their own. 
The common citizen can only pay high 
fees to get a translation. But teachers deal 
with kids, and everybody knows that 
dealing with kids is no mystery, right? 
After all, lots of us are parents. So teach- 
ing is a simple profession— a teacher tells 
a kid what to do and the kid does it. 

My suspicion is that maybe some 
members of our profession subcon- 
sciously react to these gross oversimplifi- 
cations by attempting to build up our ) 



own special "Latin," hoping to bring 
about some kind of respectability they 
sense is missing. Unfortunately, as Mr. 
Maloney points out, the plan backfires. 

John C. Russell 

Science and Mathematics 

Teaching Center 

The University of Wyoming 

Laramie, WY 






Micro Broadcast 

I am producing a weekly communica- 
tions magazine program in English for 
the Dutch External Service which is 
broadcast on short-wave to a worldwide 
audience each Thursday. 

(continued on page 1 95) 



32 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 33 



The /atesf rung on the mass storage evolutionary ladder is hard disk. 



Right on Target 
With Winchester 



By Martin Moore 



A few years ago, the gang at IBM 
was sitting around thinking 
about information storage. They 
wanted a way to increase informa- 
tion density and reliability in a mass 
storage device. They decided on a 
new disk drive, with the ability to 
store 30 megabytes of data on 30 
tracks. 

Then, some sports-minded individ- 
ual noticed that the numbers 30-30 
were the same as those of the popular 
30.30 rifle manufactured by Win- 
chester. Though IBM never got 
around to building the 30-30, and 
though the specifications changed, 



the name stuck. 

You might be asking yourself what 
the Winchester has to do with you, 
the owner of a small microprocessor- 
based computer. Perhaps nothing 
right now. But the future is a differ- 
ent story. Shugart Technology is al- 
ready offering a 5.25-inch Winchester 
drive, and others are sure to follow. 

But before we look at the Shugart 
and the events that led up to it, let's 
review some other forms of mass 
storage. 

The First 

Of course, the first mass storage de- 

X-SELECT LINES 



f -SELECT { 
LINES 






SENSE 
OUTPUT 
WIRE 



Fig. 1. The venerable ferrite-bead core memory. Each bead is selected by an XY coordinate. The state of 
each bead is read by the Sense Output wire. 

34 Microcomputing, July 1981 



vice (aside from paper tape or punch 
cards) was core memory. Put a ferrite 
bead where two wires cross and you 
have a memory cell. Use 12 million 
beads and you can store 12 million 
bits of information. And, it's nonvol- 
atile. It won't go away unless you tell 
it to. Add your core memory to a 
computer with a giant power supply, 
and you have a computer with mass 
storage— and a giant power supply. 

This kind of memory is fairly reli- 
able if you don't break a wire. In fact, 
core memory (Fig. 1) is still around in 
a lot of pre-integrated circuit comput- 
ers. 

There had to be a better way. 

The Oxide Way 

The computer people looked 
around and noticed it was the 1950s, 
and other people were recording 
their voices on tape recorders. In 
other words, they were storing infor- 
mation. The computer people said to 
themselves, "Aha! We can do that!" 
And they did, on reel-to-reel, 
vacuum-column tape transports. 

As exotic as they might look, the 
tape transports still work the same as 
your $50 portable cassette recorder. 
Tape leaves the reel and runs across 
read/write heads, and information is 
either recorded or played back. What 
changed over the years was the oxide 
placed on the tape, and the speed and 
density at which information could 
be stored. This, and an improvement 



Martin Moore's article "Building the H-89" was 
Microcomputing's March 1981 cover story. Ad- 
dress correspondence to 2735 S. W. 229, Aloha, 
OR 97006. 



in head technology, helps the tape 
transport remain a valuable tool to- 
day. Some of us couldn't get along 
without it. 

The trouble was, computers kept 
getting faster and faster, and tape 
transports couldn't keep up. What 
was next? 

Round Tape 

My fertile imagination leads me to 
believe that the record player was the 
progenitor of the disk. Information 
was being stored on this flat thing 
that went round and round, and once 
again someone said, "Hey, we can do 
that!" And they did. 

Except they realized that not 
enough information could be stored 
in grooved plastic. So, they took that 
oxide-coated plastic from their tape 
transports and attached it to an alu- 
minum platter. Then, they took the 
read/write head off the transport and 
connected it to a moveable arm. Spin 
the disk, put the head wherever you 
want it, and you've got hard disk stor- 
age. You could rapidly move the 
head wherever you wanted on the 
disk, unlike the tape transport, which 
had to move the tape to the head. It 
worked just fine. 

The Hard Disk Matures 

In the years since the introduction 
of the hard disk, technology has been 
at work improving it. The read/write 
head was refined to make it smaller 
and lighter. The head was attached to 
a stepping motor so you could place 
the head into the same position every 
time. And the medium (the oxide) im- 
proved, too. 

One of the things they found was 
that the closer you move the head to 
the medium, the more densely you 
can record information. But the head 
couldn't touch the surface of the disk, 
because at 3600 rpm, the head would 
gouge out a considerable amount of 
oxide. But, before we go any further, 
let's take a side trip. 

The Floppy Revolution 

'Too expensive!' came the cry. 
The hard disk was a great idea, but 
couldn't something be done to lower 
the cost and still provide the high 
densities and data transfer rates? And 
the eight-inch floppy was born. 

The idea was to put the oxide on a 
flexible piece of Mylar, put the Mylar 
inside a low-friction jacket and spin 
the disk inside the jacket at one-tenth 
the speed of the hard disk. The read/ 
write head was placed right on the 




Photo 1. The Memorex Model 101 eight-inch hard-disk drive. This drive uses Winchester Technology 
and a stepper motor actuator. (Photo courtesy of Memorex) 



surface of the disk, while the disk 
spun at about 300 rpm, instead of 
3600 rpm. Single-sided storage be- 
came double-sided storage, and sin- 
gle-density recording became dou- 
ble-density recording. Then, the flop- 
py shrunk from its eight-inch diame- 
ter to a mere 5.25-inch diameter. 

Shugart Associates came out with 
the 5.25-inch minifloppy in 1975. The 
price barrier of the eight-inch floppy 
was broken. And, we can see what 
single-sided, single-density 5.25-inch 
floppies cost today— some less than 
$300. 

But, the story's not over. Let's go 
back to the hard disk to examine the 
technology a little, and we'll see what 
led to the birth of the Winchester 
drive. 

Hard Disks Aren't So Hard 

Let's look at the hard disk in detail. 

The basic ingredient of the hard 
disk drive (Photo 1) is the platter, 
which, at 14 or eight inches, is a pre- 
cision piece of aluminum. Remem- 
ber, the hard disk has to rotate at 
about 3600 rpm with little or no side- 
to-side or up and down movement. A 
fine coat of oxide (about 440 micro- 
inches) is bonded to the aluminum 
platter, making up the storage medi- 
um. 

Next, you've got to spin the disk. 
There are two predominant ways to 
do this (and again, much the same 
technology is used in high-quality 
record players). One way is to spin 
the disk with an ac motor, driving the 
disk spindle (the center shaft) with a 
belt. The second way is to make the 
spindle of the disk into a dc brushless 



spindle-drive motor. The ac motor 
and belt are cheaper; the dc brushless 
spindle-drive motor can be held to 
greater speed tolerances. The better 
you can regulate rotation speed, the 
less chance of losing data. 

Now that we've got the disk, let's 
talk about getting information onto 
and off of the platter. 

Readin' and Writin' 

The first thing we should do is look 
at the way data is stored on a disk. 

For the purposes of this discussion, 
we're going to use a totally inefficient 
disk, shown in Fig. 2. It's inefficient 
because this disk is going to have only 
ten tracks. 

Now, the number of tracks that can 
be used on a disk is determined by 
how far you have to move the read/ 
write head before you can continue 
recording data. In other words, the 
tracks can't be so close together that 
the head's magnetic field destroys in- 
formation on the tracks to either side 
of the one you're recording on. There- 
fore, the number of tracks on a disk is 




TRACK NO 



Fig. 2. This is an illustration of a portion of a sim- 
plified disk. Tracks are numbered from the outside 
toward the inside. Most minifloppies use 35 to 40 
tracks. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 35 



determined by the intensity of the 
read/write head's magnetic field, 
and, to a smaller extent, how much 
control you have over the placement 
of the read/write head. The drawing 
in Fig. 2 is highly exaggerated, of 
course. The single-density 5.25-inch 
drive in my home computer has 40 
tracks, spaced 0.02083 inches apart. 

The read/write head is mounted on 
the end of an arm. The arm moves 
from the edge of the disk to the center 
of the disk in small, repeatable steps. 
Repeatable is the key word. You have 
to be able to put the head back onto 
the center of the track every time. 

There are two primary methods 
(with variations) of moving the head 
to the proper location over the track: 
stepper motor and voice-coil actuator. 

The stepper motor has been around 
for quite some time, and is usually 
implemented in one of two ways. 
The first is the lead screw method 
shown in Fig. 3. As the stepper motor 
increments its way in one direction 
or the other, it turns the lead screw, 
which moves the head in or out from 
the center of the disk. There's a third 
mechanism connected to the head 
carriage that forces the head up and 
away from the disk surface (unload- 
ing the head). Floppy disk drives let 
the head rest right on the disk during 
read or write. Hard disk drives, on 
the other hand, never (well, hardly 
ever) let the head touch the surface of 
the disk. More on that later. 

Another method of using the step- 




HEAD CARRIAGE 



STEPPER 
MOTOR 



per motor involves band actuators 
shown in Fig. 4. As the stepper motor 
rotates, the bands on the actuator 
push the head carriage to the center 
of the disk, or pull it away. Again, an- 
other mechanism serves to load and 
unload the head. 

The chief limiting factor in using 
stepper motors is wear. As the motor 
wears, the step increments may 
change, and the head can't be posi- 
tioned properly over the track. 
There's no feedback to the drive con- 
troller to tell it where the head's at. 
This is called an open-loop position- 
ing method, and the reason stepper 
motor drives require periodic head 
alignment. How do you get around 
this? The voice-coil actuator. 

The voice-coil actuator is a closed- 
loop system. That is, the controller al- 
ways knows the position of the head. 
Without getting into detail, it works 
in this way. 

First, no stepper motor is used to 
position the head. Instead, a linear 




Photo 2. The first 5.25-inch Winchester Technol- 
ogy disk drive. This is Shugart Technology's 
ST500. (Photo courtesy Shugart Technology) 




BAND 
ACTUATOR 



STEPPER 
MOTOR 



motor is used. The linear motor can 
move the full length of its travel with- 
out stopping, or can move to any 
point along the way and stop. A com- 
parison can be made between a pulse- 
jet engine (the stepper motor) and a 
constant thrust rocket (the linear mo- 
tor). The stepper motor moves in 
small increments, or bursts, while 
the linear motor moves smoothly 
throughout its range. 

When you use the stepper motor, 
you simply tell the motor to move n 
number of steps in one direction or 
another, and it's a fairly safe bet that 
the motor did just that. You can't tell 
that to a linear motor. The linear mo- 
tor requires constant control and is 
made up of a cylindrical, permanent 
magnet, with a hole bored down 
through the center (see Fig. 5). With- 
in this hole is placed a coil on a shaft. 
Attached to the shaft is the actuator 
arm carrying the read/write head. 

So, how do you control the linear 
motor? With the disk! 

Each track on the disk contains 
header, sync and data information, 
just as a stepper-motor-actuated disk 
does. In voice-coil-actuated drives, 
each track also contains servo infor- 
mation permanently impregnated on 
it by the disk manufacturer. As the 
voice-coil actuator moves the head 
across the disk, the servo information 
tells the controller where the head is, 
and the controller moves the actuator 
accordingly, closed-loop. With a step- 
per motor actuator, the drive control- 



LINEAR 
MOTOR- 




PERMANENT 
MAGNET 



Fig. 3. The lead screw/stepper motor actuator. As 
the stepper motor turns, the lead screw pushes the 
head toward or away from the center of the disk. 



Fig. 4. The band actuator uses bands connected to 
the hub of the stepper motor to move the head car- 
riage. 



Fig. 5. The linear motor actuator. A moveable coil 
inside a fixed permanent magnet lets the arm move 
in a linear fashion. 



36 Microcomputing, July 1981 




The MX-100. Not just better. Bigger. 

Epson. 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 37 



ler tells the motor where to move, 
and then takes it on blind faith that 
the head arrived. With the voice-coil 
actuator, the controller knows exact- 
ly where the head is. 

Are there drawbacks to the voice- 
coil actuator? Of course. The biggest 
drawback is that each piece of track 
taken up by servo information is that 
much less track you can put informa- 
tion on. And, the servo information 
forces the disk to be hard-sectored 
(each track contains a set number of 
sectors, and each sector contains a set 
number of data bytes). 

But these drawbacks are reduced 
because of the amount of information 
you can store on the disk (increased 



SMOKE PARTICLE 

FLYING 
HEAD 



FINGER PRINT 

r—DUST PARTICLE 



HUMAN 
HAIR 




•— * 45 MICROINCHES 
— ALUMINUM SUBSTRATE 



Fig. 6. This illustration shows the size relation- 
ships of a flying head and contaminants. 



head positioning accuracy equals de- 
creased track-to-track spacing). Don't 
expect your 5.25-inch floppies to use 
voice-coil actuators, because they 
simply use up too much valuable 
storage space. 

What have we got so far? Well, 
we've taken a brief glance at the de- 
velopment of the hard and floppy 
disks, and we've explored the various 
methods of moving a head back and 
forth on a disk. Next, let's look a little 
closer at the joining of the head and 
disk. 

The Magnetic Interface 

Let's go back and review the way 
the head is positioned on the disk. Re- 
member that the floppy disk drive 
places its head right down on the 
disk. This is only possible because 
the disk is rotating at about 300 rpm. 
The rotation speed, plus the type of 
oxide and lubricant used, limits how 
fast you can retrieve information 
from a floppy disk. 

The hard-disk drives are another 
story. To spin the disk at 3600 rpm 
(thus improving data access time), 
the head can't touch the disk. In- 
stead, the head "flies" above the disk 



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on a cushion of air. For you pilots, 
this is the ground effect. In common 
hard-disk technology, the flying head 
rests on its cushion of air about 45 mi- 
cro-inches (1.4 microns) above the 
disk surface. For reference, a human 
hair is about 3 milli-inches in diame- 
ter. The distance, along with its built- 
in problems, is shown graphically in 
Fig. 6. 

As you can see, almost anything is 
bigger than the gap between the fly- 
ing head and the oxide surface of the 
disk. This is why you'll notice loud 
no smoking signs in computer rooms 
that contain hard-disk drives. And 
this is also why hard disks are trans- 
ported in plastic containers. If a parti- 
cle of almost anything contaminates 
the disk, it will undoubtedly cause 
what's known as a head crash. In 
other words, something on the disk 
bashed into the head. The resulting 
data loss can be mighty frustrating. 

This brings us right back to the 
folks at IBM, who were sitting 
around trying to figure out how to get 
more information on a disk. As it 
turns out, if you can get the head 
even closer to the disk, you can store 
more information faster. Move the 
head closer, reduce the magnetic 
field, increase the number of tracks 
per disk. No doubt, someone said, "If 
we move the head closer, anything 
larger than a hydrogen atom will 
cause a head crash." "True," might 
have said another, "but what if we 
don't let anything touch the disk? 
What if we seal the whole thing up?" 
Thus was born Winchester Technol- 
ogy- 
Back to Where We Were 

If you were to take a regular hard- 
disk drive, adjust the head from a 45 
micro-inch gap to about an 18 micro- 
inch gap, seal the whole drive in an 
airtight container, pump all the dirty 
air out and replace it with inert gas or 
filtered air, you'd have yourself a 
Winchester Technology disk drive. 
That's the whole thing in a nutshell. 
The mechanical part of a Winchester 
drive is about the same as a normal 
hard-disk drive. Except that you can't 
remove the disk. It's in there perma- 
nently, although some people are 
working on that, too. 

So, hard-disk drives come in two 
categories: removable disk (normal 
drive) and fixed disk (Winchester 
drive) . 

What's so great about Winchester 
Technology? Well, you can store 
more information on the same size 



38 Microcomputing, July 1981 



disk, and you get better data access 
time. Sealing the whole thing up in- 
creases reliability. All of these are a 
definite plus. 

Does it have any drawbacks? What 
doesn't? The term fixed disk is the 
key. At this writing, that disk is in 
there to stay. The only place a disk 
can be removed is in the manufactur- 
er's clean room. This means that if 
the disk crashes, you can't pull it out 
and replace it with a backup. You 
have to bite the bullet and send the 
whole drive out for repair. For this 
reason, manufacturers are scram- 
bling to come up with a way to back 
up information that is stored daily on 
the disk. Some methods involve: 
•A dual disk drive: one Winchester 
and one removable. 
•A Winchester backed up by a tape 
cartridge unit. 
•Winchester- to- Winchester backup. 

At Last, the 5.25-inch Winchester 

In the early 1970s, a gentleman by 
the name of Alan Shugart had a better 
idea. The eight-inch flexible disk 
drives had been around for a while, 
and Shugart decided they were too 
big and expensive. So he, along with 




Photo 3. The full line of Shugart Associates disk drives, ranging from a 14-inch hard disk down to their 
5.25-inch minifloppy. Shugart Associates plans a 5.25-inch Winchester of their own, to be called the 
SA500. (Photo courtesy of Shugart Associates} 



a few cohorts, formed Shugart Asso- 
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minifloppy. The price tag was about 
half that of the eight-inch drive, and 
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drive brought high-speed mass stor- 



age to the small-computer owner. 

Then, in 1975, Shugart turned over 
the reins of Shugart Associates, and 
went into consulting— until lately, 
that is. It seems Shugart had another 
better idea. He started another com- 



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40 Microcomputing, July 1981 




Shugart Technology's ST500 series 5.25-inch Winchester disk drive system. (Photo courtesy Seagate 
Technology) 



pany, this time called Shugart Tech- 
nology, and designed a 5.25-inch 
Winchester disk drive. In May of 
1980 his Winchester drive was intro- 
duced to the world at the National 
Computer Conference. Let's take a 
look at this little Winchester. 

Shugart Technology's ST500 
5.25-inch Winchester 

What are its capabilities? Just for 
fun, let's compare the Shugart Tech- 
nology Winchester drive with the 
5.25-inch floppy drive in my home 
computer. My drive is listed on the 
left in Table 1 , and is a ten-sector, sin- 
gle-density, single-sided, 40-track 
drive. 

It's impressive, isn't it? 

The Shugart Technology ST500 
mini-Winchester contains two 
5.25-inch disks and four heads. The 



ST500 uses a stepper motor with a 
band actuator to position the heads. 
The disks are driven by a brushless 
dc motor that spins the disks at 3600 
rpm. The large storage space of the 
ST500 gives the drive about 15 times 
the capacity of a double-sided floppy 
at only three times the price. 

The ST500 mini-Winchester uses 
153 tracks on each side of its two 
disks. Track-to-track access time is 
three ms. Maximum track access 
time is less than one-half second, 
with the average time being 170 ms. 
The spindle drive motor controls the 
rotation speed of the disks to within 
± 1 percent. Finally, at shutdown, a 
brake stops the disks within 15 
seconds. 

The ST500 seals the dirty air out 
and filters its own air in a closed loop 
filtration system. Shugart Technol- 



Unformatted data capacity 
Average access time 
Data rate (bits/second) 
Time to full rotation speed 
Power required 
Power consumption 
Size 



5.25-inch floppy 

109 Kbytes 

370 msec 

140 Kb/s 

1 second 

+ 12 and -5 

14 watts 
3.25x5.75x8 



ST500 5.25-inch Winchester 

6.38 Mbytes 

170 msec 

5Mb/s 

15 seconds 

+ 12 and -5 

22 watts 
3.25x5.75x8 



Table 1. Shugart Technology compared. 



ogy claims that the calculated mean- 
time-between-failure (MTBF) is 8000 
hours of operation. 

ST500 Interface 

The ST500 uses a very simple inter- 
face scheme that closely resembles 
the interface to most common flop- 
pies: 

• Four drive select lines 
•Two head select lines 

• Step control line 

• Direction control line 
•Track 00 indicator 

• Seek complete indicator 

• Index indicator 

• Ready indicator 

• Reduce write current control line 
•Write gate control line 

•Write fault indicator 

• MFM write data line 

• MFM read data line 
•power ( + 12 V dc & +5 V dc) 

The Bottom Line 

What's the bottom line? Well, Shu- 
gart Technology is offering the ST500 
for $925 in quantities of 500. The sin- 
gle unit price is about $1400. But not 
to worry. BASF and Control Data 
have both stated that they'll have 
5.25-inch Winchesters available in 
early 1981. More good news is that 
Texas Instruments has decided to 
second-source the ST500. And, word 
has it that Shugart Associates is also 
going to market a 5.25-inch Win- 
chester. 

Shugart Technology is the only 
manufacturer right now, but as the 
others come on line, the price should 
drop. (Does anyone remember the 
HP-35 calculator and its original $395 
price tag?) Western Digital is report- 
ed to be designing a controller that 
will handle two ST500 drives. 

At any rate, you can expect to see a 
lot more 5.25-inch Winchester drives 
within the next few years. The drive 
is nearly perfect for low-cost applica- 
tions in things like word processors 
and your home computer. 

Should you buy one? I don't know. 
But I do know it will be well worth 
looking into. Keep your eyes open. ■ 



Shugart Technology, the manufac- 
turer of the ST500 5.25-inch Win- 
chester drive, has recently an- 
nounced a name change. The com- 
pany is now called Seagate Tech- 
nology, 360 EI Pueblo Road, Scotts 
Valley, CA 95066. 



L 



Microcomputing, July 1981 41 



Video 

Di^ay 

Terminals 

Are They Hazardous to Your Health? 



By Eric Maloney 

Microcomputing staff 



Video display terminals have arrived with a vengeance. 
Some seven million workers use them each day, and 
that figure will reach ten million by the middle of the dec- 
ade. An International Resource Development report says 
that one out of every three white collar desks will have a 
terminal by the end of the 80s. Another million or so are 
being used by microcomputerists for home and business 
applications. 

But as is the wont of American culture, we have perhaps 
embraced this new technology without first studying all of 
the implications. Employers and manufacturers have sud- 
denly been beset by workers who claim that VDTs are 
neither safe nor healthy. Operators, their unions and sci- 
entists now say that poorly designed terminals in an ill- 
conceived work place can cause a variety of physical prob- 
lems, including visual impairment, stress, musculoskeletal 
problems, anxiety and fatigue. Others speculate that non- 
ionizing microwave radiation from the terminals might 
contribute to cataract development and birth defects. 

"The technology has just become so widespread," says 
Alan Fischer, program director of the Michigan AFL-CIO's 
Safety and Health Program. "It definitely is the wave of 
the future. But as in so many other areas, the technology has 
become widely used before we really know the effects." 

Workers have responded on a number of fronts. In 1977, 
two copy editors at The New York Times charged that their 
VDTs had caused cataracts, and took the case to arbitra- 
tion. A year later, typists at the United Nations refused to 
work on word processors for fear of radiation. More re- 
cently, workers at Blue Shield of California went on strike 
over, among other things, VDT health issues. And in Can- 
ada, a government worker claimed that VDTs had caused 
cataracts which had resulted in her blindness, and took 
her case to the Workmen's Compensation Board. 

The questions concern not just the possible effects VDTs 
might have on the user's body and mind. They also in- 



volve such larger issues as the relationship between the 
worker and his or her work, and the amount of control the 
worker has over his or her environment. The situation, as 
several people have pointed out, is similar to that which 
existed earlier in this century, when automation came to 
the factories. The new technology will certainly benefit 
the employer, but what about the employee? 

To a degree, microcomputerists are on the fringes of the 
maelstrom. Those who use micros in the home have much 
more control over the work environment. But if the home 
computerist isn't careful, he can face the same problems 
as his office counterpart. And as more businessmen and 
educators use micros at their place of work, the problems 
inherent to any VDT will become more evident. 

As VDTs once again prove, no burgeoning technology 
comes without a price. But some solutions do exist, if peo- 
ple will spend the time, effort and money to recognize 
them. 

Microwave Madness 

On Feb. 26, 1981, the New York Workers' Compensa- 
tion Board ruled that a New York Telephone Company 
worker had died of exposure to microwave radiation. And 
though NYT has appealed the case to the Appellate Court 
of New York, the board's decision has far-reaching impli- 
cations—it is the first time that an official body has recog- 
nized chronic exposure to microwave radiation as a cause 
of death. 

According to the Microwave News, Sam Yannon worked 
with low-power radio transmitters on the 87th floor of the 
Empire State Building from 1954 to 1969. He started to get 
headaches in 1964, and by 1968 was experiencing fatigue, 
eye trouble, sleep problems, forgetfulness and clumsiness. 
By the time he died in 1974, Yannon weighed less than 70 
pounds, and had lost almost all sight, memory, speech and 
motor coordination. Yannon was 62 years old. 

Microcomputing, July 1981 43 



The decision is sure to stimulate 
vigorous debate. The scientific com- 
munity is a caldron of opinion and 
controversy, and has made no excep- 
tion for microwaves. Does the prolif- 
eration of microwave-generating tech- 
nology—broadcasting equipment, ra- 
dar, VDTs, television sets and ovens, 
to name a few— threaten the health of 
the general public? Both sides have 
their outspoken advocates. 

The text of the appeal decision pro- 
vides a microcosm of the debate. On 
the one hand, says the text, Dr. Mil- 
ton Zaret found that Yannon "suf- 
fered an extreme case of microwave 
or radiowave sickness which resulted 
ultimately in his death." On the other 
hand, Dr. Paul Tyler "stated that. . . 
he finds no relationship between 
claimant's microwave exposure and 
diseases found and that he disagrees 
with Dr. Zaret' s diagnosis." 

Another doctor concluded that 
Yannon died of Alzheimer's Disease 
(premature aging) and found "no ma- 
terial indicating a relationship be- 
tween microwave exposure and Alz- 
heimer's Disease or cataract forma- 
tion or causal relationship between 
claimant's work and his disability or 
death." 

The Board ultimately sided with 
Zaret; Yannon' s wife, Nettie, re- 
ceived $29,000 in retroactive awards 
and a pension of $45 a week for life. 

The lack of consensus is due largely 
to the fact that U.S. scientists haven't 
done enough research on the subject. 
Microwave radiation, which falls 
roughly between 10 MHz and 100 
GHz in the electromagnetic spec- 
trum, is nonionizing, which means 
that it does not alter the cell structure 
in living organisms. Most of the atten- 
tion has been given to ionizing radia- 
tion, whose effects on life in the form 
of nuclear weapons is much more 
dramatic. (See sidebar "Ionizing Ra- 
diation and VDTs.") 

The perspective of much of the 
American scientific community is 
captured nicely in an article titled 
"Tests of Microwave Radiation Pro- 
duce No Adverse Effects on Pri- 
mates," in the May 1981 issue of Re- 
search Resources Reporter. The article 
begins by reporting that 12 test mon- 
keys showed "no harmful effects" af- 
ter microwave exposure. Project di- 
rector Dr. Robert McAfee is quoted 
as stating that "In people, cataract 
formation is the only well-document- 
ed injury caused by microwaves . . . ." 

Later, the author asserts that "while 
physical and mental stresses may oc- 



cur during low-intensity radiation, 
these effects are transient and do not 
indicate permanent injury." The arti- 
cle further states that an experiment 
involving rats showed "minor 
changes in red and white blood-cell 
counts," but that these changes were 
"not considered significant." 

And yet, while the article asserts 
that microwaves are harmless, it also 
admits that there are some areas in 
which scientists confess complete ig- 
norance. For example, one test 
showed higher levels of sulfhydryls, 
which are "involved in the activities 
of various enzymes." The scientist 
who conducted the test says that 
"Not only the health significance but 
also the biochemical mechanism 



through which this occurs is not un- 
derstood." 

Dr. Leonard R. Solon, in an article 
in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 
takes a different approach. While he 
says that the studies so far have been 
"incomplete and inconclusive,' he 
states that observed reactions in hu- 
mans include subjective complaints, 
biochemical or hormonal imbalances 
and hematological changes. He also 
points out that animal research has 
shown central nervous system im- 
pairment, chromosomal and genetic 
anomalies, cellular changes, behav- 
ioral alterations, prenatal impairment 
of body and brain weight and blood- 
brain barrier alterations. 

A growing number of scientists are 



Ionizing Radiation and VDTs 



By Dr. Gordon W. Wolfe 



The term "radiation" these days 
produces almost a knee-jerk re- 
sponse of "danger!" in the unin- 
formed layman. What most people 
fail to realize is that radiation can be 
harmful, benign or even helpful. Ra- 
diation is more than just fallout from 
nuclear bombs. Sunlight is radiation— 
so are the radio waves from your CB 
radio or local television station. What 
makes some radiation harmful, and 
other radiation not harmful? 

The key to understanding radiation 
is to understand its effects on matter. 
Matter as we know it is composed of 
atoms, which group together as mole- 
cules. Each atom consists of many 
heavy particles (called nucleons) 
grouped together in the center of the 
atom (called the nucleus), and a cloud 
of electrons in orbit around it (see Fig. 
1). These electrons, according to 
quantum physics, can only occupy 
special positions, or orbits. They can- 
not exist between these special orbits. 
When an electron jumps from a 
higher orbit to a lower one, it gives 
off light. This is the ultimate source of 
all light, which is a form of radiation. 
The process works in reverse, too. 



Address correspondence to Dr. Gordon W. Wolfe, 
Physics Department, University of Mississippi, 
University, MS 38677. 



ELECTRON 




LIGHT IN 



IONIZED 
ELECTRON 



Fig. 1. 

Light, or other radiation, can strike 
an electron, and cause it to jump from 
a lower orbit to a higher orbit. This 
process is called excitation. But the 
light has to have exactly the right 
amount of energy to cause the transi- 
tion. It must have the same energy as 
the difference of the energies be- 
tween the two orbits— too little and it 
can't make the jump; too much, and 

it would jump beyond the special or- 
bit to a forbidden region. 

If the radiation has enough energy, 
it can cause the electron to jump com- 
pletely out of the atom. When this 
happens, the atom is ionized, and the 
radiation is called ionizing radiation. 
If an atom is excited, its chemical 
bonding properties (controlled by the 

(Continued on page 46.) 



44 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 45 



willing to grant the possibility that 
microwaves in sufficient doses can 
contribute to the problems Solon 
mentions. But for the most part, they 
agree that the evidence is too flimsy 
to sound a general alarm. 

The Soviet Union, on the other 
hand, has done much comprehensive 
microwave research, and their stan- 
dards are stricter. Paul Brodeur, in 
his book The Zapping of America, says 
that the Russians have identified such 
problems as headaches, eye pain, 
stabbing pains in the heart, dizziness, 
irritability, emotional instability, de- 
pression, diminished intellectual ca- 
pacity, partial loss of memory, loss of 
hair, hypochondria, loss of appetite, 
alterations in normal brain wave pat- 
terns, hallucinations, changes in car- 
diovascular functions, changes in 
blood pressure, changes in protein 
composition of blood, shifts in white- 
blood-cell counts, cataracts, increased 
thyroid activity, sterility and de- 
creased lactation. 

The Soviet Union sets a limit on mi- 
crowave radiation of 10 microwatts 
per square centimeter, 1000 times 
lower than the U.S. standard of 10 
mW/cm 2 . They also discourage peo- 
ple with cardiovascular abnormali- 
ties from working in areas where 
they might be exposed to micro- 
waves, prohibit microwave genera- 
tors from areas where other work is 
being performed and require that an- 
tennas be directed to avoid irradiat- 
ing people using them. 

Brodeur suggests that the Soviet 
standards are stricter because of a 
greater understanding of what micro- 
wave radiation is. He says that U.S. 
scientists have focused almost entire- 
ly on thermal effects (those visible to 
anyone who has ever used a micro- 
wave oven) while ignoring possible 
nonthermal effects. 

Solon agrees. "Not all investigators 
accept the validity of athermal bio- 
logical effects," he says, "contending 
that such effects are attributable to 
microscopic heating.' But if such ef- 
fects are a reality, he says, they 
would be produced below 1 mW/cm 2 , 
much lower than the current Ameri- 
can standard. 

Enter VDTs 

There is no question that video dis- 
play terminals emit low levels of non- 
ionizing microwave radiation. The 
question is, how much? And even if 
the levels are below recognized safe- 
ty standards, can we guarantee their 
safety, given the limited knowledge 



(Continued from page 44.} 

electrons) are changed. If an atom is 
ionized, it is no longer part of the 
molecule, and the chemistry of the 
molecule changes. 

Radiation, then, if it has enough en- 
ergy, can cause chemical changes in a 
substance. If the radiation has high 
enough energy, it can cause changes 
in the structure of the nucleus, and 
actually change the type of the atom 
from one element to another, al- 
though the probability of this hap- 
pening is millions of times smaller 
than that of causing chemical 
changes. 

In terms of affecting living tissue, 
we are speaking of changing the 
chemical structure of the living cell. 
Usually, in a living cell, the DNA pat- 
tern has the blueprint for the cell so 
that repairs can be made. If the DNA 
itself is slightly damaged, the RNA 
can usually repair it. Only when the 
DNA is heavily damaged, as in a mas- 
sive dose of ionizing radiation, does 
the cell die or repair itself imperfect- 
ly. This latter case can lead to cancer. 

Ionizing radiation comes in two 
forms: electromagnetic waves and 
charged particles. We have already 
seen how electromagnetic radiation 
(light, for example) works. Charged 
particles produce an electromagnetic 
field by their motion, which can also 
affect electrons. The faster (more en- 
ergetic) the particle, the more elec- 
trons it can affect. 

It all depends on the energy of the 
ionizing radiation. There must be suf- 
ficient energy in each particle of the 
radiation to ionize, or at least signifi- 
cantly excite, the electrons of the 
atoms. 

This excitation or ionization energy 
is measured in electron volts, which 
is the amount of energy an electron 
picks up by falling through a poten- 
tial difference of one volt. It is a very 



small amount of energy— only 1.6 x 
10" 19 joules (one joule acting in one 
second is one watt of power). It usual- 
ly takes between one and ten electron 
volts to ionize an atom. 

Table 1 shows the various types of 
electromagnetic waves, ranked in 
order of increasing frequency. This is 
the range of the electromagnetic 
spectrum. The only difference be- 
tween light, radio and X-rays is the 
frequency of the wave. The numbers 
given are order-of-magnitude esti- 
mates for the center of the ranges. 

As you can see, electromagnetic 
waves do not ionize matter until you 
get into the ultraviolet range, and it is 
only the high-energy ultraviolet, 
X-rays and gamma rays that can real- 
ly be considered to be dangerous. In- 
frared and visible light can also affect 
molecular structure. 

The dividing line between infrared 
and microwave is very vague. Micro- 
waves (usually only those of very 
high frequency) can affect only inter- 
and intra-molecular vibrations and 
rotations. (Microwave ovens heat 
food by causing water molecules to 
vibrate in resonance to the radiation. 
This will only happen at one very 
precise frequency. No other frequen- 
cy will affect water.) Radio waves, 
even VHF and UHF, have little effect 
on matter at the atomic level. 

Charged particles are also ranked 
by their energies. Particles from ac- 
celerators or reactors are usually 
measured in millions of electron 
volts. X-ray machines make X-rays 
by accelerating electrons through 
hundreds of thousands of volts (giv- 
ing them hundreds of thousands of 
electron volts of energy) and allowing 
them to stop suddenly on a tungsten 
anode, releasing much of their ener- 
gy as X-rays. 

(Continued on page 50.} 



Wave type 


Wavelength 


Average energy 
(electron volts) 


Effects on matter 


Radio 


1000m- 10cm 


0.0001 


none at atomic level 


Microwave 


10cm- 1mm 


.01 


fine, small molecular effects 


Infrared 


lmm-.OOlmm 


.1 


excites molecular structure 


Visible light 


7xl0- 4 m-3xl0' 4 m 


1 


excites electrons 


Ultraviolet 


10" 4 m-10- 7 m 


10 


ionizes outer electrons 


X-rays 


10" 7 m-10- n 


1000 


ionizes inner electrons 


Gamma rays 


10- 12 m-10- 15 m 


10 6 
Table 1. 


excites nucleus 



46 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 47 



"Employers are facing a different kind of concern, 
from pregnant workers afraid that VDTs might harm 

their unborn children." 



of the scientific community? 

The issues were first raised in 1977, 
when two editors at The New York 
Times developed cataracts. One was 
28 and the other 35. They visited Dr. 
Milton Zaret, a Scarsdale doctor with 
a reputation for tilting at established 
ophthalmological windmills, who told 
the editors that their "bilateral incip- 
ient radiant-energy cataracts" were 
caused by microwave radiation from 
their video display terminals. 

The National Institute for Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health (NIOSH) 
took radiation measurements and de- 
termined that the VDTs posed no 
health problem. The arbitrator decid- 
ed against the two editors. But the 
cataract reports continued to come 
in. 

"We've had a fairly large number 
of cataracts," says David Eisen, di- 
rector of research and information 
for The Newspaper Guild. "I'm talk- 
ing about a dozen, which may not 
sound like a large number, but it is 
when you consider that it's happen- 
ing to people in their 20s with no 
medical problems and no family his- 
tory of cataracts." 

Eisen says that the latest case in- 
volves a 25-year-old wire service re- 
porter who has been working on 
VDTs for two years. 

"But we've had people who've de- 
veloped cataracts after only eight or 
nine months," he says. 

The Guild serves some 32,000 
members in the U.S. and Canada. 
Eisen estimates that perhaps 10,000 
use VDTs. 

"Certainly they're spreading; in 
the newsroom, of course, but also in 
circulation and advertising depart- 
ments," he says. 

Also recently, the Ontario, Canada, 
Workmen's Compensation Board 
ruled against a 40-year-old employee 
at the Ministry of Transportation and 
Communications, who worked on 
VDTs for 19 months before cataracts 
were discovered. 

Most scientists agree that micro- 
wave radiation can cause cataracts. 
But, says the Research Resources Re- 
porter article, the levels required are 



at least ten times the U.S. standard of 
10 mW/cm 2 , far higher than any mea- 
surements taken from VDTs. Zaret 
disagrees, claiming in a Washington 
Post article that he has seen over 100 
cases of cataracts caused by radiation 
less than 10 mW/cm 2 . 

Many unions and employers are 
facing a different kind of concern, 
from pregnant workers who are 
afraid that VDTs might harm their 
unborn children. In mid- 1980, a story 
broke that four former employees in 
the advertising department of the 
Toronto Star, all of whom had worked 
on VDTs, had given birth to children 
with congenital defects. 

"The Toronto Star situation remains 
unexplained," says Gary Cwitco, 
health and safety officer for the Com- 
munications Workers of Canada 
(CWC). "While many officials and 
any number of scientists have said 
that the terminals were not responsi- 
ble, they can't tell us what was." 

Cwitco points out that the odds of 
such a high number of birth defects 
in one place at one time are "quite 
small." 

"We have had a lot of colloquial re- 
ports which we've tried to follow up, 
but no clusters like at the Star,' he 
says. 

Alan Fischer says his union, too, 
has become concerned about the pos- 
sible effects of VDTs on the fetus. 

"Lots of union leaders have come 
to us with this problem,' he says. 
"They have a member who's preg- 
nant and using a VDT. Well, it's a sci- 
entific fact that radiation causes birth 
defects. But there's no conclusive evi- 
dence on low-level radiation. And 
there's no law saying that the em- 
ployer has to take the woman off the 
VDT. So there's no place she can go 
to; she has to depend on the good 
graces of the employer." 

Fischer won't speculate on whether 
VDTs are, in fact, a danger to preg- 
nant women. "But if I were a preg- 
nant worker— perhaps even if I were 
a male who was trying to impregnate 
my wife— I would try to get moved 
temporarily to another job." 

The Toronto Star situation did cat- 



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48 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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alyze one workers' action. Four preg- 
nant workers at Bell of Canada parti- 
cipated in a work boycott this spring, 
expressing fear that their use of VDTs 
could harm their unborn children. 
The CWC argued to Bell that it was 
better to be on the safe side, and the 
company agreed. The four workers 
were allowed to take other work or 
ask for an early maternity leave. 

"It's a significant decision for two 
reasons," saysCwitco. "First, it deals 
with a particular problem that our 
members are concerned about and 
gives them recourse. And second, it 
recognizes in the absence of defini- 
tive knowledge that we should take 
some action until the questions are 



answered." 

Union health officials are showing 
a variety of responses to the radiation 
question. Some, like Fischer, feel that 
the focus on radiation might detract 
from other issues. 

"Everyone is hung up on the radia- 
tion aspect of VDTs," he says. "The 
fact is that we're not going to find out 
about that for years to come." 

David LaGrande of the Communi- 
cations Workers of America (CWA), 
which numbers some 300,000 VDT 
operators among its 625,000 mem- 
bers, expresses similar sentiments. 
"We have not seen any evidence 
coming from the scientific communi- 
ty here— or in Europe, where the 



(Continued from page 46.) 

Whenever a charged particle is 
stopped quickly, it gives off radiation 
in the form of bremsstrahlung. The 
faster it was going or the quicker it 
stops, the more radiation it gives off. 

What does all this have to do with 
video display terminals? The central 
fact is that video displays are a source 
of fast charged particles, and are a 
means of stopping them quickly. In 
Fig. 2 is a diagram of the CRT (cath- 
ode ray tube) display, which can ei- 
ther be an oscilloscope screen or a TV 
picture tube. At the far end is a source 
of electrons, which accelerates the 
electrons from a hot wire through a 
typical potential of 10,000 V. These 
accelerated electrons are deflected by 
a strong electric potential in an oscil- 
loscope, or by a magnetic field in a 
television tube, to the screen of the 
CRT. The pattern of the beam deflec- 
tion gives the characters and lines 
you see on the screen. 

On the screen, they strike a phos- 
phor and give off light. The pattern is 
repeated 30 times a second, retracing 



ELECTRON SOURCE 



/ DEFLECTION 
/ PLATES 




SCREEN 

(WITH PHOSPHOR) 



Fig. 2. 



the whole figure, so you see a stable 
trace or picture. The deflecting volt- 
ages are small, and may be ignored 
for the purposes of this argument. 

Notice that we have electrons 
(charged particles) with an energy of 
10,000 electron volts. If this energy 
were converted to a single X-ray, it 
would be a very strong one indeed. 
Fortunately, two things prevent the 
user of a display terminal or TV from 
dying of radiation poisoning. 

First, the probability of producing 
an X-ray is very small. It is much eas- 
ier to simply ionize a few thousand 
atoms. The electrons thus released 
then jump back into their orbits, giv- 
ing off thousands of harmless little 
bursts of light. 

Second, if an X-ray is produced, 
that X-ray still has to go through the 
phosphor, the glass walls of the tube 
and several feet of air. Recall that an 
X-ray is ionizing radiation, and it will 
ionize every atom it comes into con- 
tact with. A glass tube is billions of 
atoms thick, and the X-ray will lose a 
few electron volts to every atom in its 
path. It never even makes it half way 
through the glass. It's much like try- 
ing to drive a car through a football 
stadium filled to the top bleachers 
with basketballs. (The simile is more 
representative if we make the stadi- 
um the size of New Mexico, and only 
put two gallons of gas in the car.) 

It must be stated that I am speaking 
here only of the immediate effects of 
radiation. We are still learning about 
the long-term cumulative effects of 
small doses. But we all get a small 
dose (about 200 millirem per year) 
just from sunlight and our normal 
surroundings. ■ 



standards are much more stringent— 
which would cause us to believe that 
radiation emissions are a defined 
problem. That's not to say that no 
problem exists; until scientific test- 
ing, there is a possibility of significant 
emissions. But we're not really active 
in that area, except to suggest to the 
scientific community that they con- 
tinue their testing." 

Cwitco, on the other hand, does not 
believe that the radiation issue has 
been overplayed. 

"An awful lot of people are running 
around saying that there's no radia- 
tion whatsoever, and that's simply 
not true," he says. "Any number of 
tests have been done that have shown 
very high readings. And each time 
the agency for one reason or another 
has said that the readings were 
spurious." 

San Francisco Story 

At the moment, the most well pub- 
licized study is one done by NIOSH 
in the Bay Area. Several unions asked 
NIOSH to investigate the San Fran- 
cisco Newspaper Agency, the S.F. 
Chronicle, the S.F. Examiner, the Oak- 
land Tribune and Blue Shield of Cali- 
fornia "to evaluate potential health 
hazards from the use of video display 
terminals ... in information process- 
ing applications." 

In each case, NIOSH reports that 
"exposure to x-ray, radio-frequency, 
ultraviolet and visible radiation was 
well below current occupational ex- 
posure standards, and, in many 
cases, below the detection capability 
of the survey instruments.' The 
highest level found was 0.65 uW/cm 2 , 
on an Ontel OP- 1/64 terminal. 

Another study, done by the Food 
and Drug Administration Bureau of 
Radiological Health and reported in 
the April 1981 FDA Consumer, con- 
cludes that "VDT's [sic] emit little or 
no harmful radiation under normal 
operating conditions; the emissions 
that are detectable are well below 
any existing national and internation- 
al standards." 

The article says that microwave 
emissions were "more than 100 
times below the maximum level al- 
lowed under exposure guidelines set 
by the American National Standards 
Institute." 

(The ANSI standard, though under 
reconsideration at press time, is 10 
mW/cm 2 ; thus, the FDA findings 
would be around 100 uW/cm 2 , which, 
contrary to the previous quote, is ten 
times higher than the Soviet limits.) 



50 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Fig. 1. These recommended work station specifications are taken from the National Institute for Oc- 
cupational Safety and Health 's San Francisco report: 

a. The European recommendation for the height of the home row keys is 28-1/4 to 29-1/2 inches. The 
U.S. military standard is 29-1/4 to 31 inches. 

b. The viewing distance should be between 17-1/4 and 19-3/4 inches, with a maximum of 27-1/2 

inches. 

c. Generally, the center of the screen should be at a position between 10 and 20 degrees below the hor- 
izontal plane at the operator's eye height. One researcher recommends that the top of the screen be be- 
low eye height, another that the top line of the display be 10-15 degrees below the horizontal with no 
portion of the screen at an angle greater than 40 degrees below the horizontal. 

d. One researcher recommends that the angle between the upper and lower arms be between 80 and 
120 degrees. 

e. The angle of the wrist should be no greater than 10 degrees. 

f. The keyboard should be at or below elbow height. 

g. Don 't forget enough room for your legs. 



But these figures raise more ques- 
tions than they answer. Measure- 
ments showed radiation below per- 
missible levels, but are those levels 
low enough? Do we know for certain 
that there are no harmful long-term 
or athermal effects from low levels of 
microwave radiation? What does the 
FDA mean by "normal operating 
conditions"— can VDTs, like micro- 
wave ovens, become greater hazards 
as they deteriorate with age? 

Louis Slesin, editor of the Micro- 
wave News, sums up the quandary: 
"Every time I think that the radiation 
effects are not serious, out comes an- 
other story that suggests there is a 
problem. Frankly, I haven't made up 
my mind yet." 

Terminal Illness 

In the long run, radiation might 
prove to be a significant health haz- 
ard to VDT operators. But in the 
meantime, a spate of other serious 
problems has captured the attention 



of users, unions and researchers. 

The NIOSH study at Blue Shield of 
California, for example, reported a 
wide variety of health complaints 
among VDT operators. Some 90 per- 
cent said they had experienced pain 
or stiffness in the neck or shoulders 
during the last year, 89 percent re- 
ported headaches, 88 percent com- 
plained of back pain and 83 percent 
had endured periods of severe fatigue 
or exhaustion. Users also suffered 
myriad eye problems, including eye- 
strain (93 percent), tearing or itching 
(79 percent), burning (77 percent) 
and blurring (78 percent). 

NIOSH considered any complaint 
reported by at least 50 percent of 
those surveyed to be a potential 
health problem. That figure was met 
in 35 of 59 areas. 

Physical problems such as those 
found at Blue Shield paint only part 
of the picture. Many VDT operators 
are undergoing a great deal of psy- 
chological and mental stress. This is 



true particularly with clerical and 
secretarial positions. According to 
the NIOSH report, "Operators re- 
ported higher levels of anxiety, de- 
pression, anger and confusion,' as 
well as irritability and tension. 

The factors that contribute to both 
psychological and physical problems 
are many and complex. The study of 
these factors, and how they can be 
minimized to create a healthier and 
more productive work environment, 
is called ergonomics (from the Greek 
roots ergon, work, and nemein, to 
manage). Ergonomic research can be 
roughly broken down into two major 
areas: the work place design and 
management, and equipment design. 

The work-place environment is per- 
haps the more important of the two. 
As Harold Snyder, president of the 
Human Factors Society and professor 
at Virginia Polytechnic, emphasizes, 
"No matter how good you design a 
piece of equipment, if you mount it in 
a poorly designed work place, you're 
going to have problems." 

A prime concern of VDT operators 
and their unions is that employers are 
placing production considerations 
ahead of the operator's sense of pur- 
pose. By putting its workers in front 
of terminals eight hours a day and es- 
tablishing strict production quotas, 
the employer turns the VDT into 
what Fischer calls "an assembly-line 
boob tube." 

Gwen Wells, research director at 
the Office and Professional Employ- 
ees Union (OPEU), likens the rise of 
the automated office to the rise of fac- 
tory automation in the 30s. 

"Today, offices are becoming like 
factories,' she says. "Those things 
that make office work appealing just 
aren't there anymore. Workers don't 
have the same kind of involvement 
and interpersonal relationships. 
There's no opportunity to gain ad- 
vanced skills to be promoted. People 
see it as a dead end." 

David LaGrande echoes Wells' 
sentiments: 

"Their job is being made much 
simpler on the one hand, but job 
stress problems enter the picture. 
Surveys by the Newspaper Guild 
show that for many of its members, 
the VDT is a positive change. I think 
we would see it that way as well. 

"But clerical workers have very lit- 
tle work-space control. The pacing is 
determined by machines. It's almost 
a factory-like situation." 

The problems caused by the kind 
of work being done are often aggra- 



52 Microcomputing, July 1981 



vated by the physical conditions un- 
der which the VDT operator must 
function. Many offices have poor 
lighting. Work stations are often posi- 
tioned so that VDTs reflect glare from 
windows and lights. Light-colored, 
high-reflectance surfaces can raise il- 
lumination levels, and can also cause 
eyestrain as the operator glances 
from a dark video screen to a bright 
background. 

The work-station design is a source 
of many problems. Excessive key- 
board height can lead to muscle fa- 
tigue. Improper viewing distance and 
angle of vision can force the operator 
into awkward and stressful positions. 
Solving one problem will often create 
another— lower the keyboard, and, if 
the keyboard is not detachable, you 
also lower the terminal. Finding the 
proper balance isn't always as easy as 
it sounds (see Fig. 1). 

By itself, a poor working environ- 
ment is difficult for workers to over- 
come. Throw in improperly designed 
equipment, and the problems multi- 
ply dramatically. And such equip- 
ment has, to this point, been the rule 
rather than the exception. 

Start with the video display. A ma- 



"Manufacturers can call anything an antiglare filter 

and meet the union's requirements when in fact 

they are creating more eyestrain." 



jor complaint of users has been exces- 
sive glare. This comes from a variety 
of sources, including lights and win- 
dows, the clothing of the operator 
and objects behind him or her. The 
user must not only squint to see the 
image, but must also continually re- 
focus as his or her eye moves from 
the reflection to the display. The 
result is a great deal of eyestrain. 

There are several ways to cut down 
on glare, says NIOSH researcher Dr. 
Marvin Dainoff. Unfortunately, he 
adds, manufacturers often choose an 
inexpensive method, which can cre- 
ate as many problems as it solves. 
Smoked plexiglass and etched glass 
will both reduce glare, he says, but 
they also degrade the image. 

"You can achieve the same thing 
with a pair of sunglasses,' he says. 

Mark Parish of Optical Coating 



Laboratory, which markets several 
nonglare panels, concurs. 

The eye is essentially a servo 
mechanism,' he says. "It searches 
for an image until it locks onto what 
the mind wants it to. With an unfo- 
cused image, the eye simply won't 
lock on." 

Parish adds: ' The unfortunate thing 
is that they [the manufacturers] can 
call anything an antiglare filter and 
meet the unions' requirements when 
in fact they are creating more eye- 
strain." 

The color of the screen can also be a 
factor, although what color is best is 
still subject to debate. 

There are a number of different 
recommendations, and they're usual- 
ly contradictory,' says Dainoff. "A 
couple of studies from Europe indi- 
cate that green is a little better than 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 53 



black and white, that yellow is a little 
better than green. But the difference is 
probably too small to be important.' 

Synder prefers black on white "be- 
cause the glare problem is effectively 
eliminated. Also, the eye is operating 
at a much more efficient range be- 
cause it is adapted to a higher lumi- 
nescence level." 

Keyboards, too, have caused prob- 
lems for operators. If the keyboard is 
too thick, the operator might have to 
raise his or her arms to a less comfort- 
able position. If the keyboard is not 
detachable, the operator again faces 
problems trying to place him- or her- 
self properly in relation to the key- 
board and terminal. 

Researchers also point out that peo- 
ple vary in body size and proportion; 
a single standard station isn't possi- 
ble. The keyboard and terminal 
heights might be perfect for one per- 
son and unacceptable for another. 

Finally, manufacturers and em- 



ployers often don't recognize that 
some people have specific problems 
that must be addressed. Dainoff 
points out, for instance, that people 
over age 45 get presbyopia— a loss of 
elasticity in the eye that causes an in- 
ability to focus on nearby objects— 
and must wear bifocals. If the termi- 
nal is not adjusted properly, the per- 
son must strain his or her neck to 
look through the bottom part of the 
lenses. This can cause serious muscu- 
loskeletal problems. 

As workers and their unions be- 
come more vocal about these condi- 
tions, they turn to the bargaining ta- 
ble for possible solutions. And this 
raises another, this time political, is- 
sue: how much input should the 
worker have in the design and func- 
tion of the work place? 

Employers often argue that conces- 
sions to union demands will reduce 
efficiency. But, says LaGrande, this is 
not the real reason for their reticence. 



Tips for 
VDT Users 



The National Institute for Occu- 
pational Safety and Health indicates 
in its San Francisco study that a 
number of steps can be taken to 
minimize ergonomic problems in 
the office. Many of their recommen- 
dations can also easily apply to the 
home work environment. 
DOperator chairs should be adjust- 
able in height and have back rests. 
Back rests should be adjustable to 
the lumbar region (mid-back). 
□Work stations should have a place 
for operators to rest their wrists and 
forearms. Armrests should be re- 
moveable. 

□Keyboard height, screen height 
and position should be indepen- 
dently adjustable. 
□The operator should be able to ad- 
just screen brightness and contrast. 
□Lighting levels should be between 
500-700 lux, depending on visual 
demands of other tasks performed 
in the work area. 
□Glare control should be a prime 



consideration, and can be done with 
a combination of a number of meth- 
ods, including: 

•Drapes, shades and blinds on the 
windows, 

•Proper positioning of terminals 
with respect to windows and over- 
head lighting, 
•Screen hoods, 

•Antiglare filters on the VDT screen, 
•Recessed, covered or baffled direct 
lighting fixtures and 
•Indirect lighting fixtures. 

Also, the NIOSH report recom- 
mended 15-minute work-rest breaks 
after two hours of continuous VDT 
work for operators under moderate 
visual demands and a moderate 
work load, and a 15-minute break 
after one hour of continuous VDT 
work for operators under high visu- 
al demands, high work load or for 
those engaged in repetitive work 
tasks. 

Finally, the report said that there 
is a need for mandatory vision test- 
ing. 

"It is recommended that ... at the 
very least VDT workers should have 
a comprehensive pre-placement vi- 
sion examination, the report says. 
"We also recommend that those in- 
dividuals who become symptomat- 
ic even after the initial exam should 
receive appropriate medical care 
and that a general exam should be 
repeated periodically. ' ' ■ 



"I think it primarily has to do with 
how much control workers have over 
the work place, ' ' he says. "If workers 
get something like rest breaks, 
they've established an awful lot of 
control." 

This control is being demanded by 
workers who've traditionally been 
on the periphery of the labor move- 
ment—clerical workers, typesetters 
and the like. These people have often 
been too fearful of losing their jobs to 
complain about poor working condi- 
tions. 

Employers aren't going to give in 
without a struggle. Thus, unions will 
often receive only partial concessions 
to contract demands. 

But as Dr. Steven Sauter, a psychol- 
ogist with the University of Wiscon- 
sin's Department of Preventive Med- 
icine, points out, 'It is absolutely 
mandatory that anyone thinking 
about installing VDTs consider the 
human engineering factors. Other- 
wise, they're guaranteed to have 
problems down the road, even under 
the best of circumstances." 

And this usually means lending a 
sympathetic ear to the complaints 
and suggestions of employees. 

Some Solutions 

Everyone agrees that solutions ex- 
ist. But they depend on two key fac- 
tors. 

First, employers must be willing to 
recognize the advantages of proper 
working conditions, and must be 
willing to spend some money to pro- 
vide them. 

Second, manufacturers must pro- 
vide well-designed equipment. 

Is management responding? The 
answer is a qualified 'yes.' 

"Management by and large tends 
to play down the seriousness of the 
problem,' says David Eisen. "At 
every stage of the game they've tend- 
ed to say that there is no problem, or 
it is a little problem, or that the prob- 
lem is being solved, or some variation 
of that argument. Their position is 
that little or nothing needs to be done. 

"I suppose it's understandable if 
you take a narrow, self-interest point 
of view. VDTs are critical to their op- 
eration; they modernize production, 
they increase productivity immense- 
ly. Anything that threatens them is 
going to get a knee-jerk reaction.' 

"Some have been responsive," 
says Gwen Wells. 'But when they 
put a machine in the office, they put 
them there to increase production, 
and that's what they're concerned 



54 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 55 




Polaroid's CP-70 Contrast Enhancement Filter uses a circular polarizer which the company says im- 
proves the contrast of VDT screen displays while eliminating reflections and glare. The glass version is 
available for 10-, 12- and 15-inch tubes, with prices ranging from $68- $98. 



about. So you can talk about rest 
breaks, but they want their machines 
running full-time. Otherwise they 
lose money." 

Blue Shield is a good case study. 
The company refused to recognize 
NIOSH's findings even before the fi- 
nal version of its report was issued. 
Last December, some 1100 Blue 
Shield employees, all members of the 
OPEU No. 3, went on strike. Money 
was one of the issues, but VDT safety 
was also an important demand. 

Blue Shield spokesmen told the 
press during the strike that the VDT 
issue was "blown out of proportion.' 
They also said that the company had 
voluntarily made several ergonomic 
changes, including window curtains 
to cut down on glare, terminal hoods, 
dimmer switches for the overhead 
lighting and keyboard changes. 

But the OPEU wanted the conces- 
sions in writing. And when the strike 
ended 19 weeks later, the company 
had signed a letter of agreement 
promising adjustable chairs, special- 
ly designed work desks, foot rests, 
proper lighting conditions and in- 
structional material on proper VDT 
use. 

Significantly, the union did not re- 
ceive its demand for hourly rest 
breaks, which many researchers and 
union officials see as essential. 



Blue Shield is an example of a com- 
pany that had to deal with ergonomic 
problems after the terminals had al- 
ready been installed. Retroactively 
providing such features as detachable 
keyboards, adjustable terminals and 
nonglare screens can cost a lot of 
money. A company will invest, for 
example, $100 in a terminal, and dis- 
cover that a nonglare shield will cost 
another $75. 

Naturally, unions would like to see 
employers install the proper equip- 
ment right from the start. "The whole 
occupational safety and health move- 
ment in labor is aimed at prevention, ' ' 
says Fischer. But again, companies 
might find it too expensive, and opt 
for what LaGrande calls a "human 
relations approach." 

"The human relations approach is 
where they let employees voice their 
complaints, but don't do anything 
about the problem," he says. 

The Newspaper Guild has been 
more active than most, bargaining for 
ergonomic concessions in the news- 
room. As a result, an increasing num- 
ber of newspaper employers are ad- 
dressing VDT-related problems. At 
least 17 newspapers now pay for em- 
ployees' first or subsequent eye ex- 
ams, while at least seven pay for new 
or improved eyeglass prescriptions. 
The newspapers in Minneapolis and 



St. Paul, MN, provide extra rest peri- 
ods. 

VDTs were one of the central is- 
sues in recent negotiations with Bay 
Area newspapers, says David Eisen. 
Those negotiations were completed 
before a strike occurred, he says, but 
adds, "If a strike had come, it [ergo- 
nomics] would have been one of the 
issues." 

While the Guild did not win paid 
ophthalmological exams, they did get 
adjustable chairs, footrests, adjust- 
able VDT height, suitable lighting, 
glare shields where requested, de- 
tachable keyboards where practical 
and feasible, and brightness control 
for a specific VDT model widely 
used. Employees will also have their 
new eyeglasses paid for. 

Manufacturers present yet another 
obstacle. Fischer contacted several 
when he helped put together a con- 
ference on VDTs in Michigan last 
spring. 

"You know what kind of answers I 
got?" he says. " 'Oh, we didn't know 
there was a problem.' It's a little bit 
disheartening. I'm disappointed in 
the manufacturers, that they're not 
taking human engineering into con- 
sideration." 

Harold Snyder points out that, 
again, the bottom line is money. 

' 'That business is awfully competi- 
tive, and it's in the same mode as the 
auto industry: how do we make it 
cosmetically appealing but cheap to 
manufacture? They haven't put in 
any seat belts; they're going for the 
sex appeal." 

But there are some signs of change, 
at least among the large mainframe 
manufacturers. Dainoff says that in 
one survey, about 25 percent of main- 
frame computer companies mention 
ergonomic features in their magazine 
ads. 

'The mainframe manufacturers are 
at least mentioning the words human 
factor and ergonomics. At least 
they're using the buzz-words." 

At least two companies, says Dain- 
off, are marketing highly sophisticat- 
ed nonglare shields: OCLI and Pola- 
roid. Their shields, he says, cut down 
reflective glare while enhancing the 
contrast. OCLI sells mainly to termi- 
nal manufacturers, and their shields 
cost $10-$30 in quantity. Polaroid 
sells their shields in a number of sizes 
in the retail market, with prices rang- 
ing from $68-$98. 

A quick scan of new product re- 
leases shows varying degrees of 
awareness on the part of manufactur- 



56 Microcomputing, July 1981 



ers. One brochure for an office furni- 
ture company, for example, shows a 
picture of a typist with her elbows al- 
most in her lap. On the other hand, 
Cortron is promoting a keyboard 
which it says in the first paragraph in- 
cludes a new low-profile design 
which "meets the new European er- 
gonomic requirements." 

One particularly eye-catching re- 
lease, from California Computer Sys- 
tems, is for the Ampex Dialogue 30 
and Dialogue 80 VDTs. Both termi- 
nals include nonglare screens and de- 
tachable keyboards, and, says a CCS 
spokesperson, will soon offer amber 
screens. The spokesperson says that 
such features are in response to re- 
quests from potential customers. 

"Everybody asks for a detachable 
keyboard," she says. "It has become 
a determining factor for people when 
buying terminals." 

Naturally, the Ampex VDTs don't 
come cheap: the 30 costs $995, and 
the 80, $1245. 

Stuart Bennett, manager of the Pola- 
rizer Division of Polaroid, sums up 
the manufacturers' responsibilities: 

"A year ago, they didn't feel that it 
was their problem. Today they're be- 




The Ampex Dialogue 30 and 80 video display terminals offer several ergonomic features, including non- 
glare screens, detachable keyboards and amber screens. Some researchers think that amber is easier on 
the eyes than green or black. 



ginning to feel that it is. That prob- 
lem's extent is well-known at this 
point. You can't find anybody with 
terminals in his office who doesn't 
have operators complaining about 
eye fatigue and visual problems. 
"The manufacturers are beginning 



to realize that they're going to have to 
do something about it." 

More Union Activity 

Employers are bound to see an in- 
crease in union activity over the next 
few years. Already, many unions are 




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Microcomputing, July 1981 57 



mobilizing their resources. In Michi- 
gan, some 200 delegates from 14 dif- 
ferent unions met on April 13 to dis- 
cuss possible standards to be admin- 
istered by the state's Bureau of Safety 
and Regulations. The goal, says Alan 
Fischer, is to devise "a responsible 
and reasonable standard that won't 
overburden the employer but will 
protect the worker.' Canadian 
unions, too, will be meeting, in Tor- 
onto in mid-October. 

Some union people say that the 
VDT issue will also serve to raise the 
consciousness of workers who here- 
tofore have not been organized. 

"VDTs may be a key organizing 
tool," says LaGrande. 'It may be a 
way to get a foot in the door. That 
clerical work force hasn't had much 
political impact in labor one way or 
another. It may suddenly become 
more politically conscious of what 
power it could wield." 

Management is not entirely un- 
aware of the potential. For example, a 
June conference sponsored by the In- 
ternational Word Processing Associa- 
tion included a presentation on "how 
to deal with unions when and if they 
begin to organize office workers." 



"Equipment used in the home — 

that stuff is still 

in the Neanderthal Age." 



Meanwhile, the research commun- 
ity continues to do its work. The Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Department of 
Preventive Medicine, in conjunction 
with NIOSH, recently completed a 
large-scale survey of government of- 
fice employees in that state. The find- 
ings, which confirmed the problems 
mentioned in previous studies, were 
read at the American Industrial Hy- 
giene Association in May. Lab work 
continues at NIOSH 's motivation and 
stress research section in Cincinnati, 
OH, and at Virginia Polytechnic. 

The Visual Science Foundation in 
Palo Alto, CA, is cosponsoring with 
Stanford Research Institute a confer- 
ence on VDTs this September. The 



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58 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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3. HOME APPLICATIONS A GAMES - checkbook 

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National Research Council of the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences is con- 
ducting a workshop in August. 

A major study by the Newspaper 
Guild and the Mount Sinai School of 
Health will survey some 3000 em- 
ployees in a half-dozen locals for 
health problems. The study will cov- 
er all departments, including editor- 
ial, advertising and circulation. 

Finally, concerned parties are ex- 
ploring the possibilities of legislation. 
Maine became the first state in the 
country in which legislators consid- 
ered a bill to make certain VDT 
health and safety measures points of 
law. The bill, which was defeated in 
May, concerned employees who 
worked on VDTs at least four hours a 
day. It would have required employ- 
ers to provide annual eye exams, 
semiannual maintenance of equip- 
ment, a rest period or a change of 
tasks every two hours and literature 
on proper VDT use. 

The bill was sponsored by Edith 
Beaulieu, a representative from Port- 
land. She works as a cleaning woman 
at a Portland newspaper, and is a 
shop steward for the Newspaper 
Guild. She had followed the VDT 
controversy through union material 
for several years, and decided to in- 
troduce the bill when she became the 
chairperson of the Legislature's La- 
bor Committee. 

Beaulieu says that opposition to the 
bill came primarily from industry, 
particularly banking and insurance. 

"What fascinates me/ she says, 
"is that none of them had heard of 
this when the bill came out. Six 
weeks later, they were all experts." 

Beaulieu says there is "absolute 
evidence" that VDTs affect visiop. 

"I contend that the industry is go- 
ing to be a lot happier with this kind 
of bill than they will be when some- 
one with sore eyes pushes the wrong 
key on a computer somewhere.' 

What about Microcomputers? 

At first glance, microcomputerists 
don't appear to be in the same boat as 
office VDT users. 

' 'The users you' re talking abou\ are 
generally highly motivated, high-lev- 
el, well-trained individuals," says 
Sauter. "The work they're doing is 
more creative. So I think that the 
problems we're seeing right now in 
the office will not exist in the home. 

"In the office, you're talking about 
a fast pace, routine work, no control 
at all of the work place, no dedication 
to or personal interest in or under- 



standing of what they're doing. At 
home, it's a different approach. A us- 
er can live with the inconveniences 
for short periods of time." 

Dainoff points to European and 
New Zealand studies which indicate 
that programmers are the least likely 
of all VDT workers to complain. 

"It's the structure of the job; it's 
challenging work," he says. "Also, 
the programmer is not locked into his 
terminal. He has other stresses, but 
they're primarily intellectual.' 

On the other hand, microcomputers 
are being used in increasing numbers 
in offices and schools. And in these 
environments, users are likely to find 
themselves subject to the same prob- 
lems as other VDT users. In fact, be- 
cause microcomputer manufacturers 
have been subject to less pressure 
from customers, who generally are 
not associated with organized labor 
groups, many micros will probably 
create more problems. 

"Manufacturers are feeling the 
pressure right now," says Sauter. 
"With respect to human engineering, 
they're adapting. But equipment used 
at home— that stuff is still in the Ne- 
anderthal Age." 

Dainoff says that there is "abso- 
lutely no data" on microcomputers 
and ergonomics. 

"However, my own lab is using 
Apples, because it's cheaper to buy 
three of those than to buy a conven- 
tional minisy stem. And I'm using one 
as a word processor, so I've got some 
personal experience with home com- 
puters. My feeling is that ergonomi- 
cally, they're lousy." 

Harold Snyder says that some of 
the worst displays he's seen are on 
terminals used with home computers. 

"I've seen one terminal on a lesser- 
known [than Apple] microcomputer 
which you'd have to be eight feet 
away from to see properly," he says. 

Problems exist in almost every 
area. Many microcomputers, for ex- 
ample, do not include detachable or 
moveable keyboards. The keys often 
are poorly spaced, do not offer a re- 
sponse when pressed and are not in a 
standard typewriter configuration. 
Few terminals are angle-adjustable, 
or have proper nonglare features. 
The display images are often poor, es- 
pecially when a televison set is used 
as a monitor. 

Microcomputer manufacturers 
show varying degrees of conscious- 
ness when discussing ergonomics. A 
spokesperson for Texas Instruments, 
for example, admits that the TI 99/4 is 



"People will overlook some of the problems. 
But sooner or later, home users will want better design/' 



"sort of lousy" for business applica 
tions, but says that the keyboard was 
designed "to accommodate young- 
sters." He says that the 28-column 
screen is designed to take advantage 
of the computer's graphics capabili- 
ties, which makes it difficult to use 
with a program like VisiCalc, which is 
best used with an 80-column format. 

A person at Radio Shack admits 
that some people have opted for the 
TRS-80 Model II over the Model III 
because the former has a moveable 
keyboard. But he was skeptical of 
most ergonomic concerns. 

"It used to be a big problem that 
there was no software," he says. 
"Now we've got software for the ma- 
chines, so people start nit-picking. 
Once the major points are taken care 
of, they start looking for the minor 

points." 

B. J. Freeman, an engineering liai- 
son at Exidy Systems, says that ergo- 
nomics is a frequent topic of conver- 
sation among engineers. He indicates 
that the problem lies not only with 
the manufacturers, but with the ex- 
pectations of the consumer. 

"I've built display units for games 
and I've found that there is a high at- 
traction for sound and color,' he 
says. "If it has bells and lights and 
whistles, people think it's tremen- 
dous. If you show the same display 
on a black and white terminal, people 
think it's terrible." 

So what's a microcomputerist to do? 

If you're already using one, either 
at home or in the office, the same 
guidelines apply as with any other 
VDT. (See sidebar, "Tips for VDT 
Users.") If you're thinking of buying 
one, keep an eye out for a few simple 
features: 

•The keyboard should be detach- 
able or moveable. This will let you 
adapt the keyboard and terminal to 
your needs, rather than the other way 
around. 

•Be sure that the keyboard is com- 
fortable. Is the pressure to your lik- 
ing? The spacing between keys? Do 
the keys let you know when you've 
hit them? 

•Try to get a terminal with a good 
nonglare shield. The two best ones 
are made by OCLI and Polaroid, but, 



while OCLI indicated that it was ne- 
gotiating with Apple and Radio Shack, 
most microcomputer terminals use 
less-efficient methods. 

• Be sure that you can adjust the 
brightness and contrast. 

• Check the image on the screen. It 
should be sharp and legible, with no 
flicker. 

Eventually, microcomputer manu- 
facturers will begin to incorporate er- 
gonomic features into their equip- 
ment. The question, as Dainoff points 
out, concerns when the consumer 
will start demanding such features. 

"People are so excited about micro- 
computers, and so impressed by their 
capabilities, that they'll overlook 
some of the problems," he says. "But 
I would guess that sooner or later, 
home users will want better 
design. "■ 

References 

• Brodeur, Paul S. The Zapping of 
America. New York: W. W. Norton 
and Co., Inc., 1977. 

• Brynes, Steve. "Tests of Micro- 
wave Radiation Produce No Adverse 
Effects on Primates,' Research Re- 
sources Reporter (May 1981), pp. 1-4. 

• Microwave News. Louis Slesin, ed. 
Their address is PO Box 1799, Grand 
Central Station, New York, NY 
10163 (212-794-9633). The March 
1981 issue includes a round-up of ac- 
tivities related to VDT radiation. Sub- 
scription: $165 a year. 

• National Institute for Occupational 
Safety and Health. "Potential Health 
Hazards of Video Display Terminals. ' 
Referred to as the San Francisco re- 
port. Available from the NIOSH 
Clearinghouse, 4676 Columbia Park- 
way, Cincinnati, OH 45226. 

•Rados, Bill. "VDT's Pass Medical 
Tests," FDA Consumer (April 1981), 
pp. 11-13. 

• Solon, Leonard R. "A Public Health 
Approach to Microwave and Radio- 
frequency Radiation," The Bulletin of 
the Atomic Scientists (October 1979), 
pp. 51-55. 

• Sorensen, Jeff, and Swan, Jon. 
"VDTs: The Overlooked Story Right 
in the Newsroom," Columbia Journal- 
ism Review (January/February 1981), 
pp. 32-38. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 59 



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With fixed 5 V and variable ±22 V output (at 1.5 amps), this supply can serve as an S-100 board test 

fixture or can povoer a small computer system. 



Construct a Modular, 
Multipurpose Power Supply 



By J. C. Hassall 



It was only a few years ago that the 
prospect of having to design a new 
power supply brought involuntary 
shudders from all but the most stout- 
hearted. Armed with a pad of paper, 
a large wastepaper basket, a slide 
rule (well, maybe it has been longer 
than I realize) and a dog-eared copy of 
ARRL's Radio Amateur's Handbook, 
you set out to design a choke input Pi 
filter (or was it a capacitor input?) 

supply. 

Well, thanks to the folks that 
brought us the digital revolution, 
power supply design is now almost 
trivial. Fortunately, there are more 
"standard" voltage requirements for 
digital work than for ham radio 
work. If you are working solely with 
TTL packages, all you need is 5 V, so 
a 6 V lantern battery and a medium- 
duty diode (for a .7 V drop) will suf- 
fice. If you work with dual supply op- 
erational amplifiers, you need plus 
and minus voltages, say + 12 V. Or 
you might want a larger spread in 
voltages, say to ±20 V. If you work 
with RS-232C signal levels, you will 
need ± 12 V, in addition to + 5 V. The 
list could go on. 

The present power supply design 
has evolved through a number of 
iterations to the present configura- 
tion. The intent was to provide a 5 V, 
1.5 amp supply, all necessary S-100 
voltages and two variable supplies to 
± 22 V at 1 .5 amps. The power supply 
would thus fulfill a number of func- 
tions: the 5 V, 1.5 A supply would be 
ample for most TTL breadboarding; 
the S-100 voltages would allow test- 
Address correspondence to ]. C. Hassall, H&H 
Enterprises, 1201 Highland Circle, Blacksburg, 
VA 24060. 



ing of S-100 boards out of the system; 
and the variable voltage supplies 
would provide voltages for op-amp 



experimentation, RS-232 voltage 
levels for interface experimentation, 
voltages for A/D and D/A converter 




An interior view of the enclosure, showing safety precautions used. The MOV (see text) is just visible un- 
der the switch leads. 



50PIV 
5A 



"HOT" IA 



(BLACK) 



MOV 
II5VAC (SEE 
TEX 



"COLD" 



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e 4- 



"GND" 
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1 



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Fig. 1 . Circuit diagram of the main system. See text for explanation of symbols. Unless otherwise noted, all 
resistors are % W. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 61 




SOFTWARE 



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Prof Time Bill $549/$40 

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^Application Utilities $439/$30 

COMPLETE BUS. SYSTEMS 

Creator $269/$25 

Reporter $169/$20 

Both $399/$45 

COMPUTER CONTROL 

Fabs(B-tree) $159/520 

UltraSortll $159/$25 

COMPUTER PATHWAYS 

Pearl (level 1) $ 99/$25 

Pearl (level 2) $299/$40 

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CP/M 2.2 

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TRS-80 Model II (PT). $159/$35 

Micropolis $169/$25 

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PL/l-80 $459/$35 

BT-80 $179/$25 

Mac $ 85/$ 15 

Sid $ 65/$ 15 

Z-Sid $ 95/$15 

Tex $ 70/$ 15 

DeSpool $ 50/$ 10 

DMA. 

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DMA-DOS $179/$35 

CBS $369/$45 

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General Ledger $729/$40 

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Job Costing $729/$40 

x Payroll II $729/$40 

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Inventory $493/$40 

Cash Register $493/$40 

Apartment Mgt $493/$40 

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Selector IV $469/$35 

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DRS orQRSorRTL $269/$35 
MDBS PKG $1295/$60 

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Customization Notes $ 89/$na 

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WordMaster $119/$40 

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Basic Compiler $329/$30 

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Ratfor $ 86/$na 

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Tiny'C" $ 89/$50 

Tiny "C" Compiler $229/$50 

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^ Visicalc II $159 

CCA Data Mgr $ 84 

Desktop/Plan II $159 

Visiterm $129 

Visidex $159 

Visiplot $149 

Visitrend/Visiplot $229 

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work and as many other uses as your 
imagination could provide. The pow- 
er supply described here is powerful 
enough to power a small computer 
system, a single-board computer or 
all but the most power-hungry exper- 
iments. 

The Finished Product 

The entire supply fits easily on a 
20x8 inch board. The power supply 
could have been packaged into a 
smaller area, but when area is avail- 
able, I prefer to separate components 
to facilitate heat dissipation— you 
will notice that all regulators have 
heat sinks. Also, the empty space on 
the base allows the addition of bread- 
board circuitry on the power supply 
board. The S-100 edge connector al- 
lows you to directly check the board- 
no clip leads are needed. 

Safety 

One subject of concern to any 
power supply designer is safety. You 
will notice in the photo that all con- 
nections to the ac line are enclosed in 
the metal box. Hence, no idle fingers 
can contact line voltage. For the line 
connection, use a three-conductor 
cord. 

As shown in Fig. 1, the fuse is in- 
stalled on the "hot" side of the line, 
and the switch is connected in the 
"cold" side. By connecting the 
switch as shown in Fig. 1, with the 
cold side of the ac line going to one 
pole of the switch, rather than the 
center pole (or "toggle"), the remain- 
ing pole (if you use an SPDT switch) 
does not need insulation sleeving, as 
shown in the photo. Also notice in the 
photo the judicious use of shrink 
sleeving with all leads in the enclo- 
sure—another safety precaution. 

By electrical code, the hot side is al- 
ways color-coded black, the cold side 
is always color-coded white, and the 
ground lead is always color-coded 



<§> 



^« 



o • 



o 
6.3 V 



•© 



r^ 



■© 



Fig. 2. A method of wiring multiple transformers to 
achieve the desired voltage if a standard trans- 
former is not available. Points X-X correspond to 
X-XinFig. 1. 



62 Microcomputing, July 1981 



AC » 




o ♦ 



AC • 



Fig. 3. Forming a full-wave bridge from discrete 
diodes. Each diode should be rated no less than 50 
PIV, 5 A. 



green. Use a terminal strip for all line 
connections— never use splices that 
are allowed to lie loose in the box. 

A strain relief should be used on 
the line cord— either a commercial 
wire bushing or a knot tied in the 
cord— to prevent an accidental tug on 
the cord from pulling all the connec- 
tions loose. Also, don't eliminate the 
line cord fuse, even though the sec- 
ondaries cannot draw enough power 
to blow the fuse— safety again, if a 
short should develop in the trans- 
former primary circuit. Use common 
sense and good electrical construc- 
tion practices, and your power sup- 
ply will be perfectly safe. 

The Design 

Referring to Fig. 1, you can see that 
the supply has been designed in a 
modular fashion. Sections can be 
eliminated or added later as desired. 
There are basically three modules: 
the +5 V supply, the S-100 taps and 
the variable voltage board. 

The transformer I used had a multi- 
ple tap secondary, as shown in Fig. 1. 
However, if your junk box is not 
well-stocked, Fig. 2 shows how to ar- 
range three transformers to create 
similar voltages. Radio Shack trans- 
former 273-050 could be used for the 
6.3 V supply, and two number 
273-1512 transformers could be used 
for the higher voltages. Be sure to 
check out the transformer in the 
store, or ensure that you can return 
defective units— Radio Shack seems 
to have a quality-control problem 
with their transformers. 

Regardless of what arrangement 
you use for the transformers, follow 
the safety precautions given above. 
Another practice I use is the MOV 
(metal oxide varistor) shown across 
the primary in Fig. 1 . If your ac line 
has a lot of spikes (caused by motors 
cycling on/off, for example), the 
MOV helps to limit the voltage 
spikes. 

In your application, the MOV 
might not be critical if you want to 
omit it. Bear in mind, however, that 



voltage spikes are potentially damag- 
ing. Spikes to 2000 V are not unusual 
on a standard 115 V ac line. Those 
spikes are almost 20 times the line 
voltage and will be passed to the sec- 
ondaries in proportion to the step- 
down ratio of the transformers. If you 
plan to power a board containing LSI 
chips, use an MOV. I used a GE 
V220MA4B. I will supply this part if 
you have trouble finding it in your 
area. Include a stamped, self -ad- 
dressed envelope and a check for 
$2.25 (VA residents, include $.09 
tax). Refer to the part number and 
KB8519. 

The +5V supply is powered from 
the 6.3 V transformer secondary. The 
rectifier shown is a full-wave bridge 
in a single package. If you prefer to 
use discrete diodes, use the equiva- 
lent circuit shown in Fig. 3. The filter 
capacitor should be at least 4000 uF 
for adequate filtering. The 5k bleeder 
resistor takes about 15 seconds to 
bleed the charge from the capacitor 
after power-off. The 1 uF and 0.1 uF 
bypass capacitors are not essential, 
since the regulator is close to the filter 
capacitor, but are good to have any- 
way. 

Use a heat sink on the 7805, and 
you can get up to 1.5 amps regulated 
output with a TO-220 package. In the 
event of a short circuit across the reg- 
ulator output, it will automatically 
shut down, so fuses are not required. 
The power-on LED is powered from 
the 5 V supply. If the +5V supply is 
not needed, eliminate all components 
above the dashed line in Fig. 1. 

The full-wave bridge for the bal- 
ance of the supply is used as a half- 
wave bridge, with return going to the 
secondary centertap ground. Thus, 
the one centertapped secondary sup- 
plies plus and minus voltages at 
roughly three-fourths the secondary 
voltage. The S-100 bus requires + 8 to 





BOTTOM VIEW 
LMI I7K 



ADJ V 0UT V 1N 

TOP VIEW 
LM3I7T 



10 V for pins 1 and 51, + 15 V for pin 
2, - 15 V for pin 52 and ground for 
pins 50 and 100. 

An LMI 17 adjustable regulator is 
used to provide +9.8 V to pins 1 and 
51. I chose the LMI 17 because it is 
easily adjusted and is good for 2 amps 
or so with a heat sink. The voltage 
output from the LMI 17 may seem 
strange, but results from using stan- 
dard values for the two resistors. The 
formula for determining voltage out- 
put is Vo = 1 .25( 1 + R/220) , where R is 
the 1.5k resistor in Fig. 1, should you 
want to change the output voltage. 
Fig. 4 gives the pin-out for all regula- 
tors used in this design. 

Since the + 15 V and - 15 V bus 
lines are low current, I chose to use a 
current limiting resistor and zener 
diode for regulation of each voltage. 
The current output is limited to about 
70 mA, but has been sufficient for all 
my S-100 board testing thus far. Be 
careful that if you reduce the resis- 
tance of the dropping resistors (220 
ohms for each voltage) to increase the 
output current, you don't exceed the 
current rating of the zeners. Zeners 
can be paralleled for increased cur- 
rent capacity, if necessary. 

The dropping resistors are large 
enough to handle normal current de- 
mands, but if the outputs are shorted, 
the resistors will get hot after a 
minute or so. An electronic current 
limiter could have been incor- 
porated, but I felt that it would have 
been overkill. Instead, I used two 
LEDs to indicate "voltage output 
OK." If a connection on the board 
under test is shorted, the appropriate 
LED will go out. 

As a safety precaution, don't re- 
move the board under test until the 
LEDs have gone out, indicating that 
the filter capacitors have been dis- 
charged. Also, never install a board 
into the card edge connector if the 




IN 



ADJ 




OUT 



'IN 



v 0UT 



TOP VIEW 
LMI37 



V IN GNO V 0UT 

TOP VIEW 
7805 



Fig. 4. Pin-out of all regulators used in this design. Be sure to use adequate heat sinks when soldering to 
the regulator terminals, and use a solder lug for the LMI 17k case connection. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 63 



power is on-same as installing 
boards into the system bus. The S-100 
voltage taps are wired to the card 
edge connector and are not available 
for general-purpose use. If the S-100 
module is not needed, simply elimi- 
nate sections A and B in Fig. 1. 

The variable voltage board (shown 
in Fig. 5) provides adjustable voltages 
to ±22 V at currents up to 1.5 A. The 
two adjustable regulators LM317T 
and LM337T provide adjustability 
while maintaining constant voltage 
regulation. 

The regulators can be adjusted over 
a 40 V range; i.e., the Vout to Vin dif- 
ferential can be as large as 40 V. 

Thus, regulated outputs to ±40 V are 
possible by increasing the transform- 
er secondary ratings. 

In my setup, the variable voltage 
board was the only portion of the de- 
sign built on a printed circuit board, 
but it could have been hand-wired 
like the balance of the unit. If the 
variable voltage module is not need- 
ed, simply break the circuit at points 
Cand D in Fig. 1. 

Component Substitution 

Whenever possible, it is always 
nice to be able to use components 
from stock, rather than buy them. 
That raises the question of compo- 
nent substitutability. With the pres- 
ent design, as with most power sup- 
ply designs, voltage and current re- 
quirements pretty well establish 
component values. For example, the 
specified regulator ICs can provide 
up to 1.5 to 2 amps, as noted above. 
Thus, they and all associated current- 
carrying components must be sized 
for the rated current and heat-sinked 
as appropriate. 

The transformer secondaries and 
the rectifiers must be capable, assum- 
ing worst-case conditions of all sup- 
plies drawing full current simultane- 
ously, of the total current draw for 
each supply. Whether that worst- 
case assumption pertains to each user 
is an individual judgment, but it is 
better to err on the side of oversized 
components during construction, 
rather than have to replace under- 
rated components, or build a heavier- 
duty supply later. Of course, it is in- 
advisable to use a 10 amp secondary 
when 3 or 4 amps will suffice. 

The voltage rating of the capacitors 
and rectifiers is much more clear-cut. 
To determine the necessary PIV rat- 
ing, multiply the rated secondary 
voltage by 1.4 to determine the peak 
rectified voltage. Then add 20 per- 



*V| N «> 



IN4050-4 



GN0» 



-Vin* 




REGULATED 



OUT 



o GN0 



N4000-4 



REGULATED 
VOUT 



Fig. 5. Circuit diagram of the variable voltage 
board. All resistors are l A W. 

cent for a safety margin for voltage 
spikes. For example, if the secondary 
voltage is stated as 6.3 V dc, the peak 
rectified voltage will be about 9 V. 
Thus, the minimum voltage rating of 
the rectifiers and filter capacitors 
should be 1 1 V dc. 

The capacitance value of the filter 
capacitors could be established 
mathematically, but suffice it to say 
that the values given in Fi^. 1 are 
minimum values. An increase of two 
to three times the values given would 
be acceptable, although of little bene- 
fit to the system. Large values of filter 
capacitance are generally beneficial 
only at high current loads. 

Construction Techniques 

One objective of this design is to al- 
low flexibility in choosing compo- 
nents. Another is to make the design 
modular so that unnecessary sections 
can be omitted without affecting 
overall operation of the unit. While 
originally conceived as a test fixture 
and breadboarding aid, I wanted the 
design as it evolved to be convenient 
for hobbyist use (board testing or 
small system power supply). A num- 
ber of changes have taken place, as 
evident from the extra holes in the 
perfboard. 

I used an LMB 141 chassis box, al- 
though there are better-looking boxes 
available. When wiring the ac por- 
tion, follow the guidelines above un- 
der the safety section. Use 24 AWG 
leads minimum to wire in the 7805 
and LM117 regulators and from the 
regulators to the voltage output 
points. Use 26 AWG minimum else- 
where. Use a grommet to bring all 
leads from the box. 

Diode bridges are more convenient 
to use and take up less board space 
than the equivalent discrete diodes, 
but the choice of rectifiers is a minor 
one. Be sure to provide a good heat 
sink for each of the regulator ICs— 
the safe output current is appreciably 



reduced if heat sinks are not used. Be 
careful not to mount all regulators on 
the same heat sink, or even allow the 
heat sinks to touch. 

As can be seen in Fig. 4, the poten- 
tial of the case or mounting tab varies 
according to the regulator. If the heat 
sinks touch, you'll destroy the regula- 
tors. Put a film of silicone grease be- 
tween the regulator and the heat 
sink; then screw the two tightly to the 
board. 

I used a printed circuit board for 
the variable voltage board, which 
was a patch from a previous power 
supply design; it could just as easily 
be wired to the perfboard. 

Banana jacks are used for output 
terminals. Any suitable screw-type 
terminal boards are inconvenient but 
are less expensive. If you use banana 
jacks, be sure to color-code them so 
you can tell at a glance which polarity 
is which. Label all terminals, regard- 
less of what type you use. 

Installation of the S-100 card edge 
connector is straightforward. Simply 
wire up the appropriate pins as 
shown in Fig. 1. Be sure to use insula- 
tion tubing over the connector pins to 
prevent shorting the power leads to 
adjacent connector pins. Also, be 
sure to include a polarization device 
with the connector so that a board 
cannot be accidentally installed back- 
wards. 

Power-up and Enjoy 

So there you have it— a modular 
power supply design with numerous 
applications. As illustrated, the 
power supply makes an excellent 
power test fixture for S-100 boards, in 
addition to supplying separate out- 
puts of -i- 5 V at 1 .5 amps and variable 
voltages to ±22 V at 1.5 amps. 

In addition to testing S-100 boards 
(or any others), the supply has 
enough power to drive a small system 
or a single-board computer. Working 
with dual-supply operational ampli- 
fiers is easy with the variable voltage 
section, and the +5 V supply has 
enough capacity to power extensive 
breadboard circuitry. 

Being modular in design, sections 
not needed can be eliminated or add- 
ed later. If you are working from a 
very limited budget, sections can be 
added as the finances allow. The fully 
stuffed version can be built for $40 or 
less, depending upon how well your 
junk box is stocked. You should 
never need another general-purpose 
power supply after building this one. 
Power up and enjoy. ■ 



64 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Here's a look at some inside information on how Heath's disk operating system handles disk files. 



Dissecting the HDOS Diskette 



By E. Tom Jorgenson 



Like so many computer manufac- 
turers before it, Heath has with- 
held a great deal of information from 
its users concerning how HDOS han- 
dles disk file space. 

Such lack of information is a major 
obstacle to recovering from diskette 
crashes, when it is often necessary to 
reconstruct files on a diskette by 
hand. Rebuilding files sector by sec- 
tor requires intimate knowledge of 
the diskette structure, and until now 
few outside of Benton Harbor have 
had this knowledge. 

In this article, I will try to reveal 
much of this formerly unavailable 
wisdom. Armed thus, you should in 
the future be able to salvage most of 
the data on a crashed diskette in some 
usable form. 

Review 

Data is recorded on the diskette 
surface in concentric circles called 
tracks. The number of tracks is de- 
pendent upon the material used, the 
recording head and the reliability re- 
quired. Originally, due to problems 
reading the inner tracks, floppy-disk 
drives contained a maximum of 35 
tracks; these days we can use 40 
tracks with very high reliability, as 
HDOS does. 

Each track is further subdivided in- 
to ten sectors (Fig. 1). In our case 
these are hard sectors, each of which 
has an individual hole cut into the 
diskette, one per sector, to mark its 
position within the track. Sector has 
an additional hole between the other 
two, which yields a total of 11 holes 
around the inner rim of the diskette. 



Initial bytes: 


Nulls 


First byte: 


Sync (OFD hex) 


Second byte: 


Volume number 


Third byte: 


Track number 


Fourth byte: 


Sector number 


Fifth byte: 


Header checksum 


Table 1. HDOS sector header. 



SECTOR I 



SECTOR 2 




SECTOR 7 



SECTOR 6 



SECTOR 3 



SECTOR 5 



SECTOR 4 



Fig. 1. Sector division of a track. 



An LED and phototransistor within 
the floppy-disk drive uses these holes 
to produce sector pulses, which then 
can be monitored by the operating 
system to locate the start of a sector. 

The HDOS Sector Header 

HDOS could locate any sector on 
the diskette by first positioning the 
head on the correct track and then 
counting the number of sector pulses 
from the sector mark generated by 
the drive. There is an inherent prob- 
lem in such a scheme, however, in 
that the system could become lost by 



reading the wrong number of track or 
sector pulses. 

Fortunately, HDOS does not sub- 
scribe to such a simple scheme. 

During the initialization process, 
HDOS writes a dummy sector within 
each physical sector. This dummy 
sector consists of two parts: sector 
header and data area. 

The leading nulls in the header (Ta- 
ble 1) give the system some "slop" in 
head positioning since they will be ig- 
nored (as will anything before the 
sync byte). The sync byte (OFD hex) 
tells the floppy-disk controller elec- 
tronics exactly when a sector header 
is under the drive head. 

As you can see, the volume, track 
and sector bytes uniquely identify 
each sector on the diskette, and the 
header checksum identifies any er- 
rors that occur in reading this header. 

If an incorrect volume byte or 
header checksum is read a number of 
times in succession, HDOS will call 
the sector bad. An incorrect track or 
sector byte will cause a new sector 
search to begin (with the associated 
nightmarish sounds from the drive 
stepper motor). 

Using a sector header such as this, 
HDOS needs merely to read one sec- 
tor to determine precisely where on a 
diskette the head is currently posi- 
tioned. There is no chance of getting 
lost, as with the more primitive meth- 
od. Additionally, we gain a speed in- 
crease in sector searches, since 
HDOS does not need to spend a lot of 

Address correspondence to E. Tom Jorgenson, 122 
Yankee Drive, St. Charles, MO 63301. 



66 Microcomputing, July 1981 



time just in locating the desired sec- 
tor. The advantages far outweigh the 
small amount of overhead we pay in 
creating and detecting the sector 
headers. 

Notice that each sector contains the 
volume number of the diskette. This 
is done so that no read or write opera- 
tion will succeed to any diskette not 
correctly mounted by HDOS. 

Diskettes formatted on the Heath- 
Lifeboat CP/M system all normally 
have volume numbers of 0. 

The Sector Data Area 

Immediately following the sector 
header and completely within the 
same physical sector is the data area 
(Table 2). 

Within the data area the nulls, sync 
bytes (also OFD hex) and checksum 
perform the same basic functions as 
they do within the sector header. 

The remainder of the data area con- 
sists of the actual 256 bytes in which 
we are really interested. During nor- 
mal operations the sector formatting 
(header, sync bytes and checksums) 
is completely invisible to the opera- 
tor. 

Special Areas 

Once INIT has written dummy sec- 
tors throughout the entire diskette, it 
next creates five special areas neces- 
sary for the HDOS file-handling tech- 
niques (Table 3). 

Bootstrap area. The bootstrap area 
on the diskette contains the loader 
module for the operating system. 
When the HDOS system is cold- 
booted (i.e., brought up from scratch), 
the first four sectors (track 0, sectors 
1 through 4) are loaded into memory 
and executed. These sectors provide 
the basic information necessary to lo- 
cate—and load— the first part of 
HDOS (HDOS.SYS) into memory. 

Label identification sector. The next 
reserved diskette area (track 0, sector 
10) is used by HDOS to store some 
very basic facts about the diskette in 
question. 



Bootstrap area 

Label identification 

sector 

Reserved group table 

(RGT.SYS) 

Directory (DIRECT.SYS) 

Group reservation table 
(GRT.SYS) 



Sectors 1 to 4 
Sector 10 

Sector 11 



Initial bytes: Nulls 

First byte: Sync (OFD hex) 

Next 256 bytes Data bytes 

Last byte: Checksum 

Table 2. HDOS data area format. 



Most importantly, this sector tells 
HDOS where to locate the start of the 
diskette directory and the GRT 
(group reservation table) sector. 
These two areas are the pointers to all 
the remaining files on the diskette. 

HDOS has the ability to read files 
in small groups of sectors called clus- 
ters. Since these cluster sizes can ap- 
parently be varied from diskette to 
diskette, HDOS stores the current 
cluster size here also. 

The remaining information within 
this sector is doubtless more familiar 
to you. This sector is also where the 
volume identification number and ti- 
tle are stored. 

Reserved group table (RGT). The 
next sector we come upon (track 1, 
sector 1) contains the diskette RGT 
map. This sector allows HDOS to 
lock out bad clusters on the diskette 
with INIT. 

Byte values within the RGT show 
the current status of the individual 
clusters in the same relative diskette 
positions. Usable clusters are marked 
with a 01 byte. Zero or any negative 
value locks sectors out. 

When INIT formats a new diskette 
and prepares to write a blank direc- 
tory, it first looks for a large enough 
number of good sectors in which to 
write it. Any bad sector returns will 
cause HDOS to lock out their clusters 
within the RGT. This is the only cir- 
cumstance I know of that can cause a 
directory to be repositioned from its 
normal location (track 22, sector 2) on 
the diskette. 

Track is always locked out, since 
it is intended to be available for sys- 
tem use only. 

HDOS directories. The directory or- 



Contains bootstrap loader for HDOS.SYS 
Diskette identification 

Sector lock-out map 



Usually starting at Actual file entries 

sector 222 

Usually sector 238 Diskette cluster linkages 



Table 3. Reserved areas on the HDOS diskette. 



File entry 


#1 


File entry 


#2 


File 


entry #3 


File entry 


#22 


byte 




Single byt< 


* entry length 


Two-byte 


block number of this cluster 


Two-byte 


block number of next cluster 


Table 4 


Directory cluster block format. 



dinarily contains nine clusters of 22 
entries each for a total of 198 possible 
entries (Table 4). This is actually 22 
more entries than the number of files 
it is currently possible to write on the 
diskette, so don't worry about writ- 
ing too many file entries under 
HDOS. 

As shown in Fig. 1 each directory 
cluster points to the next cluster until 
the last cluster points to cluster 0. 
This is necessary since the initial di- 
rectory read operation cannot treat 
the directory itself as a file— it simply 
doesn't know at this point where on 
the diskette the directory cluster will 
be or how to find out otherwise. Such 
information only becomes available 
once the directory is read. It's the old 
chicken-or-the-egg story all over 
again. 

Directory clusters also individually 
specify their own internal entry 
lengths. Apparently it would be pos- 
sible to allow for longer file names 
than are currently being used by 
patching the directory clusters. This 
is but one of the hidden possibilities 
of HDOS. 

Each directory file entry (Table 5) 
consists of the same 23-byte format as 
shown. 

These directory entries contain all 
the information necessary to tell 
HDOS how to read the file and where 
to begin (and end) reading it on the 
diskette. The cluster factor tells 
HDOS how the file is intended to be 
read (sectors per operation). First and 
last group numbers specify the start- 
ing and ending clusters within the 
file. The last sector within the last 
cluster is specified by the last sector 
index. 

The first byte of the file name is 
used to mark files as deleted (with a 
OFF hex byte) and to mark the end of 
usable entries (with a 0FE hex byte). 
Files recently deleted— and not over- 
written—can be recovered by restor- 
ing this byte to its former ASCII val- 
ue. Any directory entries after a 0FE 
byte here will be ignored. 



^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 67 



File name 


8 bytes 


Extension 


3 bytes 


Project 


1 byte 


Version 


1 byte 


Cluster factor 


1 byte 


Flags 


1 byte 


(S = 200Q, L = 100Q, W = 40Q, C = 20Q) Reserved 


1 byte 


First group number (FGN) 


1 byte 


Last group number (LGN) 


1 byte 


Last sector index (LSI) 


1 byte 


Creation date 


2 bytes 


Last alteration date 


2 bytes 


Table 5. Directory entry format. 





After the file name and extension 
are two bytes which appear not to be 
currently used. These are reserved 
for the current project number and 
version. What the exact purpose of 
these bytes is, we can only guess- 
possibly they are only for internal use 
in Benton Harbor. 

The next byte contains the cluster 
size to use in reading the file (usually 
3). Obviously, from its appearance 
here, this may be varied from file to 
file. 

Currently there are four types of 



file flags in use, the three we all know 
(SLW) and one undocumented flag, 
the C flag. 

The C flag identifies which files 
must be written contiguously; i.e., in 
direct sequence from start to finish. 
This flag can be displayed by using 
the /JGL switch in PIP. 

After the next byte, which is re- 
served for future use, are three bytes 
which uniquely identify the file clus- 
ters allocated to a file. The first two of 
these bytes contain the starting clus- 
ter number and the last cluster num- 



ber. These values are in terms of the 
cluster factor stored in the label iden- 
tification sector. 

HDOS clusters are numbered in a 
sequential fashion without skewing. 
Track 0, sector 3, for example, is 
within cluster 1, and track 22, sector 
2 begins cluster 111. 

The third byte is the last sector in- 
dex within the cluster. Since a file 
may only use part of a cluster, this 
byte tells HDOS exactly which sector 
is the last within the file. 

Finally, we come to the file dates. 
The dates are encoded into two bytes 
each in packed manner (Table 6). 

The first of these, the last alteration 
date, is the date we normally see dis- 
played by HDOS. This date shows 
the last date on which the file was 
modified. 

Although not normally displayed, 



Bits 1 through 5 
Bits 6 through 9 
Bits 10 through 15 
Bit 16 



Day (1-31) 
Month (1-12) 
Year (Year-70) 




Table 6. Packing dates in HDOS. 



6502 
6502A 
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6522 VIA 
6532 



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5.15 
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TMS 2532 EPR0M 
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68 Microcomputing, July 1981 



the directory entries also contain the 
original creation date of the files. This 
is encoded within the last two bytes 
of the file entries. 

Group reservation table (GRTj. 
HDOS locates file clusters on a disk- 
ette dynamically. If a file uses cluster 
36, for example, the next cluster 
within the file is not necessarily clus- 
ter 37. It is possible to link any two 
clusters not otherwise in use together 
within a file. 

This is done to make maximum us- 
age of the empty disk area. Imagine 
that (as under older systems) an oper- 
ating system were always to write a 
new file into the largest blank space 
available at the time. The system 
would work very well until it reached 
a point where it had a large file to 
write into a number of smaller empty 
spaces. The system could not then 
use the smaller spaces until they 
could be squeezed together into at 
least one space large enough to con- 
tain the current file. 

This is the advantage of a dynamic 
file scheme. The system makes use of 
all the available blank space without 
concerning itself with whether or not 
it is in one large group or fragmented 



all over the disk. HDOS really gives 
the ability to do both (remember the 
C switch), although it normally uses 
the dynamic mode. 

For this reason, the directory only 
points to the beginning and end of a 
file. The actual cluster linkage is 
stored within the GRT. 

Groups of clusters are strung to- 
gether within the GRT to form what 
HDOS calls chains. Even unused 
clusters are linked into a free chain. 

When HDOS begins reading a file, 
it starts at the cluster specified by the 
directory entry. The next cluster read 
will be pointed to by the byte in the 
first cluster's relative position within 
the GRT. This process continues until 
the entire file has been read. The byte 
in the last cluster's position contains 
zero— which verifies that the file en- 
try within the directory is correct, 
since the last group numbers should 
match. 

In this manner, if the last cluster 
we read was 26, byte 26 in the GRT 
contains the next cluster number we 
should read (or if we are finished). 

The free chain is linked to cluster 0. 
This we can do since cluster is part 
of the system area and is locked out 



by the RGT. 

Corrupt Diskette Structures 

One problem with such a complex 
dynamic file scheme is that it can 
lead to a rather spectacular diskette 
demise. 

If the RGT, GRT or directory are 
overwritten, or written incorrectly, 
our file linkage chains may no longer 
match the directory entries or usable 
sector map. 

Perhaps two directory entries ref- 
erence the same diskette cluster or a 
file attempts to link to a lock-out sec- 
tor. Such situations indicate corrup- 
tion of the diskette file structure. 

When HDOS tries to mount a disk- 
ette, these linkages are tested (and in 
some cases updated). If any contra- 
dictions are found you will get that 
wonderful "Disk Structure Is Cor- 
rupt" message and an instruction to 
contact the Heath technical assis- 
tance department. This is because 
Heath is trying to protect us from fur- 
ther damaging the file structure by 
preventing further diskette write op- 
erations. 

A better way of handling this situa- 
tion might have been to make the 



\t 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 69 



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Subscription 

Problem? 



Kilobaud Microcomputing does not 
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premises, therefore calling us only 
adds time and doesn't solve the prob- 
lem. 



Please send a description of the 
problem and your most recent ad- 
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Kilobaud Microcomputing 
Subscription Dept. 
PO Box 997 
Farmingdale, NY 11737 




Thank you and enjoy your subscription. 



L 



diskette mount as read-only. Current- 
ly the corrupted diskettes can only be 
read using absolute track and sector 
utilities (such as the ABSDUMP utili- 
ty available from HUG). 

Summary 

HDOS is an amazingly sophisticat- 
ed system as microcomputers go. Al 
number of file-handling features are 
incorporated which are not available) 
on many similarly priced systems. 

It is appropriate indeed that Heathl 
Company is beginning to free up a 
great deal of information to its users.l 
Certainly this article would never| 
have been possible had this not beei 
the case. Heath has always beei 
more responsive to its users than it; 
competitors have been, and just re- 
cently this has also become true of it; 
response to its computer hobbyisl 
customers. 

I am sure that, as more and mon 
information such as this becomes ap- 
parent, we Heath users will see an ex- 
plosion of very powerful utilitie; 
coming our way. 

Perhaps the H8/H-89 will finalb 
take its rightful place among th< 
giants of the industry. ■ 



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^243 



70 Microcomputing, July 1981 




if He'd used select 
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Learn SELECT in just 90 minutes. A whole new word processing software 
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nothing like it. 

Simply hit "C" and you'll be ready to Create a document. 

Key "I" and you'll be in the Insert mode. 

Key "M" and Move entire blocks of text . . . and key dozens more. 

That's all there is to it. You'll get all that word processing software promises . . . plus a 
few surprises. 

SELECT with SUPERSPELL •* The only microcomputer software with an integrated 
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* SELECT and SUPERSPELL are trademarks of Select Information Systems Inc. 
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INFORMATION SYSTEMS 919 Sir Francis Drake Boulevard • Kentfield, California 94904 • (415) 459-4003 



t^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 71 



/Z£> 



nNHJ^ 



ADVENTURE 
by SCOTT ADAMS 



"SPECIAL SAMPLER" - Never tried ADVENTURE? This 
special inexpensive sampler complete with 3 Treasures is a 
cut-down version of our large Adventureland. Guaranteed to| 
supply hours of enjoyment: Try an ADVENTURE today! 

ADVENTURELAND • You wander through an enchanted 
world trying to recover the 13 lost treasures. You'll encounter 
wild animals, magical beings, and many other perils and 
puzzles. Can you rescue the Blue Ox from the quicksand? Or 
find your way out of the maze of pits? Happy Adventuring.... 

PIRATE'S ADVENTURE - "Yo ho ho and a bottle of rum..." 
You'll meet up with the pirate and his daffy bird along with 
many strange sights as you attempt to go from your London 
flat to Treasure Island. Can you recover Long John Silver's 
lost treasures? Happy sailing, matey. . . . 

MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURE -Good morning, your 
mission is to... and so it starts. Will you be able to complete 
your mission on time? Or is the world's first automated 
nuclear reactor doomed? This one's well named. It's hard, 
there is no magic, but plenty of suspense. Good luck. . . . 

VOODOO CASTLE • Count Cristo has had a fiendish curse put 
on him by his enemies. There he lies, with you his only hope. 
Will you be able to rescue him or is he forever doomed? 
Beware the Voodoo man. . . . 

THE COUNT - You wake up in a large brass bed in a castle 
somewhere in Transylvania. Who are you. what are you doing 
here, and WHY did the postman deliver a bottle of blood? 
You'll love this ADVENTURE, in fact, you might say it's Love 
at First Byto. . . . 

STRANGE ODYSSEY - Marooned at the edge of the galaxy, 
you've stumbled on the ruins of an ancient alien civilization 
complete with fabulous treasures and unearthly technologies. 
Can you collect the treasures and return or will you end up 
marooned loravor?. . . . 

MYSTERY FUN HOUSE - Can you find your way completely 
through the strangest Fun House in existence, or will you 
always be kicked out when the park closes?. . . . 

PYRAMID OF DOOM - An Egyptian Treasure Hunt leads you 
into the dark recesses of a recently uncovered Pyramid. Will 
you recover all the treasures or more likely will you join its 
denizens for that long eternal sleep?. . . . 

GHOST TOWN - Explore a deserted western mining town in 
search of 13 treasures. From rattlesnakes to runaway horses, 
this ADVENTURE s got them all! Just remember, Pardner. 
they don't call them Ghost Towns for nothin'. (Also includes 
new bonus scoring system!) 

SAVAGE ISLAND — PART 1 - WARNING FOR EXPERIENCED 
ADVENTURERS ONLY! A small island in a remote ocean 
holds and awesome secret. Will you be the first to uncover it? 
NOTE: This is the first of a larger multi-part Adventure;, it 
will be necessary to purchase additional packages to com- 
plete the entire Adventure. 



^%Adventut€ 



<*+ 



ADVENTURE 

PROGRAM 
PARAMETERS 

LANGUAGE Machine 

NUMBER OF PLAYERS (min/max) ... 1/1 

AVG. COMPLETION TIME 1 month 

SUGGESTED AGE GROUP ... 12 to Adult 

RECOMM. FOR NOVICE? (0-2) Yes 

(3-10) No 

CLASSIFICATION: Compu-novel 

SOUND? No 

GAME SAVE FEATURE? Yes 

MULTIPLE SKILL LEVELS? No 

GRAPHICS ORDZNTED? No 

REAL TIME? No 

SPECIAL EQUD7MENT: None 



Adventures 

by Scott Adams 

AN OVERVIEW 

I stood at the bottom of a deep chasm. Cool air siiding down 
the sides of the crevasse hit waves of heat rising from a stream of 
bubbling lava and formed a mist over the sluggish flow. Through 
the swirling clouds I caught glimpses of two ledges high above me: 
one was bricked, the other appeared to lead to the throne room 1 
had been seeking. 

A blast of fresh air cleared the mist near my feet and like a 
single gravestone a broken sign appeared momentarily. A dull 
gleam of gold showed at the base of the sign before being swallow- 
ed up by the fog again. From the distance came the angry buzz of 
the killer bees. Could 1 avoid their lethal stings as 1 had managed to 
escape the wrath of the dragonl Reading the sign might give me a 
clue to the dangers of this pit. 
1 approached the sign slowly. 

And so it goes . hour after hour, as you guide your microcom- 
puter through the Adventures of Scott Adams in an effort to 
amass treasures within the worlds of his imagination. 

By definition, an adventure is a dangerous or risky undertak- 
ing; a novel, exciting, or otherwise remarkable event ot ex- 
perience. On your personal computer. Adventure is that and more. 
For the user, playing Adventure is a dangerous or risky 
undertaking in that you better be prepared to spend many addic- 
tive hours at the keyboard. If you like challenges, surprises, humor 
and being transported to other worlds, these are the games for 
you. If you dislike being forced to use your common sense and im- 
agination, or you frustrate easily, try them anyway. 

In beginning any Adventure, you will find yourself in a 
specific location: a forest, on board a small spaceship, outside a 
fun house, in the briefing room of a nuclear plant, in a desert, etc. 
By using two-word commands you move from location to loca- 
tion manipulate objects that you find in the different places, and 
perform actions as if you were really there. The object of a game 
is to amass treasure for points or accomplish some other goal. Suc- 
cessfully completing a game, however, is far easier to state than 
achieve. In many cases you will find a treasure but be unable to 
take it until you are carrying the right combination of objects you 
find in the various locations. 

How do you know which objects you need? Trial and error, 
logic and imagination. Each time you try some action, you learn a 
little more about the game. Which brings us to the term "game" 
again. While called games, Adventures are actually puzzles 
because you have to discover which way the pieces (actions, 
manipulations, use of magic words, etc.) fit together in order to 
gather your treasures or accomplish the mission. Like a puzzle, 
there are a number of ways to fit the pieces together; players who 
have found and stored all the treasures (there are 13) of Adven- 
ture #1 may have done so in different ways. 

In finding how the pieces fit. you will be forced to deal with 
unexpected events, apparent dead ends and Scott's humor, which 
is one of the best parts of the puzzles. 

If you run into a barrier like not being able to discover more 
rooms, don't give up. Play the game with some friends; sometimes 
they'll think of things you haven't tried. 

While I pondered how to reach the throne roam — which I 
was sure contained the treasures of Croesus — the fog grew 
thicker and the hours passed. I realized I would not be able to out- 
wit Adams today...but maybe tomorrow. I marked my present loca- 
tion on my tattered map and began the long trip to the surface. As 
I dragged myself off to bed. I thought about other possible Adven- 
tures. 

But enough for tonight. Tomorrow — another crack at the 

chasm. —by Ken Mazur 

Reprinted with permission from 

PERSONAL COMPUTING MAGAZINE. FEB. I960 

Copyright 1980 PERSONAL COMPUTING MAGAZINE 

1050 Commonwealth Ave., Boston. Mass. 02215 



£5*; 



Of 



—* 



\* 






<rfP 






£-^ 









\* 



*» 



*&> 






/I^' 



sfSs» 



*» 



&> 



** 



TECHNOLOGICAL 
BREAKTHROUGH ! ! ! 

CLASSIC 
ADVENTURE 

FIRST OF THE "OTHER-VENTURE" SERIES 

WHY ANOTHER VERSION OF ADVENTURE?! 

Since Will Crowther and Don Woods created it years 
ago, ADVENTURE has been programmed to run on 
nearly every computer known to man. The original 
Fortran version ran on a large PDP machine 
requiring nearly 300K of storage. At least three! 
other versions of ADVENTURE exist for the APPLE. 
Some claim to be the only complete version; some! 
claim to fill whole disks with program and data. To 
date, however, all require diskette access during the 
game to retrieve text for display on nearly every 
command. All added "features" of their own, 
changed some of the original text, or omitted | 
something from the original. 

In this version of ADVENTURE you get nothing but| 
the real thing. NOTHING has been added or left out. 
By using a text compression technique seldom used 
on microcomputers, the nearly 44K bytes of text fit in 
less than 25K. This means no disk access is needed 
during the game and that it can be played on 48K 
systems without disk drives. Both tape and Disk 
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Write assembly-language programs for your Atari with this powerful ROM cartridge. 






Atari's Assembler Editor 



By Robert W. Baker 



The Atari Assembler Editor car- 
tridge (CXL4003) contains three 
separate programs for developing 
6502 assembly-language programs. It 
is available from any Atari dealer for 
$60. 

The Editor helps you write pro- 
gramming statements in a form the 
Assembler program understands. 
The Assembler program then takes 
the program statements you create in 
the edit step and converts them to 
machine code. A handy Debugger 
program helps you trace through the 
program steps by running your pro- 
gram a step at a time while displaying 
the contents of important internal 
6502 registers. 

You can also display and/or change 
registers or memory, move memory, 
list memory, disassemble, assemble 
single instructions into memory, exe- 
cute code and so on. 

The accompanying manual assumes 
the user has read some other book on 
assembly language or is already fa- 
miliar with it. It also assumes you 
know how to use the screen editing 
and control features of the Atari 400/ 
800 computer system. These features 
are the same as those used in Atari 
BASIC. Thus, the manual primarily 
explains the operation of the Assem- 
bler Editor cartridge. It does not ex- 
plain 6502 assembly-language pro- 
gramming or programming tech- 
niques. 

You need not have any equipment 



except the computer system console, 
your television or video monitor for 
display and the Assembler cartridge. 
However, without a permanent stor- 
age device (tape or disk), you will 
have to enter your program on the 
keyboard each time you want to use 
it. For assembly-language programs 
this task is much more tedious and 
tiiiie-consuming than with BASIC 
programs. Therefore, an Atari 410 re- 
corder or 810/815 disk drive is a prac- 
tical necessity when you use the As- 
sembler Editor cartridge. 

The Assembler Editor cartridge 
was designed to be used with the 
Atari disk drives and DOS II. If you 
are currently using DOS I, the 9/24/79 
version of DOS, then you must patch 
several locations within DOS to be 
compatible with the Assembler Edi- 
tor cartridge. The instructions for this 
are included in the Assembler Editor 
manual. 

Even though the programs were 
designed to be used with a disk, they 
are still usable with a 410 program re- 
corder. If you're going to be doing 
any reasonable amount of assembly- 
language programming, you'll prob- 
ably also want to have one of the Atari 
printers so you can get printed copies 
of the assembly listings. This can be 
helpful when debugging programs. 

Storing the Program 

All assembly-language programs are 
divided into two parts: a source pro- 



gram, which is a human-readable 
version of the program, and the ob- 
ject program, which is the computer- 
readable version of the program. 
With the Atari assembler, these two 
versions of the program are distinct 
and must occupy different areas of 
RAM memory. 

The source program must exist in 
RAM memory in order to assemble it, 
but the object program it produces 
must be put in a different area of 
memory, so as not to destroy the 
source program. Therefore, the first 
decision you must make when writ- 
ing the source program involves the 
allocation of available memory space. 

Normally, when you program in 
BASIC, the system automatically al- 
locates portions of memory for the 
program, data, display space, etc. 
This is not quite the case with the As- 
sembler Editor cartridge. You now 
can place your programs anywhere 
in memory that you wish, but you 
must allocate memory wisely. 

The Atari computer system uses 
low memory for its own internal 
needs. The amount used depends on 
whether or not DOS is loaded into 
RAM. In any event, the Assembler 
Editor cartridge will automatically 
place your source program into mem- 



Robert W. Baker (15 Windsor Drive, Atco, NJ 
08004) writes the monthly PET-pourri column in 
Microcomputing. 



74 Microcomputing, July 1981 







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Sample program. 


Graphics format instructions. 





ory starting with the first free mem- 
ory location. 

As you enter and/or delete source 
code, the edit text buffer grows or 
shrinks accordingly. You also have to 
remember that a small area above the 
edit text buffer is used by the assem- 
bler for a symbol table when assem- 
bling your source program. 

The problem now is where to store 
the object code produced by the as- 
sembler. If you put the object code in- 
to an area used by the operating sys- 
tem, DOS or display RAM, you'll 
probably cause the computer to crash 
and lose all your typing. Even more 
chaos can result if you try to put the 
object code into the area used by the 
edit text buffer. The only safe place to 
put your object code is in the empty 
memory area between the top of the 
edit text buffer and the bottom of the 
display RAM. 

You can find out approximately 
where the empty memory area starts 
by using the editor SIZE command. 
The Assembler Editor will respond 
with three hexadecimal numbers, the 
last two representing the bottom and 
top addresses of the empty area. The 
first number indicates the bottom of 
usable RAM, typically about 180 
bytes before the start of the edit text 
buffer. With these values you can es- 
timate a reasonable starting location 
for your program, if you know the ap- 
proximate size of the program. 

Another alternative exists if your 
program and data will fit into 256 
bytes. The 256 locations of page 6 
($0600-$06FF hex) have been set 
aside for your use by the Assembler 
Editor. This is a good safe way to start 
when you are still learning assembly- 



language programming and you are 
writing only short programs. Later, 
as your programs grow larger, you 
can move them off page 6 and use 
page 6 for data and tables. 

Still another strategy is to bump the 
edit text buffer containing your 
source program upward in memory, 
leaving some empty memory space 
below it. A special Assembler Editor 
command, LOMEM, can be used to 
specify the new bottom address of 
the edit text buffer. However, if you 
intend to use it, this command must 
be the first command entered after 
turning on the computer with the As- 
sembler Editor cartridge installed. 
There is no check on the value en- 
tered, so you must be careful not to 
set it too low, so as to crash the sys- 
tem, or too high, so there isn't room 
for the source program. 

Creating the Source Program 

The actual source program you 
write will contain many program 
statements representing machine in- 
structions or assembler directives. 
Each statement can be up to 106 char- 
acters long. Any statement can have 
up to five parts, or fields: the state- 
ment number, a label, the operation 
code or assembler directive, an oper- 
and and a comment. These fields ap- 
pear in successive positions in the 
statement line, each separated by a 
space. 

Every statement must start with a 
statement number, just like the lines 
of a BASIC program. The Editor auto- 
matically puts the statements in nu- 
merical order for you. Numbering by 
tens or some other large increment al- 
lows space for inserting new state- 



ments. The Editor provides an auto- 
matic numbering mode for easy en- 
try of new programs, and a command 
to renumber all existing statements. 

A label, if used, occupies the sec- 
ond field of a statement. The label 

i 

must start with a letter and contain 
only letters and numbers, but can be 
any length (up to 106 characters). 
Typically, labels are three to six char- 
acters long. Remember that each la- 
bel is placed in a symbol table during 
assembly, using up valuable memory 
space. Thus, short labels help con- 
serve memory. A label, if present, is 
assigned the current memory loca- 
tion before assembling the remainder 
of the statement. Each label can then 
be referenced by other instructions 
or statements as needed. 

The operation code mnemonic in- 
dicates which 6502 machine instruc- 
tion is to be assembled, and the stan- 
dard 6502 mnemonics are used. The 
operand field, if required, is expected 
by the assembler and must be pres- 
ent. The assembler allows operapds 
to be specified as hexadecjmal or dec- 
imal numbers, symbols or expres- 
sions. Expressions can contain addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication, di- 
vision and logical AND operations. 
Instruction addressing modes use the 
standard 6502 assembly-language 
formats, making them easy to under- 
stand and recognize. 

Comments can follow the operand 
field, or you can have a full line com- 
ment preceded by a semico|on. All 
comments are ignored by the assem- 
bler, but are printed in the program 
listing. With assembly-language pro- 
gramming it is important to include 
good comments to document the pro- 
gram logic for later reference. 

Commands 

The Editor provides several com- 
mands that make creating and editing 
source programs easier and faster: 
NEW— clears the edit text buffer. 
DEL — deletes specific statements 
from the source program. It can de- 
lete a single statement or a range of 
statements. 

NUM- assigns statement numbers 
automatically as you enter source 
statements. Thus, you don't have to 
worry about numbering lines and as- 
signing unique numbers; simply type 
in the source statements in order. Al- 
so, if NUM is entered later, it starts 
assigning statement numbers after 
the last statement currently in the 
source program. This makes it easy to 
add to an existing program. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 75 



REN— renumbers statements in the 
source program. 

FIND— finds a specified character 
string in the source program. You can 
quickly find only the nth or all occur- 
rences of the specified character 
string. 

REP— replaces one string with a dif- 
ferent string. You can perform the re- 
place for a specific number or range 
of statements, or for all statements. 
LIST— displays or saves a source pro- 
gram. The program can be listed to 
the display, printer, cassette tape or a 
diskette file. If you wish, a single 
statement can be listed. 
PRINT— works just like the list com- 
mand except statements are printed 
without the statement numbers. 
ENTER— retrieves a source program 
from cassette or disk. Normally the 
edit text buffer is cleared before re- 
trieving the indicated source pro- 
gram. An option to this command 
does, however, allow merging a pro- 
gram from tape or disk with some- 
thing already in the edit text buffer. 
SAVE— saves an object program on 
tape or disk. The hexadecimal start- 
ing and ending addresses of the area 



to be saved must be specified in the 

command. 

LOAD— retrieves an object program 

previously saved on tape or disk. The 

object program is always reloaded in 

the same area of memory from which 

it was originally saved. 

The ASM command is used to as- 
semble the desired source file. It has 
various options that let you select 
various ways of handling the source 
program, assembly listing and object 
program. Normally the assembler as- 
sembles the source program in the 
edit text buffer. If you have a disk 
drive, the assembler can assemble 
the source program directly from a 
disk file. This function is not avail- 
able if you only have a 410 program 
recorder. 

The assembly listing is normally 
displayed on the screen as the assem- 
bly proceeds, but can also be printed 
or saved on tape or disk. 

The object program is normally 
stored directly in RAM memory, at 
the address specified in the source 
program. If you have a disk drive, 
you can optionally have the object 
program stored directly in a disk file. 



Note that when you have a disk drive, 
the memory restrictions are some- 
what relaxed since you can use disk 
files for the source and object. They 
do not have to be in memory at the 
same time, as when using cassette 
tape. 

The assembler itself has several di- 
rectives that you can use to control 
the assembler operation or create 
data constants. Directives are in- 
structions to the assembler, and, in 
general, do not produce any assem- 
bled code or object output. 

The .OPT directive controls gener- 
ation of the assembly listing and page 
spacing, generation of the object pro- 
gram and the handling of error mes- 
sages during assembly. 

The .TITLE and .PAGE directives 
are most useful when the assembled 
program is listed on a printer. The 
.TITLE directive forces a top-of-form 
(or six blank lines) on the printer and 
prints a specified page heading. The 
.PAGE directive operates similarly, 
but adds a subtitle line below the title 
heading. 

A .TAB directive allows redefining 
the positions for each statement field 



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76 Microcomputing, July 1981 



in the assembly listing if the default 
values are unsuitable. 

The .BYTE, .DBYTE and .WORD 
directives provide a simple way of 
generating numeric or character 
string data constants. These direc- 
tives generate object output when as- 
sembled. The .BYTE directive gener- 
ates single-byte values. The .DBYTE 
directive generates two-byte con- 
stants with the high-order byte first. 
The .WORD directive also generates 
two-byte constants, but in the stan- 
dard 6502 address format (low-order 
byte first). 

Another directive lets you define a 
symbolic label as a predefined or 
computed value. For more advanced 
programmers, there's an .IF directive 
for conditional assembly. This lets 
you control assembly of selected por- 
tions of the source program, depend- 
ing on the value of an indicated vari- 
able or expression. 

The * = directive defines the start- 
ing location for the assembled object 
program, and must be specified. Al- 
so, an .END directive must be speci- 
fied at the end of the source program 
to tell the assembler where to stop. 



The Debugger is called from the 
Editor by the BUG command. Once 
activated, you can use the Debugger 
to help analyze the execution of your 
program and then return to the Editor 
when ready to edit or reassemble. It 
should be noted that all values en- 
tered or displayed by the Debugger 
are in hexadecimal. The various De- 
bugger commands include: 

DR— display 6502 register 

CR— change 6502 register 

D— display memory 

C— change memory 

M— move memory 

V— verify memory 

L— list memory with disassembly 

A— assemble one instruction into 

memory 

T— trace operation 

S— single-step operation 

G— go, execute program 

X— return to Editor 

Program Features 

The manual appendices include a 
list of Assembler Editor error num- 
bers, assembler mnemonics and di- 
rectives, the ATASCII character set 



and hints on using the Assembler car- 
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The first sample program illustrates 
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third sample program is much longer 
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screen. It shows a great deal about 
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The last program is probably the 
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get more than five colors on the 
screen. The sample program pro- 
duces all 128 colors on the screen at 
the same time. 

For those who haven't seen this 
yet, the Sample program is a se- 
quence of instructions that tells the 
computer what graphics format to 
use in putting information on the 



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screen. Many things can be done by 
changing the display list, but this ex- 
ample demonstrates one of those pos- 
sibilities. 

Basically, if bit 7 of a display list in- 
struction is set (1), then the computer 
will generate a nonmaskable inter- 
rupt for the 6502 when it encounters 
that display list instruction. If you 
place an interrupt routine that 
changes the color values in the color 
registers, the color on the screen will 
be changed each time a display list in- 
terrupt is encountered. 

Another interesting feature of the 
Atari system is that assembly-lan- 
guage routines can be stored in a 
string variable and executed from 
BASIC: A = USR(ADR(S$)). This re- 
quires that the assembly-language 
routine be relocatable (contains no 
JMP or JSR instructions), since it 
might be moved around if the BASIC 
program is edited. However, you 
don't have to know where the routine 
resides, since you can get the starting 
address of any string with the 
ADR( . . ) function. Some examples on 
using this technique are included in 
the manual appendix, along with 
some problems that could occur. This 
is a powerful feature if properly used. 

Conclusions 

The Atari Assembler Editor car- 
tridge is a useful addition to the Atari 
line. The assembler is powerful and 
can do a great deal, but it is not a pro- 
fessional software development sys- 
tem. It is not well suited for develop- 
ment of large assembly-language pro- 
grams. 

Atari recommends the Assembler 
Editor be used for development of 
programs up to approximately ten 
percent of the total memory size of 
the system. Thus, you could easily 
generate a 2K assembly-language 
program on a 16K system. Programs 
larger than this can be developed by 
eliminating comments, using short 
labels or breaking programs into 
manageable pieces. 

The Assembler Editor is well suited 
to meeting the average user's needs. 
It provides all of the necessary fea- 
tures plus several useful extras. The 
only addition I think might be of val- 
ue is a linking relocator, which would 
let you move programs in memory 
and automatically fix JMP and JSR 
addresses. Without this feature, you 
have to fix them manually. Even so, 
the package is very nice and well doc- 
umented. ■ 



78 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 79 



Expand your H-89 with Heathkit's new H-77 floppy drive. 



Shift into Extra Drive 

On Your Heath 



By Kirk L. Thompson 



The H-77 floppy drive, Heath's 
newest eight-bit computer acces- 
sory, will greatly enhance your H-89 
or— after modification— H-88. 

A single drive is surprisingly limit- 
ed when running sophisticated pro- 
grams, and the additional drives will 
make data storage and debugging 
much easier. The added storage abili- 
ties become particularly obvious 
when you consider that a newly SYS- 
GENed disk is half-filled with system 
files. Although many of these can be 
eliminated, the most you can gain 
back is half what you initially lost. 
The extra drives let you run a SYS- 
GENed disk in SYO: and initialized- 
only disks in the others, for 94K (368 
sectors) of storage each. The remain- 
ing 8K (32 sectors) are needed for the 
disk directory, label and other mis- 
cellaneous bookkeeping. 

Assembly 

I had anticipated that assembly 
would be easy compared with the 
H-89, and that proved to be the case. 
As is usual with Heath, the parts 
came packed in a carton, with the 
builder responsible for their organi- 
zation. This kit was not too compli- 
cated, so organizing the small parts, 
after taking inventory, was easy. 
Many of them, especially the hard- 
ware pieces, were packed in labelled 
envelopes. The carton also contained 
parts for modifying the H-89. There 
were a few errata for the main con- 
struction manual, though nothing 
like those for the H-89. 

Assembly took me about six hours. 
Most of that time was spent wiring 
the power supply and completing the 
mechanical assembly. The Siemens/ 
Wangco Model 82 drives that Heath 
uses come assembled and tested. 
Photo 1 shows the completed power 



supply for the H-77. 

The printed circuit board was sim- 
ple and Heath's instructions were 
clear. I had two minor problems with 
the ac bracket, which is hidden be- 
hind the cover to the right in the pho- 
to. The solid wire supplied was easily 
nicked, and one broke after I had 
wired one of the line voltage selector 
switches. Use wire strippers, and be 
careful! 

The other problem arose from the 
tight quarters Heath calls for when 
soldering to those same switches af- 
ter the ac bracket has been fastened 
to the chassis (p. 18 in the assembly 
manual). I recommend just starting 
the sheet-metal screws into the 
bracket, so that it can be tilted away 
from the chassis to allow access. 

Use a volt-ohmmeter after com- 
pleting the power supply to ensure 
that it is working properly. The same 
applies if you modify it; I recently re- 
ceived another errata sheet detailing 
rewiring of part of the supply. 

After finishing the power supply, I 
did the mechanical assembly. Photo 2 
shows the completed kit, without the 
cover. You can see the Wangco drive 
on the right. Behind it, occupying the 
space for the second drive, is a plastic 




Photo 1. The H-77's power supply. 



open-front box for storing diskettes, 
which came with the kit. The second 
drive may be added at any time and 
simply plugged in. The interface rib- 
bon cable came assembled. Photo 3 
shows the completed H-77. Except 
for the bezel, the cabinet is heavy 
sheet metal. 

Modifications 

After the kit is finished, the H-89 
must be modified. I'll describe what I 
did first, and then talk about the 
H-88. The modification kit includes 
the preassembled adapter ribbon ca- 
ble and items to insulate its route. 
Photo 4 shows the completed modifi- 
cation. 

The adapter cable runs out through 
the gap between the two halves of the 
cabinet shell, between the rear 
hinges. However, I strongly recom- 
mend that you use additional card- 
board insulators, as shown in Photo 5. 

Insulator 1 is inserted between the 
adapter cable and the stepper motor 
of the drive in the H-89 cabinet. The 
stepper motor will get very warm 
with extended use. Insulator 2 goes 
between the cable and the power 
supply heat sink on the right in the 
photo. 

For the H-88, there are two drive 
options. You can either use the H-77 
as your only (preferably dual) drive 
unit, or, if you anticipate the need for 
the three drives now allowed under 
the newest version of HDOS, you can 
add a drive to the H-88 cabinet as 
well. The former is probably a good 
idea; the H-89 is pretty cramped in- 
side. 

In either case, you'll need the 



Address correspondence to Kirk L. Thompson, 
1817 CSt., Iowa City, IA 52240. 



80 Microcomputing, July 1981 



H-88-4 drive kit, which includes the 
interface board that plugs into the mi- 
croprocessor-board backplane beside 
your cassette and serial input/output 
boards. Adding that interface board 
effectively converts the H-88 to an 
H-89. 

With the modification complete, it 
is now just a matter of positioning the 
H-77 and connecting the cables. They 
are polarized. When I ordered, I was 
afraid that the interface cable might 
be too short for my installation, but it 
wasn't. The cable of the H-77 extends 
four feet out the rear, and, depending 
on how you route the adapter cable, 
there is about a foot extending from 
the rear of the H-89. Photo 6 shows 
my system on the stand I kludged to- 
gether for it. The interface cable is 
visible, draped over the rear of the 
upper shelf and falling down behind 
the H-89. 

Testing 

During construction of the H-77, 
you perform the drive speed test on 
the drive to ensure that it is within 
specification. When the kit is com- 
plete, the general checkout and seek- 
time tests must be run. These are de- 
scribed in detail in the HDOS manu- 
al, but I will make a few remarks 
about them here. 

The general checkout test is a rath- 
er lengthy read/write test. You'll 
need to use a floppy with no bad sec- 
tors; I have not had a problem with 
any of the diskettes I've ordered from 
Heath. Since this test takes about half 
an hour to run, it is a good time to re- 
view the HDOS manual, particularly 
p. 14f of chapter one if you have only 
used one drive before. I'll explain 
why shortly. 

The second test to run is for seek or 
step time between tracks of the hard- 




Photo 2. The single-drive unit without cover. 

sectored floppy that Heath uses. 
They guarantee the drives for a mini- 
mum seek time of 30 ms. This test 
varies the seek time from 36 ms 
downward, in increments of two ms, 
to where stepping becomes unreli- 
able. 

On my H-77, I could actually hear 
it chattering during the last seek time 
tested. Both of my drives, the H-77 
and the one in the H-89, step reliably 
well-below Heath's guaranteed mini- 
mum. The H-89 went down to 12 ms 
and the H-77 to 14 ms. To allow some 
safety margin, I have set system seek 
time to 16 ms using the SET SY: STEP 
n command. 

Once I had decided on the system 
seek time, I removed the write-pro- 
tect tab from my system volume copy 
and entered the SET command. 
In this way, any new floppies that I 
prepare for use will have the seek 
time already set. The disks I was al- 
ready using, of course, had to be 
changed individually. 

Operation 

First, a warning. The power for the 
H-77 must be on before booting the 
H-89. Heath warns that the result of 
booting up with the H-77 off will be 
unreliable, because the I/O cable to 
the H-77 is unterminated without 



power to the drive. I thought I could 
develop the habit of turning them 
both on before use, but I forgot once. 
This is what happened. While try- 
ing to boot up the system drive in 
H-89, I received the error message 

?00 DISK READ ERROR DURING BOOT. 

I reset the H-89 and tried again, but 
got the same thing. Then I realized 
that the H-77 was off, so I pushed on 
the rocker switch in back, reset the 
H-89 again and tried a third time. I 
got the same error message. 

While booting, I had destroyed part 
of an HDOS file required for that op- 
eration. Note, though, that a write- 
protected disk, such as a system vol- 
ume copy, will neither boot nor even 
generate an error message under 
these circumstances. Also note that it 
makes no difference whether the 
H-77 is on or off when loading from 
cassette. 

Luckily, I had the nonsystem files 
on the partially destroyed disk in an- 
other location. I ended up recovering 
the disk by reinitializing (erasing its 
contents) and reSYSGENing it. If I 
hadn't had the files someplace else, I 
could have recovered them using the 
copy command between drives, or, if 
the H-77 were my only drive, one- 
copying (:OC:*.*). But copying be- 
tween drives will not duplicate files 
flagged "S"; the flags have to be 
cleared first. I have installed a 
switched outlet strip which powers 
up both H-77 and H-89 simultaneous- 
ly, to prevent the above situation 
from happening again. 

Assuming, now, that both of them 
are on, you can boot up the system 
drive (SYO:). If you plan to use the 
second drive, you must inform the 
operating system by inserting a disk 
into it and typing MOUNT SY1:. This 
is where I confronted my most seri- 





Photo 3. The completed single-drive kit with disk-storage box on the right. 



Photo 4. The modification of the H-89. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 81 



ous problem, while familiarizing my- 
self with the H-77. (I had not re- 
viewed the HDOS manual during the 
general checkout, as I recommend 
that you do.) 

I was trying to run a Microsoft 
HDOS BASIC (MBASIC) program 




Photo 5. The suggested additional cable insulators 
(see text). 



and use the new drive for data stor- 
age. But I kept getting a "?02 UN- 
KNOWN UNIT FOR THIS DEVICE" 
error message! After much grief, I 
broke down and read the instructions. 

I recently ran into another prob- 
lem. I had booted up the minifloppy 
containing the program I use as a 
database system in SYO: and proceed- 
ed to MOUNT SY1:, but got a '702 
UNABLE TO READ THIS DISK. IT 
PROBABLY HAS NOT BEEN PROP- 
ERLY INITIALIZED" error message 
on an unSYSGENed disk that worked 
fine last time I used it. I tried other 
disks in the same operation, with the 
same result, and the STAT command 
showed one hard error and lots of soft 
ones. 

On impulse, I dismounted all disks, 
shut down the system, and unplugged 
and reconnected the H-77's ribbon 
cable from the adaptor cable of the 
H-89, on the chance that a dirty con- 
tact was the problem. That did it! 
When I restarted the system with the 
same two initial disks, the MOUNT 
command worked and STAT showed 
no errors. 

Since then I have had no problems 
with the H-77, or with the H-89. I 



have had some trouble with Heath's 
Extended Benton Harbor BASIC, but 
only because the first program I 
wrote required too many nested FOR- 
NEXT loops; converting to MBASIC 
solved that. I have also had some 
problems with one of the Heath Us- 
ers Group's programs, but once 
again, it was my fault. I managed to 
mix the BASIC interpreter from 
HDOS version 1.5 with the version 
1.6 operating system— the two are 
not compatible. ■ 




Photo 6. My system includes the cassette soft- 
ware. The lettering on the drives and file boxes is of 
the self-sticking vinyl variety. 



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Apple ///, two additional Drives & Silentype 139 

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TRS-80 Model I, Expansion Unit & Drives 109 

TRS-80 Monitor or TV set 84 

TRS-80 Model III 129 

Radio Shack Color Computer 89 

Paper Tiger 440/445/460 99 

Centronics 730/737 - Line Printer II IV 89 

Epson MX70 or MX80 89 

Matching Attache Case 75 



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82 Microcomputing, July 1981 



NEVER UNDERSOLD. 



Thats right. If you can find a lower 
price in this magazine WE WILL BEAT IT! Period.* 



S-100 HARDWARE 

SD SYSTEMS 

Versa Floppy I kit $259 

Versa Floppy II kit $349 

ExpandoRam II kit $249 

ITHICA INTERSYSTEMS . $CALL 

ALTOS $CALL 

NORTHSTAR $CALL 

SUPPLIES 

Verbatim Datalife Diskettes 
MD525-01 .10.16 $26.50 

FD34-9000 $30.00 

FD34-8000 $44.00 

Avery Tabulables 

5.000 3 1 / ? X 15/1 6 $18.75 

3.000 3VfcX 15/1 6 $14.25 

1.0003^X15/16. $8.15 

UARCO Paper [prices are FOB S.P.J 
9 1 / 2 X11.15or18Lb. $25.95 

147/8X11. 15or18Lb. $35.00 

SOFTWARE 

Microsoft Basic-80 $299 

Microsoft Basic Compiler $319 

Microsoft Fortran-80 $399 

Magic Wand $275 

Apple Visicalc $113 

Pickles and Trout CP/M ■ $1 75 



APPLE HARDWARE 

Microsoft Z-80 Softcard . $259 

Microsoft Ramcard $1 70 

SSMAIOA&T $165 

SYMTEC Apple Light Pen .$219 
MOUNTAIN HARDWARE: 

Super Talker $270 

ROMWRITER $157 

INTROLVX-10 $180 

ROMPLUS+ $162 

MUSICSYSTEM $499 

Apple Clock $252 

Lobo Drive $CALL 

Videx 80 x 24 $299 

Andromeda $1 70 

M & R Sup-R-Term $299 

Enhancer $1 00 

NEC Green Monitor $240 

Sanyo Green Monitor .... $240 
D.C. Hayes Micromodem . $299 
CALIFORNIA COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

See our full page ad in this 
magazine. 



PRINTERS 


EPSON MX-80 


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* Include 82.00 shipping and handling on all orders. Viaa and Matter Card accepted. Never undaraold offer applies only to itame currently delivereble from other 
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Maetf 






And the Winner Is . . . 



Here are the results of Microcomputing's first annual graphics contest. 



The ballots have been cast, the votes have been counted, 
and the winner is . . . 

Selecting the winners from among the entries in Kilobaud 
Microcomputing's first annual graphics contest was indeed a 
difficult task. While some of the entries were produced on ad- 
vanced microcomputer equipment and peripherals, other 
entries relied more on the skill and imagination of the pro- 
grammer. The following pages show the winners and some of 
the more interesting entries which display the range of com- 



plexity in micrographics that can be achieved. 

We extend our congratulations to the winners, and our ap- 
preciation to all who entered the contest. Thanks to you our 
first annual contest was a success. Let's do it again next year. 

Those who failed to submit entries this year, but feel that 
they could have done better, will get a change to strut their 
stuff next year during the magazine's second annual graphics 
contest. 




The Twins 

Black & White Video 

Produced with a home-brew 6800-based system on a modified television screen. Second. 



Larry Abel 

91 Forrest Ave. 

Fairfax, CA 94930 



84 Microcomputing, July 1981 




Night View 

Color Video 

Composed with VersaWriter 
on a 48K Apple II microcom- 
puter, and displayed on an 
RCA Colortrac screen. 

Ben Lanterman 
12162 Haldane Court 
Bridgeton, MO 63044 



Helix Surface 3 

Plotter Hard Copy 

Produced on a Terak 8510A microcom- 
puter and Hewlett-Packard 7225A plot- 



ter. 



Mel Cobb 

1520 Ward Ave., #503 

Honolulu, HI 96822 




Microcomputing, July 1981 85 




Houndstooth Variation 2 

Printer Hard Copy 

Created on a CCS 2210 microcomputer and MicroAngelo video board, and produced by an Axiom 820 printer. Second. 

Mel Cobb 
1520 Ward Ave., #503 
Honolulu, HI 96822 





Designs 

Black & White Video 

A video display produced from TRS-80 
Model I Level II output. 

Alan Hensel 

RD #1, Box 184-A 

Cranbury, NJ 08512 



Design 12 in 3 Colors 

Plotter Hard Copy 
Produced on a 48K TRS-80 Model I and a Watanabe WX4671 plotter. Third. 

William Shotts, Jr. 

Box 143 

Sandy Springs, MD 20860 



86 Microcomputing, July 1981 



• 



r • ♦ 










Microline 80 Printer 




It's magic! Well, almost. The Microline 80 will run 
all day at 80 cps with no duty cycle limitations. 
The head is warranted for 200,000,000 characters. 
That translates to over nine years on your 
TRS-80™ APPLE" or other small computer. 

Want to change forms? The magical Microline 80 
is three printers disguised as one. There is a 
whisper-quiet rubber platen for cut sheets and roll 
paper, pins on nine inch centers for pin feed stock 
and optional snap-on tractors that adjust to suit 
all your other forms. The Microline 80 also saves 
paper by letting you tear off as close as one inch 
from the last print line. 

Want to change your image? The magical 
Microline 80 really does tricks. It prints upper 



and lower case, condensed and double width 
characters and block graphics for charts, graphs 
and diagrams. 

The Microline 80 is not a toy. With two motors, a 
rugged cast aluminum base and a head you never 
have to throw away, the Microline 80 is built to 
handle the most demanding business applica- 
tions. 

Which brings us to the biggest magic of all, the 
price tag, the one that almost disappears. If we're 
not the lowest, we are so close that it doesn't mat- 
ter. There are stocking Microline distributors 
throughout the country. Call or write today for the 
name of the one near you and the price of the 
Magical Microline 80. 



• 



I 



Okidata Corporation, 111 Gaither Drive, Mount Laurel, New Jersey 08054 609-235-2600 

Okidata is a subsidiary of Oki Electric Industry Company, Ltd. 




Icy Freeway 

Black & White Video 

Produced on a TRS-80 Model 
I with EDTASM and a GRA- 
FIX80 high resolution graph- 
ics board, using Programma 
International's Create pro- 
gram, by Ted. Carter. First. 
Theadore D. Warnell 
2511 15ASt., S.W. 
Calgary, Alberta T2T 4B8 

Canada 




Rosette Variation 6 

Plotter Hard Copy 

Produced on a Terak 8510A microcom- 
puter and Hewlett-Packard 722 5 A plot- 
ter, using UCSD Pascal. First. 

Mel Cobb 

1520 Ward Ave., #503 

Honolulu, HI 96822 




88 Microcomputing, July 1981 




%jjrr.xdfm% 






Handweavers Graphic Patterns 

Printer Hard Copy 

Produced with an SWTP 6809 microcomputer and Dec Writer LA34 printer. The pat- 
tern derives from a warp and weft draft in A Handweaver's Pattern Book by Marguerite 

Porter Davison. First. 

Laird D. Schearer 

207 Lovers Lane 

Rolla, MO 65401 




Fibers 

Black & White Video 

Created on a home-brew 6800-based 8K system. The vector- 
type video display is made from a television with its deflection 
coils driven by a home-brew current driver. 

Larry Abel 

91 Forrest Ave. 

Fairfax, CA 94930 




Microcomputing, July 1981 89 




Interference Patterns 

Plotter Hard Copy 

Produced on an 8080 microprocessor-controlled Wang 2272 drum plotter. The plotter was driven by a privately-modified Wang 
OIS workstation. Second. 

Larry Hamilton 
PO Box 2013 
Lowell, MA 01851 




Galaxy 

Color Video 

Created on an SWTP 6809 
microcomputer with Percom's 
Electric Crayon. This is one 
frame of a real-time animation 
program. Second. 

Ted Wolff 

579 W. 215th St. 

New York, NY 10034 



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BASIC subroutines allow you to reformat TRS-80 graphics for display on the H19 terminal. 



TRS-80 Graphics 
On the Heath H 1 9 



By D. C. Shoemaker 



Heath's H19 terminal or H89 com- 
puter handles graphics differ- 
ently from the TRS-80. For three 
years, this fact frustrated many of my 
attempts to run TRS-80 programs on 
my H8. But I've finally decided to do 
something about it. 

The charts in Fig. 1 should make 
clear what the relationships are be- 
tween the TRS-80 graphics system 
coordinates and those of the H19. Us- 



ing this relationship, it's relatively 
easy to create the algorithms used in 
the five demonstration programs that 
follow. 

The major difficulty with the con- 
version is the way the TRS-80 subdi- 
vides each character position. Under 
normal circumstances, the H19 treats 
each character position as an indivisi- 
ble unit, so certain allowances must 
be made for a degree of coarseness in 



Listing 1. Subroutine to demonstrate TRS-80 PRINT® command. 

10 REM GRRPHICS CONUERSION SUBROUTINE NUMBER 1 

2d : 

30 REM THIS ROUTINE CONUERTS TRS-30 SCREEN LOCRTIONS TO X,V COORDINRTES 

40 REM FOR DIRECT USE BV THE HI 9. THIS IS H DEMONSTRATION OF THE 

50 REM "PRINT AT" COMMAND. 

60 : 

70 PRINTCHR*<27>; , 'F":REM SELECT GRAPHICS MODE 

80 PRI NTCHR* < 27 >;"x5": REM CURSOR OFF 

90 PRINTCHR*<27>;CHR*<69:>;:REM ERASE SCREEN 

10© INPUT "WHAT IS THE TRS-30 SCREEN LOCATION NUMBER" ;N 

lid X*<N-<INT<N^64>*64>+1> 

120 V»XHT<H 64> + l 

130 nX=><:+3i:A7=V+3l:REM ADD ANY DESIRED OFFSET TO THE DECIMAL UALUES 

140 PRINT"* =";x;", v =";v;", A ="*AX;" AND B =";AV 

1 50 PR I NTCHR* < 27 ) ; CHR* < 39 > J CHR* < AV > ; CHR* < AX > S " i " 

1 60 PR I NTCHR* < 27 > ; CHR* < 72 > i : GOTO 1 00 



Listing 2. Subroutine to demonstrate TRS-80 SET and RESET commands. 

18 REM GRAPHICS CONVERSION SUBROUTINE NUMBER 2 

20 : 

30 REM THIS ROUTINE CONUERTS TRS-30 SCREEN LOCATIONS TO X,V COORDINATES 

40 REM FOR DIRECT USE BV THE HI 9. IT ALSO DEMONSTRATES HOW TO "RESET" 

58 REM THE LOCATION JUST "SET." X & V ARE THE TRS-30 COORDINATES, AND A & I 

60 REM ARE THE HI 9 COORDINATES. 

79 » 

80 PRINTCHR*<27::- J"F":REM SELECT GRAPHICS MODE 
90 PRINTCHR*<27.>;"x5":REM CURSOR OFF 

100 PRI NTCHR* < 27 >J CHR* <69>;: REM ERASE SCREEN 

110 INPUT"UHAT IS THE TRS-80 SCREEN LOCATION NUMBER" ;N 

120 X= < N- < I NT < N/64 > *64 > + 1> I V= I NT < N, 64 > +1 : RX-X+31 : AV=V+3 1 

13© PR I NT "X =";x;", V =";V5", A ="JAX;" AND B =";AV 

1 40 PR I NTCHR* < 27 . • I CHR* < 89 > ; CHR* < AV > I CHR* < AX > J " 1 " 

ISO FOR I=1TO300:NEXT I 

1 60 PR I NTCHR* < 27 > ; CHR* < 89 ) ; CHR* < AV ) i CHR* < AX > i " " 

1 70 PRI NTCHR* ( 27 > ; CHR* < 72 > J : GOTO 110 



the H19 display that would not be 
found in the TRS-80 when using the 
SET X,Y commands. You can avoid 
this, but you need a special disk- 
based device driver and a new ROM 
chip, available from Micro Interface, 
Inc. (Box 14520, Minneapolis, MN 
55414). This is a more sophisticated 
approach, and I won't pursue it here 
except to say that it is definitely 
worth the $49.95 it cost. But it's not 
required for our purposes. 

The Programs 

The five programs presented here 
are largely self-explanatory. They 
will run under almost any version of 
Microsoft BASIC, under Heath's own 
Benton Harbor BASIC or under al- 
most any other type of extended BA- 
SIC, whether tape, disk or ROM- 
based. 

Some comments on how the pro- 
gram in Listing 1 works will help the 
understanding of the others. Lines 
110 and 120 are the two conversion 
routines that take the TRS-80 screen 



63 



63 



PRINT AT 



960 



TRS-80 



1023 



15 



63 



Fig. 1. The relationship between the TRS-80 for- 
mat and that of the H19. The numbers represent 
the coordinates of a plotted point. 



Address correspondence to D. C. Shoemaker, 
2000 A Foxridge, Blacksburg, VA 24060. 



92 Microcomputing, July 1981 



location that would be given in the 
PRINT or PRINT AT command, and 
change it into two coordinates that 
the H19's Z-80 can make use of to 
control the cursor. Line 130 com- 
pletes the process by adding the nec- 
essary offset to begin the plot at the 
upper- left edge of the screen. 

The H19 manual explains why this 
is necessary, for those of you who 
want to pursue that. It's clear that 
any desired offset could be added 
here, for instance, to center the 
TRS-80 part of the display on the 
H19's screen. (That was actually 
done in the program in Listing 3; see 
line 100.) At the end of line 150, the 



"i" in quotes is merely a graphics 
character (a block) used for demon- 
stration purposes. Naturally, it could 
be any of the other available charac- 
ters. 

The program in Listing 2 is based 
on its forerunner, but shows how the 
illuminated or SET point may be re- 
set or erased by the same method. A 
delay is inserted in line 150 to make it 
easier to observe the effect on the 
screen. 

Listing 3 is a program to outline the 
area of the TRS-80 screen superim- 
posed on the H19 screen. Aside from 
a demonstration of the plotting tech- 
nique, it may help in centering the 



Listing 3. Demonstration of the area of the TRS-80 screen superimposed on the H 19 screen, for com- 
parison of relative locations. 



10 REM GRAPHICS C0NUERSION SUBROUTINE NUMBER 3 

20 : 

30 REM THIS ROUTINE BLOCKS OUT THE RREfl THE TRS-30 SCREEN REPRESENTS 

40 REM THE H19 SCREEN. 

60 PRINTCHR*<27>i"F ,, :REM SELECT GRAPHICS MODE 
70 PRINTCHR*<27>5"x5":REM CURSOR OFF 
30 PRINTCHR*<27>JCHR*<69>;:REN ERRSE SCREEN 
90 PRINTCMR*<27>JCHR*<72>JIREM HOME CURSOR 
10© FOR J=0 TO 1023: N= J 

110 ><:=<H-< INT<N/64>*64) *-l > • '. -IHT<N,'64>+1 : RX*X+38l RV=Vf 34 
120 PRINTCHR*<27 • fCHR*<89) fCHRt<flV) £CHR*<RX) I " i " 

130 NEXT JSPRINTIPRINTTAB<16>J M THIS IS THE SCREEN RREfl USED BV ";« 
" TRS- 80 PROGRAMS . " : END 



ON 



Listing 4. This subroutine demonstrates the TRS-80 SET X, Y command. 

10 REM GRAPHICS CONUERSION SUBROUTINE NUMBER 4 

20 : 

30 REM THIS ROUTINE CONUERTS TRS-80 SCREEN LOCATIONS TO ! X , V COORDINATES 

40 REM FOR DIRECT USE BV THE HI 3. THIS IS R DEMONSTRATION OF THE 

50 REM "SET X,V" COMMRND. 

SO I 

70 PRI NTCHR* < 27 .>;"F": REM SELECT GRAPHICS NODE 

80 PRINTCHR*<27>;"x5":REM CURSOR OFF 

90 PRINTCHR*<27>;CHR*<69>i:REM ERRSE SCREEN 

10© INPUT"UHRT RRE THE TRS-80 SET RESET COORD INRTES " 2X, V 

110 REM RDD RNV DESIRED OFFSET TO 31 IN LINE 120 

120 AX*INT<X-'2>+31:flV-INT<V/2>+31 

130 REM X * V RRE THE H19 COORDINATES 

140 PRINT"X »";RXJ" RND V ="JRV 

150 PRINTCHR*<27> iCHR*<89> ;CHR*<RV> iCHR*<RX> i"i"S 

160 PRINTCHR*<27>;CHR*<72>;:GOTO100 



Listing 5. Subroutine to demonstrate the difference in resolution between the H19 and the TRS-80. 

10 REM GRRPHICS CONUERSION SUBROUTINE NUMBER 5 

20 ■ 

30 REM THIS ROUTINE CONUERTS TRS-38 SCREEN LOCRTIONS TO K*V COORD INRTES 

40 REM FOR DIRECT USE BV THE HI 9. THIS IS fl DEMONSTRATION OF THE 

50 REM "SET X,V" RND "RESET X,V" COMMANDS. NOTE THRT DUE TO COARSER 

60 REM RESOLUTION, ONLV EUEN-NUMBERED TRS-80 COORDINATES PLOT ON THE H19. 

70 s 

80 PRINTCHR*<27>i"F":REM SELECT GRRPHICS MODE 

90 PRINTCHR*<27>;"x5"xREM CURSOR OFF 

100 PRINTCHR*<27>iCHR*<fe9>;:REM ERRSE SCREEN 

110 INPUT"UHRT RRE THE TRS-80 SETVRESET COORD INRTES" 1 X, V 

120 REM RDD RNV DESIRED OFFSET TO 31 IN LINE 130 

1 38 RX» I NT ( X. 2 > +3 1 : RV= I NT < V^2 > +3 1 

140 REN X * V RRE THE H19 COORDINATES 

150 PRINT"X *"5RX;" RND V »"JRV 

160 PRINTCHR*<27> *CHR*<89> JCHR*<RV> 5CHR*<RX> i " i " ; 

170 FOR I*1TO300:NEXT I 

180 PRINTCHR*C27>iCHR*<89>5CHR*<RV>5CHR*<RX>J" "i 

190 PRINTCHR*C27>;CHR«<72>j:GOTO110 



otherwise offset graphics of whatever 
program you might be converting. 

The program in Listing 4 illustrates 
how to handle the SET X, Y command 
when you won't be using the PRINT 
AT type of command. Line 120 is the 
conversion, and here, too, any de- 
sired offset may be used. Listing 5 is 
an extension of this, included to show 
one way to reset the point just set. 
Again, a delay is built into the sub- 
routine at line 170. 

Conclusions 

You should now have a good idea 
how to go about converting those tan- 
talizing TRS-80 programs into some- 
thing your H19 can use. And if you 
have some other type of addressable- 
cursor terminal, you may find that 
the same approach will produce use- 
ful results. 

Remember that this technique will 
not necessarily duplicate the speed of 
response of a memory-mapped video 
display such as the TRS-80 has, but at 
the normal H19 baud rate of 9600, 
the results are impressive. And think 
of all those programs you can now en- 
ter and run.B 



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^193 




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See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 93 



At last, black and white, 256 x 256 pixel graphics as good as any— and it doesn't eat up memory space. 



6800 High-Speed, 
High-Resolution Graphics 



By Terry Mayhugh 



Although the 6800 community has 
been blessed with both high- 
quality hardware and software, high- 
resolution graphics— standard in 
many other all-in-one computers- 
has been practically nonexistent. The 
economical SWTP GT-6144 board 
was a step in the right direction a few 
years ago, but the 96 x 64 resolution is 
poor by today's standards. 

A 256x256 display, on the other 
hand, is quite adequate for most pur- 
poses. For plotting it offers a resolu- 
tion better than .4 percent full scale; 
and, of course, for games and anima- 
tion this order of resolution has been 
shown to be quite adequate. Any 
6800 owner who has seen some of the 
intricate high-res games running on 
the Apple's 280x190 display must 
surely long for similar capability. 



The Electric Crayon by Percom, 
with its own on-board 6802 micro- 
processor and nine resolution modes 
(highest is 256 x 192 with a single col- 
or available) sounded exactly like 
what I wanted. After receiving the 
unit and interfacing it to my SWTP 
6800, however, I sadly discovered 
that although it was fine for plotting, 
its excruciatingly slow speed makes 
animation and rapidly moving games 
impossible. 

The EGOS operating system, which 
comes with the unit, is so cumber- 
some that, once the computer trans- 
mits the starting point and length of a 
256-pixel horizontal line to be plotted 
in the high-res mode, the unit re- 
quires about two seconds to draw it. 
(The line drawing routines handle 
horizontal and vertical lines only.) Al- 



1 WlVERSfti ^^^^^^^ 

1 ^^^^mmarH — Q ^M 





The MMD256D CRT controller. (Photos by Steve Hall) 



though provision has been made to 

let the user install his own operating 
system, I was not able to improve on 
the speed by much more than a factor 
of 5 or 6 without creating objection- 
able display flicker. 

However, even improving the 
speed by a factor of 10 wouldn't put 
this unit in the proverbial ball park. 

I still like the concept, though, of 
communicating with the display 
RAM through an I/O port as the Cray- 
on does. Although certainly not opti- 
mum for highest operating speed, 
precious computer memory (8K for 
256x256 display) is not robbed for 
use by the video display. This philos- 
ophy allows the CPU to effectively 
control more than 64K of memory. 

After coming across the MMD256D 
CRT controller module manufactured 
by Matrox (5800 Andover Ave., Mon- 
treal, Quebec H4T 1H4), I decided to 
put together my own system— both 
the hardware and software. Since 
this module has a worst case access 
time of 2 us per pixel, the controller 
would certainly not limit the speed of 
my display. An inspection of the data 
sheet, however, revealed that the 
unit would not simply "bolt on" to a 
single parallel port, and I would be on 
my own to come up with the soft- 
ware for the graphics commands. 



Address correspondence to Terry Mayhugh, 11632 
Midhurst Drive, Concord, TN 37922. 



94 Microcomputing, July 1981 




An inside look of the graphics controller. 



The projected results, however, 
would be well worth the effort. I 
would have a high-speed, high-reso- 
lution display which does not use 
computer memory and, except for a 
lack of color, would perform as well 
as anything available with the appli- 
ance-type computer. 

Hardware Requirements 

The Matrox module is a complete 
graphics CRT display controller with 
a composite video output capable of 
driving any standard TV monitor. 
This unit, in conjunction with a high- 
resolution monitor such as the Lee- 
dex Video 100, gives a beautiful, 
high-quality display. It contains the 
necessary sync and video generators, 
8K of refresh memory and sufficient 
electronics to interface to a 16-bit 
computer bus or multiple (at least 3) 
eight-bit parallel I/O ports. However, 
to interface it to a single Southwest 
Tech MPLA card, some additional 
electronics is required, including a 
minor modification to the I/O card it- 
self. Fortunately, due to the high- 
speed access time of the controller, 
these additional interface require- 
ments are minimal. 

First, the eight A-side lines of the 
MPLA card must be configured for 
computer output. This is easily done 
with the OA board jumper as de- 
scribed in the MPLA assembly in- 
structions. The B-side, however, 
should be configured for computer 
output on the four most significant 
bits and for computer input on the 
four least significant bits. Actually, 
only computer input line PBO is real- 



ly used; but the modification is most 
easily done for lines in groups of four. 

To do this, the IB jumper should be 
installed to set up the B-side of the 
PIA for computer input of all eight 
lines. Then the two traces on the rear 
of the board leading to pins 7 and 9 of 
IC3 should be cut with an X-acto 
knife as close as possible to the IC 
pins. Pin 9 must next be connected to 
ground (a convenient point is pin 8 of 
IC3), and pin 7 should be connected 
to -»-5 V through a 4.7k resistor (a 
convenient point for this connection 
is pin 16 of IC3). 

This board modification reverses 
the direction of the Tri-state trans- 



ceivers for bits PB4 through PB7. As 
you will see later, the internal regis- 
ters of the PIA must also be properly 
configured with an appropriate soft- 
ware initialization routine. Hand- 
shake lines CA2 and CB2 are used in 
this application as additional comput- 
er output lines; this is standard for 
this I/O card. 

I should mention here that there is 
an error in the schematic included 
with the MPLA assembly instruc- 
tions concerning IC7, which contains 
the CA2 and CB2 line drivers. Pin 9 of 
this IC is actually connected to + 5 V 
through a 4.7k resistor as required to 
set up the CA2 and CB2 lines as out- 
puts and the CA1 and CB1 lines as in- 
puts. The schematic provided by 
SWTP erroneously shows pin 7 
grounded, although the board layout 
is correct. 

The schematic in Fig. 1 shows the 
additional interface hardware re- 
quired: two 74LS374 eight-bit 
latches, two 7402 quad NOR gate 
packages used for logic steering and a 
7474 D flip-flop used as a single bit 
latch. Lines PAO through PA7 paral- 
lel-feed the D inputs of both eight-bit 
latches, which are used as the pixel 
X, Y coordinate registers. Under com- 
puter control, line PB6 steers the CB2 
strobe to the appropriate register so 
that the X and Y coordinates of the 
pixel are properly loaded and pre- 
sented to the CRT controller prior to a 
read or write operation. 

When a computer line PB6 makes a 
low-to-high transition, CB2 strobes 
the address information from the 



♦ 12V 




4 7K 



\ MANUAL CLEAR 

Fig. 1. High-resolution graphics controller schematic. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 95 




Back view of the controller. 



A-side of the PIA into the X coordi- 
nate register. Conversely, a high-to- 
low transition of PB6 loads the PIA 
A-side data into the Y coordinate reg- 
ister. 

To write to a pixel, its X and Y coor- 
dinates are first loaded into the two 
registers. The DIN input bit (line 
PB5) is set for the desired color, 
either white or black; then a dummy 
READ PIA A-side instruction is exe- 
cuted so that CA2 toggles the WRITE 
input to the MMD-256D low. A 
WAIT low signal is issued from the 
module which latches WRITE to a 
low state until the module's internal 
write cycle is completed, and the pix- 
el has been written. 

The worst case 2 us access time of 
the module is so fast that for typical 
micro applications no computer 
handshake is required. As can be 
seen from the schematic, the WAIT is 
also sent to the computer via PB1 for 
possible future use. It is not currently 
used by the software driver described 
later in this article. 

A typical pixel read cycle is a little 
more complicated. The coordinate 
registers are again first loaded with 
the coordinates of the pixel to be in- 
terrogated. The normally high READ 
line PB7 is then dropped low by the 
computer, and the pixel status 
(high = pixel ON, or white) is clocked 
into the D flip-flop by the rising edge 
of the WAIT signal. The Q output of 
this latch is read by the computer, 
and then the READ line is reset to its 
normally high state to complete the 
cycle. The 350 pF capacitor on the 
clock input of the D flip-flop creates a 
time delay in order to ensure that 
POU T is v alid before being latched. 

The CLR line PB4 is an asynchro- 
nous input to the controller module, 
which unconditionally sets all 65,536 
pixels either white or black, depend- 
ing on the status of the DIN line. Ma- 

96 Microcomputing, July 1981 



trox specifies the minimum duration 
of a logic low on this clear line at 40 
ms to ensure a complete screen era- 
sure. A software timing loop may be 
fine-tuned to accomplish this. 

The controller itself requires two 
regulated power supplies: +5 V at 
400 mA and + 12 V at 100 mA. This 
additional 5- volt load can be comfort- 
ably handled by the 5-volt regulator 
on board the MPLA card. A small 
heatsink fashioned from a 1 inch by 2 
inch piece of copper sheet bent in the 
shape of an L and placed under the 
regulator IC will provide some addi- 
tional cooling. The 12- volt power can 
also, in most cases, be obtained from 
the computer. A Fairchild 7812 three- 
terminal regulator IC can be used to 
drop the computer's unregulated 
14-16 V line down to 12 V for use by 
the module. 

Although Matrox specifies the 
MMD256D to be a 256x256 pixel 
controller, if the unit is used as re- 
ceived, you will only be able to dis- 
play 240 lines of 256 dots. This is be- 
cause the unit was designed to oper- 
ate with European television, where 
a 50 Hz vertical scan rate is standard. 
A set of printed circuit board jumpers 
within the module are reconfigured 
at the factory to convert the unit to 
standard 60 Hz vertical scan for 
American customers. As a result, the 
last 15 lines of the display buffers are 
not scanned and therefore are not vis- 
ible. 

I opened my unit and cut jumpers 
1, 3 and 5 and installed jumpers 2, 4 
and 6. (The jumper positions are 
marked on the printed circuit board 
within the module.) This converts the 
unit back to a 50 Hz vertical scan rate 
and restores the display to 256 x 256 
pixels. 

In general, however, two possible 
problems can result from this modifi- 
cation, depending on the monitor 



used for the display. The lock-in 
range for vertical sync may not be 
wide enough in some video monitors 
to include 50 Hz so that an unaccept- 
able vertical roll results. The Leedex 
Video 100 monitor that I use is speci- 
fied to lock onto vertical scan rates 
between 45 Hz and 60 Hz, and so this 
did not become a problem for me. 

A second possible problem is an an- 
noying jitter which can develop in 
the display due to a beating of the 50 
Hz vertical scan with any 60 Hz rip- 
ple which has found its way into the 
vertical sync section of the monitor, 
usually through inadequate filtering 
in the low voltage power supply. The 
Leedex monitor showed a little jitter, 
which was on the verge of becoming 
objectionable. I cured this by putting 
an additional 20,000 pF capacitor 
across the low voltage regulated out- 
put. If you don't wish to perform 
these modifications to the module or 
monitor, the unit will work fine in 
the 240x256 mode. 

Software Driver 

No peripheral is useful without 
good control software, and so I wrote 
a driver package to control this 
SWPT6800/MMD256D combination. 
Five high-level commands, INITG, 
ERASE, READ, DOT and VECTOR, 
are provided to allow high-level 
graphics control from a machine lan- 
guage program or through a BASIC 
interpreter using the CALL or USER 
functions. 

The 13-byte scratchpad area has 
been ORGed at location $0000 to take 
advantage of the 6800' s zero page ad- 
dressing mode. For historical rea- 
sons, most 6800 BASIC interpreters 
do not use the first 32 bytes of page 0, 
and so this should not create any con- 
flicts. The driver routines themselves 
are ORGed at $A100, but they can be 
relocated to any other convenient 
area in your computer's memory 



IC3 




CUT THESE 
2 TRACES 



o) GROUND WH9 
OF IC3 



b) CONNECT PIN 7 OF IC3 
TO /5 VOLTS THRU 
4 7K OHM RESISTOR 



REAR VIEW 




Fig. 2. MPLA board modifications. 



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98 Microcomputing, July 1981 



map to avoid possible problems with 
any coresident software. 

The COLOR register contains the 
color in present use, either black or 
white, and is accessed by the ERASE, 
DOT and VECTOR routines. This 
byte must be reloaded (or poked in 
BASIC) with a new color byte only 
when it is to be changed. This byte is 
masked before it is used by any of the 
subroutines so that only bit 5 is read. 
This prevents accidental bombing of 
the driver when illegal color bytes 
are loaded and allows interesting 
even/odd effects to be easily plotted. 

The PIXEL register contains the 
status of the pixel which has been 
most recently read. This byte may be 
tested (or peeked, if in BASIC) to de- 
termine the pixel status. The XI, Yl 
registers define the current coordi- 
nates of the cursor. The X2, Y2 regis- 
ter pair contains the end point coordi- 
nates of the most recently defined 



vector or line and is accessed by the 
VECTOR drawing routine. 

The INITG routine must be execut- 
ed once at the beginning of your pro- 
gram before any of the other graphics 
subroutines are called. This routine 
clears the entire video display to all 
black, sets COLOR to white, and 
places the cursor at (0,0). 

The controller software is written 
so that the origin (0,0) is sensibly lo- 
cated at the lower left-hand side of 
the display. This corresponds to the 
location of the origin in the familiar 
Cartesian coordinate system. If you 
wish, instead, to place the origin at 
the upper left-hand corner to main- 
tain compatibility with most other 
micrographics systems, then you 
must NOP the bytes at labels ORD1 
through ORD5. 

The ERASE routine may be called 
anytime you wish to clear the screen 
to a single color. Bit 5 of the byte in 



the COLOR register must be properly 
set (white = 1 or black = 0) before this 
command is used. The execution 
time for this routine is about 40 ms, 
which is the minimum clear pulse 
width specified for the module. You 
can experiment with the software 
timing loop within this subroutine to 
even further minimize this execution 
time for your particular module. 

The READ routine is called when 
you wish to interrogate a particular 
pixel to determine its present color. 
The cursor is first set over the pixel 
by appropriately loading the XI, Yl 
registers; then this subroutine is 
called. When the READ cycle is com- 
pleted the pixel status will reside in 
the PIXEL register (white = $01 and 
black = $00). This routine requires 
approximately 60 machine cycles for 
execution, which corresponds to 
about 45 us per read on a 1.3 MHz 
computer. 



8018 

801A 

0000 



0000 
0001 
0002 
0003 
0004 
0005 
0006 
0007 
0008 
0009 
000A 
000B 
000C 
000H 

A100 



A100 
A103 
A105 
A107 
A109 
A10B 

a ion 

A10F 



CE 
6F 
6F 
6F 
6F 
63 
86 
A7 



8018 

01 

03 

00 

02 

00 

FO 

02 



Alll 86 2E 
A113 A7 01 
A115 A7 03 



i: 
2: 
3: 
4: 
5: 

6t 



13: 
14: 

16: 

is: 
19: 
20 : 

211 
nn ♦ 

Ml 

23: 
24: 
25: 
26: 
27: 
28: 
29: 
30: 
31: 
32: 

34: 

36: 
37: 
38: 
39: 
40: 
41: 
42: 
43: 
44: 
45: 
46: 
47: 
48: 
49: 
so : 

511 

52: 



Software driver in 6800 BASIC. 

^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ *^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ *^ *^^ ^* ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ »^ ^* ^^ ^* ^^ ^^ *v* ^^ ^* *^ ^w^ ^^ *^^ *^^ 

* MTR0X1 * 

* HI -RES GRAPHICS CONTROLLER DRIVER * 

* for SUTP 6800 microcomputer interfaced to Matrox MMD-256D * 

* Terry L* Mayhugh * 



8: * Timing loop is initialized for a 1*3 MHz CPU clock* 

9: * Origin (0»0) located at lower left corner of display. 

10 : * To relocate origin to upper left corner r NOP bytes at labels 

11 : * 0RD1 through 



0RD5. 



PIA1AD EQU $8018 
PIA1BD EQU PI A 1 AD f 2 

ORG $0000 



PI A Port number 6 



* 

COLOR 

PIXEL 

XI 

Yl 

X2 

Y2 

DX 

DY 

XI LOAD 

Y1L0AD 

XDIFF 

YD IFF 

SLOPE 

TEMP IX 



Scratchpad 



RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 

ORG 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

♦ A100 



area for controller driver 

Color Register: bit 5=1 for white* bit 5=0 for black 
Result of pixel read: White=*01 Black=*00 



Cursor 


coordina 


ttes 






* 










Endpoint coordinates 


of 


vector 


* 










Vector 


routine 


temporaries 


* 










* 










* 










* 










* 










* 










Index 


register 


temporary 


storage 



* 
* 

INITG 



Interface Initialization Command 
Screen is cleared to all black* 
Cursor is set to origin (0*0)* 
COLOR is set to white before exiting* 



* 



LDX 
CLR 
CLR 
CLR 
CLR 
COM 
LDA 
STA 



LDA 
STA 
STA 



A 
A 



A 
A 
A 



#PIA1AD 

1»X 

3tX 

0,X 

2,X 

OrX 

#%11110000 



all outputs on A-side of 
4 outputs f 4 inputs on B 



PIA 
-side 



of PIA 



2fX 



PB7' 

PB 



=READ ' 
s color 
PB1=WAIT' 



i~ 



#%00101110 

IrX 

3fX 



conf ig* 
conf ig* 



CA2 
CB2 



PB6=X/Y' 

PB4=CLEAR' 

PB0=pixel 

as WRITE' strobe 

as coordinate strobe 




Microcomputing, July 1981 99 



Listing continued. 














A117 


7F 


0000 


53: 




CLR 




COLOR 


set COLOR to black for initial screen erase 


AHA 


7F 


0002 


54: 




CLR 




XI 


home to (0»0) 


A11D 


7F 


0003 


55: 




CLR 




Yl 


* 


A120 


8D 


05 


56: 




BSR 




ERASE 


clear screen 


A122 


86 


20 


57: 




LDA 


A 


#*20 




A124 


97 


00 


58: 




STA 


A 


COLOR 


initialize COLOR=white 


A126 


39 




59: 




RTS 














611 


* 


Erase 


Screen Command 








621 


* 


All Pi 


;els are wri 


tten with color residing in COLOR register. 








63: 


* 


Subrou 


tine reouire 


s 40 msec per erase. 


A 127 


96 


00 


64: 


ERASE 


LDA 


A 


COLOR 


pick up color bit 


A129 


84 


20 


65: 




AND 


A 


♦%00100000 


mask off color bit 


A12B 


8B 


80 


66: 




ADD 


A 


♦X10000000 




A12D 


B7 


801A 


67J 




STA 


A 


PIA1BD 


pull CLEAR' line low 


A130 


DF 


on 


68: 




STX 




TEMP IX 


push index register 


A132 


CE 


1970 


69: 




LDX 




**1970 


40 msec ERASE interval 


A135 


09 




70 : 


HOLD IT 








A136 


26 


FD 


71 : 




BNE 




HOLD IT 




A138 


8B 


10 


72: 




ADD 


A 


#%00010000 


restore CLEAR" line high 


A13A 


B7 


801A 


73: 




STA 


A 


PIA1BD 




A13D 


DE 


on 


74: 




LDX 




TEMP IX 


pull index register 


A13F 


39 




75: 




RTS 














77 X 


* 


Read 


P 


ixel at (XI r 


Yl ) Command 








78: 


* 


Status 


of pixel is 


stored in PIXEL register. 








79: 


* 


Status 


also available in A accumulator upon exit* 








so : 


* 


White= 


t Black=0 










8i : 


* 


Subrou 


tine requires 61 machine cycles per read 


A140 


96 


03 


82: 


READ 


LDA 


A 


Yl 




A142 


43 




83: 


0RD1 


COM 


A 




reverse ordinate 


A143 


B7 


8018 


84: 




STA 


A 


PIA1AD 


load Yl coordinate 


A146 


C6 


90 


85: 




LDA 


B 


♦%10010000 




A148 


F7 


801A 


86: 




STA 


B 


PIA1BD 


strobe in Yl coordinate 


A14B 


96 


02 


87: 




LDA 


A 


XI 




A14D 


B7 


8018 


88: 




STA 


A 


PIA1AD 


load XI coordinate 


A150 


CB 


40 


89: 




ADD 


B 


♦201000000 




A152 


F7 


801A 


90 : 




STA 


B 


PIA1BD 


strobe in XI coordinate 


A15S 


CA 


70 


91: 




AND 


B 


•X01 110000 




A157 


F7 


801A 


92: 




STA 


B 


PIA1BD 


toggle READ' line low 


A15A 


B6 


801A 


93: 




LDA 


A 


PIA1BD 




A15D 


84 


01 


94: 




AND 


A 


#%00000001 


mask pixel bit 


A15F 


97 


01 


95: 




STA 


A 


PIXEL 


store the pixel bit 


A161 


CB 


80 


96: 




ADD 


B 


#%10000000 




A163 


F7 


801A 


97: 




STA 


B 


PIA1BD 


restore READ' line 


A166 


39 




98: 




RTS 














100: 


* 


Write Pixel at (XI 


rYl) Command 








101: 


« 


Pixel . 


Ls written according to present COLOR contents. 








102: 


* 


Subrou 1 


Line requires 46 machine cycles per write 


A167 


D6 


02 


103: 


DOT 


LDA 


B 


XI 




A169 


F7 


8018 


104: 




STA 


B 


PIA1AD 


load XI coordinate 


A16C 


96 


00 


ios: 




LDA 


A 


COLOR 


pick up color byte 


A16E 


84 


20 


106: 




AND 


A 


♦XOOIOOOOO 


mask off color bit 


A170 


8B 


DO 


107: 




ADD 


A 


*% 11010000 




A172 


B7 


801A 


ios: 




STA 


A 


PIA1BD 


strobe in XI coordinate 


A175 


D6 


03 


109: 




LDA 


B 


Yl 




A177 


53 




no: 


0RD2 


COM 


B 




reverse ordinate 


A178 


F7 


8018 


hi: 




STA 


B 


PIA1AD 


load Yl coordinate 


A17B 


84 


BO 


112: 




AND 


A 


*%10110000 




A17D 


B7 


801A 


H3: 




STA 


A 


PIA1BD 


strobe in Yl coordinate 


A180 


F6 


8018 


H4: 




LDA 


B 


PIA1AD 


pulse WRITE' line 


A183 


39 




us: 




RTS 






■ 








H7: 


* 


High 


Speed Vector 


Generator from (X1,Y1) to (X2fY2) Command 








us: 


* 


Updat 


,m 


(X2rY2) before entry. 








H9: 

4 f*\ W A 


* 


(XI, YD 


pair is au 


tomatically updated to (X2*Y2> before exit. 








120: 


* 


Subroutine requires an average set-up and exit overhead of 100 machine 








121 : 
122: 


* 


cycles 


per vector 


along with an average 70 cycles per pixel per vector. 








* 


Fast 


exit for vert 


ical and horizontal line is provided. 


A184 
A186 


C6 
D7 


01 
06 


123: 
124: 


VECTOR LDA 
STA 


B 
B 


#1 
DX 


initialize increment registers 


A188 


D7 


07 


125: 




STA 


B 


DY 


* 


A18A 


7F 


OOOC 


126: 




CLR 




SLOPE 


clear slope register 


A18D 


D6 


00 


127: 




LDA 


B 


COLOR 


pick up color byte 


A18F 


C4 


20 


128: 




AND 


B 


♦X00100000 


mask off color bit 


A191 


CB 


DO 


129: 




ADD 


B 


*% 11010000 




A193 
A195 


D7 
C4 


08 
BO 


130: 
131: 




STA 
AND 


B 
B 


X1L0AD 
♦X10110000 


strobe byte for XI coordinate 


A197 


D7 


09 


132: 




STA 


B 


Y1L0AD 


strobe byte for Yl coordinate 


A199 


96 


04 


133: 


DELX 


LDA 


A 


X2 




A19B 


44 




134: 




LSR 


A 






A19C 


D6 


02 


135: 




LDA 


B 


XI 


• 


A19E 


54 




136: 




LSR 


B 




A19F 


10 




137: 




SBA 








A1A0 


97 


OA 


138: 




STA 


A 


XDIFF 


X distance/2 to move 


A1A2 


2C 


06 


139: 




BGE 




POSX 


X direction is east 


A1A4 


70 


0006 


140: 




NEG 




DX 


X direction is west 


A1A7 


70 


OOOA 


141: 




NEG 




XDIFF 


* / 


A1AA 


26 


03 


142: 


POSX 


BNE 




DELY 



100 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Listing continued. 



A1AC 

A1AF 

A1B1 

A1B2 

A1B4 

A1B5 

A1B6 

A1B8 

A1BA 

A1BD 

A1C0 

A1C2 

A1C4 

A1C7 

A1C9 

A1CC 

A1CE 

A1CF 

A1D2 

A1D4 

A1D7 

A IDA 

A IDC 

AIDE 

A1EO 

A1E1 

A1E3 

A1E5 

A1E7 

A1E9 

A1EB 

A1ED 

A1EF 

A1F1 

A1F3 

A1F5 

A1F7 

A1F? 

A1FB 

A1FE 

A200 

A203 

A205 

A206 

A209 

A20B 

A20E 

A211 

A213 

A215 

A217 

A219 

A21C 

A21E 

A221 

A224 

A226 

A228 

A229 

A22B 

A22D 

A22F 

A230 

A232 

A234 

A236 

A238 

A239 

A23C 

A23E 

A241 

A244 

A246 

A248 



73 OOOC 

96 05 
44 

D6 03 

54 

10 

97 OB 
2C 06 
70 0007 
70 OOOB 
96 OC 
D6 02 
F7 8018 
D6 08 
F7 801A 
D6 03 
53 

F7 8018 
D6 09 
F7 801A 
F6 8018 
D6 02 
DO 04 
27 49 
4D 

2D OA 
D6 02 
DB 06 
D7 02 
90 OB 
20 D5 
D6 03 
DB 07 
D7 03 
9B OA 
Dl 05 
26 C9 
D6 02 
F7 8018 
D6 08 
F7 801A 
D6 03 
53 

F7 8018 
D6 09 
F7 801A 
F6 8018 

96 02 

9B 06 

97 02 
D6 02 
F7 8018 
D6 08 
F7 801A 
F6 8018 

90 04 
26 E9 
39 

96 03 

91 05 
26 01 
39 

96 03 
9B 07 

97 03 
D6 03 
53 

F7 8018 
D6 09 
F7 601A 
F6 8018 
90 05 
26 E8 
39 



DELY 



PLOT 
URTDOT 



0RD3 



INCY 



NO ERROR 



143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 

191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
(S) DETECTED 



0RD4 



FINISX 



CHECKY 



FINISY 



0RD5 



COM 
LDA 
LSR 
LDA 
LSR 
SBA 
STA 
BGE 
NEG 
NEG 
LDA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
COM 
STA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
LDA 
SUB 
BEG 
TST 
BLT 
LDA 
ADD 
STA 
SUB 
BRA 
LDA 
ADD 
STA 
ADD 
CMP 
BNE 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
COM 
STA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
IDA 

ADD 
STA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
SUB 
BNE 
RTS 
LDA 
CMP 
BNE 
RTS 
LDA 
ADD 
STA 
LDA 
COM 
STA 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
SUB 
BNE 
RTS 
END 



A 
A 
B 
B 



A 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 



SYMBOL TABLE: 
CHECKY A229 



DOT 


A167 


FINISX 


A211 


INITG 


A100 


0RD4 


A205 


PIXEL 


0001 


SLOPE 


OOOC 


XI 


0002 


Yl 


0003 



COLOR 

DX 

FINISY 

0RD1 

0RD5 

PLOT 

TEMP IX 

X1L0AD 

Y1L0AD 



B 
B 
B 
A 

B 
B 
B 
A 
B 

B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
A 

A 
A 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
A 



A 
A 



A 
A 
A 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
A 



SLOPE 
Y2 

Yl 



YDIFF 

PLOT 

DY 

YDIFF 

SLOPE 

XI 

PIA1AD 

XI LOAD 

PIA1BD 

Yl 

PIA1AD 

Y1L0AD 

PIA1BD 

PIA1AD 

XI 

X2 

CHECKY 

INCY 

XI 

DX 

XI 

YDIFF 

URTDOT 

Yl 

DY 

Yl 

XDIFF 

Y2 

URTDOT 

XI 

PIA1AD 

XI LOAD 

PIA1BD 

Yl 

PIA1AD 
Y1L0AD 
PIA1BD 
PIA1AD 
XI 

DX 

XI 

XI 

PIA1AD 

XI LOAD 

PIA1BD 

PIA1AD 

X2 

FINISX 

Yl 
Y2 
FINISY 

Yl 
DY 
Yl 
Yl 

PIA1AD 

Y1L0AD 

PIA1BD 

PIA1AD 

Y2 

FINISY 



vertical movement only 



0000 
0006 
A230 
A142 
A238 
A1C0 
OOOD 
0008 
0009 



Y distance/2 to move 
direction is north 
direction is south 

initialize slope accumulator 

load XI coordinate 

strobe in XI coordinate 

reverse ordinate 
load Yl coordinate 

strobe in Yl coordinate 
pulse URITE' line 

X movement complete? 



update XI coordinate register 
update slope accumulator 



update Yl coordinate register 
update slope accumulator 
Y movement complete? 



load XI coordinate 

strobe in XI coordinate 

reverse ordinate 
load Yl coordinate 

strobe in Yl coordinate 

pulse WRITE' line 

dump slope* finish X movement 

update XI coordinate register 

load XI coordinate 

strobe in XI coordinate 

pulse URITE' line 

X movement complete? 



X movement is complete 
Y movement complete? 



dump slope* finish Y movement 

update Yl coordinate register 

reverse ordinate 
load Yl coordinate 

strobe in Yl coordinate 
pulse URITE' line 

Y movement complete? 



DELX 


A199 


DY 


0007 


HOLD IT 


A 135 


0RD2 


A 177 


PIA1AD 


8018 


POSX 


A1AA 


VECTOR 


A184 


X2 


0004 


Y2 


0005 



DELY 


A1AF 


ERASE 


A127 


INCY 


A1ED 


0RD3 


A1CE 


PIA1BD 


801A 


READ 


A140 


URTDOT 


A1C2 


XDIFF 


000A 


YDIFF 


OOOB 



Microcomputing, July 1981 101 



RANDOM WALK demonstration usind BASIC and graphics driver 



0090 
0100 
0110 
0120 
0130 
0140 
0150 
0160 
0170 
0180 
0190 
0200 
0300 
0305 
0310 
0320 
0330 
0340 
0350 
0360 
0370 
0380 
0390 
0400 



REM 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

LET 

CALLC 

FOR Y 



C=0 : 

p»i : 

xi=-2: 

yi^3: 

X2==4: 

s: 



Y2=r- 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



=41216 



412r-' 



I 

R=41280 : 
U=41319 : 
V=41348 : 

I»0) 

TO 300 



location 
location 
cursor x 
cursor y 
vector x 
vector y 
REM 
REM 



of COLOR byte 

of PIXEL byte 

coordinate 

coordinate 

endpoint 

endpoint 



location of 
location of 
REM location of 
REM location of 
REM location of 



Graphics initialisation routine 
screen erase routine 
pixel read routine 
pixel write routine 
vector generator routine 



J REM scribble/scrabble 



POKE ( X2 f 255*RND ( ) ) : POKE ( Y2 , 255*RND < ) ) 

CALL( V»0) 

NEXT Y 

CALL( E»0) 

P0KE( CfO) 

FOR Y=0 TO 400 

POKE ( X2 f 255*RND ( ) ) : POKE < Y2 ? 255*RND < ) ) 

CALL( V,0> 

NEXT Y 

END 

Demonstration program in BASIC. 



S11301004FC67FD7419740BD013CBDA1007E02E2AE 
SI 1301 10D6439642DB419940D702D6459644DB410B 
S11301209940D703D6479646DB419940D704D64930 
S11301309648DB419940D705BDA18439CE004CBD1A 
S113014003E33736860BC6A3373630A602E603BD73 
SI 1 3015003653 1313131C0058200D74B974ACE0057 
S11301604CBD03E33736860BC6A3373630A602E60A 
S113017003BD036531313131C0058200D74F974E3D 
S1130180CE004CBD03E33736860BC6A3373630A604 
S113019002E603BD036531313131C0058200D75118 
S11301A09750CE004CBD03E33736860BC6A33736D3 
S11301B030A602E603BD036531313131C00582004A 
S11301C0D7539752CE004CBD03E3C4208400D7001C 
S11301D039D6439642DB4B994AD0419240D7439754 
S11301E042D6459644DB519950D0419240D7459729 
S11301F044D6479646DB4F994ED0419240D7479715 
S113020046D6499648DB539952D0419240D74997F4 
S113021048D645964440508200D7459744D64996DF 
SI 1302204840508200D7499748BD01 10D6439642B2 
S113023040508200D7439742D647964640508200AA 
SI 130240D7479746BD01 10D645964440508200D703 
S1130250459744D649964840508200D7499748BDAF 
SI 13026001 10D643964240508200D7439742D64766 
SI 130270964640508200D7479746BD01 10CE004CA9 
S1130280BD03E337368605C61E373630A602E603BD 
S1130290BD036531313131C005820026065D260378 
S11302A0BD013CCE004CBD03E3C0C882002C037EDC 
S11302B002B57E01D1BDA127D6004FC02082002601 
S11302C0065D26037E02D6D6004FC00082002606B5 
S11302D05D26037E02DD4F5FD7007E02E24FC6201B 
S11302E0D700CE004CBD03E337368601C60437364B 
S11302F030A602E603BD036531313131CB018900FB 
S1130300D7439742CE004CBD03E337368601C6047B 
S1130310373630A602E603BD036531313131CB01F6 
S11303208900D7479746CE004CBD03E33736860194 
S1130330C604373630A602E603BD036531313131D8 
S1130340D7459744CE004CBD03E337368601C60437 
S1130350373630A602E603BD036531313131D74962 
S113036097487E022C3736E601375FA6002A075CE1 
S113037030406000820036373430E603260D4D26C7 
S11303800ADE122755C621D7146E006D042A0A60AE 
S113039004600524026A046C0186016D022B0B4C77 
SI 1303A0680369022B0481 1 126F5A700A604E6055B 
S11303B06F046F05E003A2022407EB03A9020C20DB 
S11303C0010D69056904640266036A0026E6A60451 
S11303D0E605660124044050820031313131313167 
S11303E0393C0CA60148AB00E60158495849EB01D9 
S11003F0A900CB198936A700E7014456394E 



Demonstration program in machine language. MIKBUG-formatted dump of a program which 
will produce a beautiful high-speed kaleidoscopic display, which will run indefinitely. Perform a 
jump to location $0100 to start the demonstration. The graphics driver in the article and ORGed 
at $A100 must also be present. 



The DOT subroutine turns a partic- 
ular pixel either on or off, depending 
on the status of bit 5 of the byte in the 
COLOR register. This routine re- 
quires about 45 machine cycles or 
about 35 us per dot on a 1.3 MHz 
computer. Before this routine is 
called, the pixel coordinates must be 
loaded into the XI and X2 registers. 

The vector generator routine is one 
of the most important subroutines in 
a graphics driver package. For maxi- 
mum effectiveness, it must be capa- 
ble of the highest operating speed. A 
general-purpose routine must be able 
to draw a line between any two arbi- 
trary points within the display area. 
VECTOR is optimized to do this with- 
out using time-consuming multiplica- 
tion or division steps. This routine 
draws a best-fit straight line between 
the current cursor position (X1,Y1) 
and the point addressed by registers 
X2 and Y2. 

For highest-speed operation in a 
true vector plotting mode, the cursor 
is automatically updated to the cur- 
rent address stored in (X2,Y2) during 
execution. This means that in order 
to draw a series of connected Vine seg- 
ments you need only to consecutively 
feed the last end point of each seg- 
ment to (X2,Y2) before each caJJ to 
VECTOR. This routine recognizes a 
vertical or horizontal line and ignores 
the slope calculations for highest- 
speed operation in these special 
cases. 

There is, on the average, a 100 cy- 
cle set-up and exit overhead involved 
with each call to this subroutine. An 
additional 70 machine cycles per pix- 
el is required by VECTOR to con- 
struct a typical sloping line segment. 
This means that less than 14 ms is re- 
quired to draw a 256 pixel sloping 
line segment on a 1.3 MHz CPU. This 
is more than 100 times faster than the 
Electric Crayon operating under the 
EGOS operating system in its 256 x 
192 (highest) resolution single color 
mode. 

The short demonstration programs 
which follow the controller software 
were written in Computerware's ran- 
dom BASIC Ver. 5. 10, to show off the 
graphics commands. PEEK, POKE 
and CALL statements were used to 
communicate with the controller 
software. Although the J variable in 
Computerware's CALL (I, J) state- 
ment is available for use in the A ac- 
cumulator when execution of the ma- 
chine-language program begins, use 
of this transfer was not made to keep 
the controller software universal. ■ 



102 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Super 

Compuprism 
Color Graphics 



et ■.-■«■ i ... - * ~ ■ 






1 



For the S-100 Bus. 32K of on board memory 
allows a 288 H. x 192V. dot matrix, for a total 
of 55,296 pixels. Every pixel is programable in 
any one of 1 6 colors or 1 6 grey levels 
completely independent of all other pixels in the 
matrix. 

Compuprism Bare Board with documentation 
$45, kit $240, ass. and tested $280. 
(16K Memory 144H. x 192V.) 

Super Compuprism Bare Board with 

documentation $50, kit $350, ass. and tested 

$395. 

(32K Memory 288H. x 192V.) 

Add $ 1 5 to A & T price for 1 6 level grey scale . 

Add $ 1 5 to A & T price for memory 

management port. 

Compuprism software package, includes alpa- 
numberics, point plot, line draw, and TRS-80* 
graphics simulation $20 or FREE with A & T unit. 



Z-80 Users 

You Can Usel 

TRS-80 * 

Software 



We offer an assembled hardware 
interface which we guarantee 
will load data from TRS-80* 
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system. (Except sealed units.) 
The documentation explains how 
to patch the TRS-80* software 
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machine into a TRS-80* without 
making a single hardware 
change. The documentation also 
includes an example of patching 
SARGON II** into a Z-80 
system . 

The price is $30 or FREE with the| 
purchase of an assembled 
compuprism or super compuprism 
unit. 

AD, DA Board 

S-100 board provides 16 chan- 
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and 8 channels of digital to 
analog output. With on board 
kluge area. Total cost of board 
and parts less than $120. Bare 
board with documentation $45. 



ALL COD ORDERS SHIPPED WITHIN 72 HOURS. 4MHz MOD FOR S.D. SYSTEMS. 
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TRS-80* is a trademark of Tandy Corp. ^180 

SARGON II** is a trademark of Hayden Book Co. 



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for CP/M (also on TRSOOS & UNIX) with alternate keys (multi-key ISAM), CRT 
screen handling, interactive debug, and the most useful Level 2 features. Compat- 
ible with RSCOBOL*— but runs faster. 



TRS-80', Model II CP/M— The fastest Mod II CP/M with the most features. Out- 
standing teaching documentation for newcomers to CP/M, multiple CRT emula- 
tion, down loading package, support for CORVUS 10 Mb hard disk. Many addi- 
tional user-oriented features. 



Plus existing CBASIC2 packages 

APH (Automated Patient History) 

Osborne & Assoc Payroll • Payables/Receivables 
• General Ledger 

NAD' (Name and Address) 

PMS (Property Management System) 
Inquire tor details 

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tured Systems Group Inc . "Small Business Applications. Inc 



And system software packages 

MAGIC WAND 9 Editing/Word Processing 
CBASIC2 Compiler BASIC 
QSOPT" Soft Merge Package 





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•See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 103 



This hardware /software combination from Micro Technology Unlimited teams up to deliver a knockout 

high-resolution graphics display. 



A One -Two Punch 
For CBM/PET Graphics 



By J. W. Froelich 



The CBM/PET series of com- 
puters has been limited in the 
past by an inadequate graphics dis- 
play. The 40 x 24 raster of high 
resolution 80 x 48 point plotting is 
unacceptable for graphics, data plot- 
ting or illustrations. To offset this 
deficiency, Micro Technology Un- 
limited (MTU, Box 12106, Raleigh, 
NC 27605) has developed a high-reso- 
lution graphics display which yields a 
320 wide by 200 high dot matrix dis- 
play and a software package which 
makes full use of the graphics board. 
Both the hardware— Integrated 



Address correspondence to J. W. Froelich, 9 
Brown Place, Woburn, MA 01801. 



Visible Memory Board (IVMB)— and 
the software— Keyword Graphics 
Package (KGP)— must be presented 
together, since they are truly comple- 
mentary. 

The Integrated Visible 
Memory Board (IVMB) 

The IVMB board contains 8K of 
memory divided into two 4K blocks 
and composes the 320 x 200 dot 
matrix. The board has jumpers that 
let you select the address of the two 
4K memory blocks. The board comes 
factory-configured for locations 
$9000 through $AFFF, space not typi- 
cally used by the CBM computer. 
Reconfiguring the board for other 
locations is simple since the jumpers 



are staple-shaped wires that plug into 
DIP sockets, and are thus easily 
moved. 

The 8K of memory is used in a 
dual-port configuration, similar to 
the PET's on-board screen memory. 
The matrix memory looks like ordi- 
nary memory to the computer, but 
there is additional circuitry on the 
IVMB to generate video output. 

IVMB controls the video screen by 
routing the video output from the 
main computer board through the 
IVMB, and a software register con- 
trols which video signal (IVMB or 
CBM) goes to the screen (Fig. 1). 

The IVMB contains five ROM 
sockets that have jumpers to select 
their memory locations. A software- 





Photos la and b. Statistical data drawn on the IVMB by the program SLIDE. 



104 Microcomputing, July 1981 





Photo 2. Example of 3-D graphics. 



Photo 3. An Archimedes Spiral. 



controlled register allows selection of 
any or all the sockets. This lets you 
use multiple ROMs that reside at the 
same memory location; for instance, 
Wordpro and Toolkit ROMs can all 
reside at the same memory locations 
and be software-selected. 

A light pen register is present on 
the board. This register works by 
trapping the raster scan pointer with- 
in two eight-bit registers which repre- 
sent the most- and least-significant 
bits of its address within the IVMB 
memory. The board also contains 
buffers and decoding circuitry that 
allow expansion through the KIM 
bus. MTU sells a card cage with five 
expansion slots for this purpose. 
Jumpers are also present to modify 
decoding of addresses on the expan- 
sion bus. Boards that can be added in- 
clude the CODOS disk system and 
expansion memory. 

Programming 

Programming of the board can be 
performed by peeking and poking to 
the memory and registers, but this is 
cumbersome. The best way of con- 
trolling the IVMB is through the use 
of the Keyword Graphics Package. 

IVMB comes pretested by MTU. 
The board has been jumpered for the 
most common CBM configuration, 
but a table has been provided for 
other configurations. Reconfiguring 
seldom requires moving more than 
four jumpers. 

IVMB connects to the computer 
board through a 60-line cable to the 
expansion connector. Wires are sol- 
dered to the unregulated power ter- 
minals on the CBM board. The unreg- 
ulated power is also routed through 
the KIM bus for the expansion 



boards. The video signal from the 
main circuit board and the signal to 
the screen are routed through the 
IVMB. Standard connectors are pro- 
vided so that the original wires need 
not be changed. 

If expansion beyond the IVMB is 
not desired, then the board can be 
mounted under the CBM cover. In- 
stalling and testing the board should 
take less than one hour. 



Keyboard Graphics Package 

The Keyboard Graphics Package 
KGP) is an 8K memory of assembly- 
anguage subroutines that are call- 
able from BASIC. The package re- 
sides in the upper 8K of user RAM 
and therefore requires a minimum of 
16K RAM within the computer. This 
would allow 8K programs, so if larger 
programs are desired a 32K machine 
is necessary. 

The loading of the program re- 
quires first altering the size of pro- 
gram memory by poking new values 
into the memory size register. After 
this is done the program is loaded in- 
to high memory, above the designat- 
ed user memory. The routines are 
then linked to the BASIC monitor via 
an SYS call. The routines modify the 



DATA 



FROM 
CBM/PET 



ADDRESS 



} 



TO KIM BUS 



monitor so that all lines of commands 
or program are routed through KGP. 
Thus, in-text graphic commands are 
valid. 

KGP contains over 45 commands. 
There are too many to describe here, 
so an overview of the most important 
commands follows. 

The software contains sophisticat- 
ed character commands that can 
write single characters or strings of 
characters on the screen. Two modes 
of character display are provided: 
one truncates characters if they ex- 
tend off the screen, and the other will 
automatically wrap around and 
scroll. Character size, as well as rota- 
tion of the character in 90-degree in- 
crements, can be determined by a 
single command. The scrolling com- 
mands are very powerful and allow 
moving all or portions of the screen at 
will, thus letting you write a bidirec- 
tional editor or a moving window, as 
in animation. 

KGP allows the screen to be divid- 
ed into a maximum of four viewing 
windows, which are useful for split- 
screen functions. Each window can 
be handled like a different screen. 
When using characters within a win- 
dow, the scrolling and wrap-around 



8K 

DOT MATRIX 
MEMORY ON 
IVMB 



DATA 



ADDRESS 



VIDEO 
CIRCUITRY 



Li 



REGISTER 



IVMB 

VIDEO 

OUT 



CBM/PET VIDEO 



SWITCH 



VIDEO 
TO CRT 



Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the functional aspects of the Integrated Visible Memory Board. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 105 



routines function within the sub- 
screens. Commands are available to 
move the cursor, draw or erase indi- 
vidual points, draw or erase lines and 
draw dotted lines. Coordinate trans- 




Photo 4. Integrated Visible Memory Board. 



formation is also available to simplify 
programming. 

An innovative function is that of 
user-defined characters and figures. 
You can store up to 255 predefined 
shapes, each of which cm be recalled 
by a given ID number and drawn 
anywhere on the screen. Characters 
are drawn at machine-language speed, 
thus allowing animation. 

KGP has many more functions that 
enhance and expedite the basic task 
of symbol-drawing and presentation. 
The documentation for the software 
is good (not excellent) for the basic 
functions but more difficult to under- 
stand for the advanced functions. 
The documentation would be im- 
proved by adding more examples of 
programming tasks and/or problems. 

Programming 

The value of a good software pack- 
age can only be determined through 
its use. All the photos within this arti- 
cle have been programmed and 
drawn on my PET/CBM. Photos la 
and b are from a converted program 
called SLIDE, which appeared in 
Byte. The conversion of SLIDE from 



the Compucolor computer to KGP 
was straightforward, and eased by 
the KGP commands, which seem 
more usable than those available on 
the Compucolor computer. Except 
for color selection, there appears to 
be a one-for-one command corre- 
spondence between KGP, Compu- 
color and Apple graphics packages. 

Conclusion 

KGP implemented on the Integrat- 
ed Visible Memory Board is a good 
dot-matrix display for the CBM/PET 
series of computers, and other KIM- 
bus computers. The screen, when 
photographed with high-contrast 
films as used in this article, yields 
publication-quality images. I use the 
KGP primarily for the graphic dis- 
play of statistics, and I've been 
pleased with the results. 

The hardware and software combi- 
nation can be bought complete and 
ready to install for $495. This may 
seem a bit much for the average hob- 
byist, but for specific applications 
this is quite reasonable. The combi- 
nation is a good value for the scientif- 
ic and technical user.H 



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106 Microcomputing, July 1981 





The image on the screen was created 
by the program below. 



10 


VISMEM: CLEAP 






20 


P=160: Q=100 






30 


XP=144: XR=1. 


5*3.1415927 | 


40 


YP=56: YR=1: 


ZP*64 




50 


XF=XR/XP: YF= 


=YP/YR: 


ZF*XR/ZP 


60 


FOR ZI*-Q TO 


Q-l 




70 


IF ZK-ZP OR 


ZI>ZP GOTO 150 


80 


ZT=ZI*XP/ZP: 


ZZ = ZI 




90 


XL* INT ( . 5+SQR (XP*XP- 


ZT*ZT) ) 


100 


FOR XI=-XL TO XL 




110 


XT*SQR (XI*XI+ZT*ZT) * 


XF: XX=XI 


120 


YY=(SIN(XT)+. 


4*SIN(J 


l*XT) )*YF 


130 


GOSUB 170 






140 


NEXT XI 






150 


NEXT ZI 






160 


STOP 






170 


X1=XX+ZZ+P 






180 


Y1=YY-ZZ+Q 






190 


GMODE 1: MOVE XI, Yl: 


WRPIX 


200 


IF Y1=0 GOTO 


220 




210 


GMODE 2: LINE XI, Yl- 


-1,X1,0 


220 


RETURN 







The Integrated 
Visible Memory for 
the PET has now been 
redesigned for the new 
12" screen 80 column 
and forthcoming 40 
column PET computers 
from Commodore. Like 
earlier MTU units, the 
new K-1 008-43 package 
mounts inside the PET 
case for total protection. 
To make the power and 
flexibility of the 320 by 200 
bit mapped pixel graphics display easily accessible, we have 
designed the Keyword Graphic Program. This adds 45 
graphics commands to Commodore BASIC. If you have been 
waiting for easy to use, high resolution graphics for your 
PET, isn't it time you called MTU? 

K-1008-43M Manual only $10 (credited toward purchase) 
k-1008-43 Complete ready to install package $495 

Mastercharge and Visa accepted 

Write or call today for our full line catalog describing all 
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Raleigh NC 27605 USA 
(919)833 1458 



NOW 80 COLUMN PETS CAN HAVE MTU HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS 



Display text on your screen while using Apple's HIRES page-2 graphics. 



Mix It Up 

On Your Apple 



By R. Daniel Bishop 



One of the Apple computer's at- 
tractive features is its high-reso- 
lution color graphics. The full-screen 
page- 1 high-resolution graphics mode 
lets you display two colors besides 
black and white. 

Alphanumeric text information can 
be included into the display with the 
POKE-16301,0 command. This com- 
mand removes the bottom one-sixth 
of the graphics display and reveals in 
its place the bottom four lines of text 
material located in the buffer in text 
page-1. This type of display is re- 
ferred to as the mixed graphics-plus- 
text mode, or simply the mixed 
mode. Using the mixed mode, you 
can include labels, instructions or de- 
scriptive text material with your 
graphics display. 

In addition to the page-1 high-reso- 
lution graphics, systems with at least 
24K of RAM memory can access a 
page-2 of high-resolution graphics. 
This page is displayed by using the 
HGR2 command, and its buffer area 
occupies RAM memory between 16K 
and 24K. This gives you a second 
high-resolution graphics display that 
can be stored and used independent- 
ly of the first display, or that can be 
used in conjunction with the first 
page for special effects, such as ani- 
mation. 

The page-2 display is also used ex- 
tensively with longer programs that 
require use of the 8K to 16K RAM 
area for the BASIC program itself. 
This is due to the fact that the 8K to 
16K RAM area is the same memory 
used by page-1 of the high-resolution 
graphics; thus, long programs render 
page-1 unavailable. 

The only drawback to using page-2 
HIRES graphics, however, is that you 
no longer have simple use of the 
mixed-mode display. In the words of 

108 Microcomputing, July 1981 



the Applesoft Manual (p. 88), in using 
the POKE- 1630 1,0 command after 
the HGR2 command, ". . .the four 
lines of text are taken from page-2 of 
text, which is not easily accessible to 
the user." 

But with a little effort, you can use 
the mixed mode for page-2 quite ef- 
fectively. It then becomes possible to 
incorporate the mixed mode with 
page-2 HIRES graphics into your pro- 
gram with only a few short subrou- 
tines and some careful planning. The 
simple program provided here illus- 
trates how. 

The Mixed Mode 

To understand the relationship be- 
tween the HIRES graphics pages and 
the text pages, you must study the 
memory map shown in Table 1. 
Memory begins with page and can 
be extended to page 255 in a 64K sys- 
tem. Each page in memory accounts 
for 256 bytes of memory storage. A 
single page of HIRES graphics mem- 
ory requires 8192 bytes, or 32 pages 
of memory. Note that page-1 of HI- 
RES graphics uses pages 32 through 
63 of RAM, space that is easily re- 
quired by a moderately long BASIC 
program, while page-2 of HIRES 
graphics occupies pages 64 to 95 of 
RAM. 

Each page of text requires only 
1024 bytes, or four pages, of mem- 
ory. Text page-1 is located on pages 
4-7 of memory, and text page-2 occu- 
pies pages 8 through 11. Here is 
where the root of the problem lies. 
The BASIC program code is stored in 
RAM beginning on page 8 of mem- 
ory. An attempt to use a HIRES 
page-2 display in mixed mode, thus 
displaying four lines of text from text 
page-2, will result in the display of 
four lines of BASIC program code in 



the text window at the bottom of the 
screen. 

When you are using HIRES page-1 
in mixed mode, the procedure for 
printing text onto the screen in the 
text window is very simple. While in 
the HGR mode, a HOME command 
clears text page-1 with no visible ef- 
fect on the video monitor. Then a 
POKE -16301,0 command will reveal 
the blank text window at the bottom 
of the display. The cursor is posi- 
tioned in the text window with a 
VTAB = 20, and a normal PRINT 
statement is used to display the line 
of text or desired variables in the win- 
dow. The POKE command can come 
before the VTAB or after the PRINT 
statement, depending on the visual 
effect desired. To return to full screen 
graphics, use POKE -16302,0. To re- 
turn to all text, a POKE -16303,0 or 
the TEXT command is used. 

In the above process, the PRINT 
command can be thought of as pok- 
ing the alphanumeric characters into 
the appropriate locations of text 
page-1. The same process must be 
used to get information to appear in 
the text window when using HIRES 
page-2 in mixed mode. However, the 
process is "not easily accessible to 
the user' ' because poking random in- 
formation into memory occupied by 
the BASIC program will normally de- 
stroy the program. To avoid this di- 
saster and at the same time make use 
of page-2 mixed mode, the following 
procedures must be followed: 

1. The four areas of RAM used by 
the four lines of page-2 text must be 
protected by reserving this space 



Address correspondence to R. Daniel Bishop, 
Custom Comp, Box 429, Buena Vista, CO 81211. 



RAM pages 


Use 


Hex 


Decimal 






Location 


Location 


0-3 


System buffers. 


0000-03FF 


0-1023 


4-7 


Text page-1; Video display buffer. 


0400-07FF 


1024-2047 


8-11 


Text page-2; User BASIC program storage 
begins here also. 


0800-OBFF 


2048-3071 


12-31 


User BASIC program storage. 


0C00-1FFF 


3072-8191 


32-63 


HIRES graphics page-1; User BASIC program 
storage. 


2000-3FFF 


8192-16383 


64-95 


HIRES graphics page-2; User BASIC program 
storage. 


4000-5FFF 


16384-24575 


96-191 


User BASIC program storage. 


6000-BFFF 


24576-49151 


192-255 


I/O and ROM. 


C000-FFFF 


49152-65535 



Table 1. Apple memory map. Information for this table was obtained from the 1979 edition of the Ap- 
ple Reference Manual, p. 69. Notice that the user BASIC program storage area overlaps the RAM 
dedicated to text page-2. 



within the BASIC program itself. 

2. Information to be printed into 
these text lines will be converted into 
string variables. 

3. Each character in the string to 
be transferred into the text lines will 
be individually poked into its appro- 
priate position. 

To carry out step three, the appro- 
priate Apple machine code must be 
assigned to each character. This gives 
you an easy way to use inverse or 
flashing characters along with your 
text for some dazzling displays. 

This Space Reserved 

The four lines of text which appear 
in the text window of a page-2 mixed- 
mode display are, unfortunately, not 
stored in contiguous areas of RAM. 
Each line is, of course, 40 bytes long, 
and their respective locations are pre- 
sented in Table 2. The BASIC pro- 
gram must be restructured so that 
these areas appear within the quota- 
tion marks of a PRINT statement. In 
that way, the size of the reserved 
space can be predetermined and will 
not be altered during the execution of 
the program. 

This ensures that each of the four 
reserved locations will always fall 
precisely where they are needed in 
RAM. These four PRINT statements, 
however, need never be executed. 
(REM statements may also be used, 
as long as they are followed by 
enough characters to ensure that the 
reserved area is covered.) 

Now that the RAM locations for the 
reserved spaces are known (Table 2), 
the program must be carefully tai- 
lored to fit them in. This is done by 
entering the first 1200 bytes of BASIC 
code for the program and being sure 
that these parts of the program func- 



tion perfectly. Once the reserved 
areas have been incorporated into the 
program, any change or modification 
to this part of the program might alter 
the byte count preceding the reserved 
areas and cause them to become relo- 
cated. It would then be necessary to 
go back and readjust each of these so 
that they again fall into the desired 
areas of RAM. 

The BASIC program must now be 
examined in machine code using the 
monitor, accessed by CALL -151. 
What you must find is the BASIC pro- 
gram line number for the program 
line that runs through hex-0A4A in 
memory. You must place the PRINT 
statement directly before this pro- 
gram line and provide enough blanks 
between the quotes to push this pro- 
gram line past hex-0A78. This is done 
as follows: 

1. Enter 0A00 and carefully scroll 
through the resulting memory dump 
by repeatedly pressing the return 
key. Remember that each program 
line is preceded by a hex-00 byte, that 
the first two bytes in a program line 
are the next-line pointer which gives 
the address where the next line will 
be found, and that the next pair of 
bytes displays the actual BASIC pro- 
gram line number (in hex, of course, 



with the low order byte before the 
high order byte) . Also remember that 
it takes two characters to define a 
byte. 

2. Look for a zero (00) as you scan 
through the machine code from 0A00, 
which signifies the end of one pro- 
gram line and the beginning of an- 
other. When you find a zero, look at 
the next two bytes which give the lo- 
cation of the next program line (re- 
verse order). If those bytes are less 
than 0A4A, then proceed on to the 
next zero. As soon as you find a next- 
line pointer that points beyond 0A4A, 
you have found the BASIC program 
line that must be pushed back to 
make room for line one of reserved 
RAM. Analyze the second pair of 
bytes and convert them to a decimal 
number remember to reserve their 
order) . This will correspond to a BA- 
SIC program line number in your 
program. 

3. Determine how many bytes you 
will have to reserve to get from this 
point in RAM to the end of the first 
line's reserved space, 0A78. Be sure 
to do your counting in hex! This value 
will correspond to the number of 
blank spaces to reserve between the 
quotation marks in the PRINT state- 
ment. 

4. Return to BASIC command 
mode by pressing the break key, and 
insert your PRINT line along with the 
appropriate spaces immediately 
ahead of the program line identified 
in step 2. 

5. Return to the monitor mode and 
scan from 0A50 to 0A78 to verify that 
all 40 bytes are filled with 20s, which 
is the hex equivalent of 32, which is 
the ASCII code for the space charac- 
ter. 

6. Exactly the same procedure is 
followed for the remaining three re- 
served spaces. For the second line, 
you are looking for a next-line pointer 
that exceeds 0ACA; for the third, 
0B4A; for the fourth, 0BCA. Use Ta- 
ble 2 to arrive at your byte count and 



Mixed-mode 


Hex 


Decimal 


Text Line 


Location 


Location 


Line one 


0A50-0A77 


2640-2679 


Line two 


0AD0-0AF7 


2768-2807 


Line three 


0B50-0B77 


2896-2935 


Line four 


0BD0-0BF7 


3024-3063 



Table 2. Areas in text page-2 that will be displayed when high-resolution graphics page-2 is used in 
mixed mode. The decimal location ranges for each of the four lines give the permissible values for the 
variable FY, which is used by the POKE subroutine. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 109 



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94 J=LEN<ftZ*) 

96 IF FY<2680 THEN JJ=2G80-FY: 

97 IF FY<2808 THEN JJ=2808-FY: 

99 IF FY<293G THEN JJ=2936-FY: 

100 JJ=30G4-FY 

101 IF J>JJ THEN J=JJ 
105 FOR 1=1 TO J 

107 FX=0 

108 Z*=MID«KAZ*, I. 1) 

110 IF ASC<Z*)<G4 THEN FX=&4 
112 POKE FY, ASC(Z*)+FZ+FX 
115 FY=FY+1 
120 NEXTI 
125 RETURN 



GOTO 101 
GOTO 101 
GOTO 101 



Listing 1. The POKE subroutine which pokes the characters contained in AZ$ into the page-2 text 
window. Lines 96-100 check the length ofAZ$ to be sure that there is enough room left on the line for 
the entire string to be poked. If the string is too long, it is truncated (line 100). 



to verify that the appropriate spaces 
have been set aside. 

In your BASIC program, you now 
have four new lines. Each is a PRINT 
statement that reserves one line in 
text page-2 to be used with HIRES 
page-2 in mixed mode. There is still 
one remaining nuisance to be worked 
out. Whenever you run the program, 
machine code will be poked into the 
reserved memory locations. If you 
then end the program and list it, all 
sorts of mysterious coding will ap- 
pear in the PRINT statements. To 
keep everything tidy, the following 
line should be incorporated just be- 
fore the END statement. 

FORI = 0TO39:POKE2640 + I,32:POKE2768 + 1, 
32:POKE2896 + I,32:POKE3024 + 1 ,32: NEXTI 

This will restore the listing to its origi- 
nal pristine condition. 

An example may be helpful. Sup- 
pose that you are in the monitor 
mode looking for 00 in the memory 
dump. You may find a zero byte at lo- 
cation 0A1F. The next two bytes are 
3A 0A, which, when reversed, be- 
come 0A3A. This is not larger than 
0A4A so you proceed with the dump. 
The next 00 comes up at 0A39 (of 
course)! The following two bytes are 
4D 0A. This is larger (as 0A4D) than 
0A4A, so this is the line you are after. 

The next two bytes are C2 01. Re- 
versing the order, we have 01C2, and 
converting this to decimal gives us 
450, which is our BASIC program 
line number. Now if you put a PRINT 
statement at 0A3A, you will need 
0A78-0A3A, or 3E bytes of blanks; 
that is, you will need to insert 62 
blanks between the quotation marks 
(actually, four less, but it helps to 
leave a little room for error) . After re- 
turning to BASIC command mode, 
you type in line 449 PRINT". . .62 
blanks ..." and you have your first 
reserved space inserted into the pro- 
gram. 



The POKE Subroutine 

Now that the necessary memory 
spaces have been reserved for the 
text page-2 window display, all that 
remains is to poke the information to 
be displayed into that window. The 
simple subroutine presented in List- 
ing 1 does this very nicely. Further- 
more, it lets you choose whether a 
particular portion of the display will 
be in normal, inverse or flashing 
mode simply by proper choice of val- 
ues for the variable FZ. Table 3 lists 
the values that FZ may take to achieve 
different display modes. 

Before calling the subroutine, you 
must specify where in the text win- 
dow you want the information to ap- 
pear and assign this number to FY. 
FY must fall within the four decimal 
ranges given in Table 2. The next step 
is to convert the character informa- 
tion into a string, AZ$. Numeric in- 
formation must first be converted to 
string variables using the STR$ func- 
tion before being assigned to AZ$. To 
achieve the desired effect, you may 
wish to separate all numeric and spe- 
cial characters from the alphabetic 
characters and access the subroutine 
several times consecutively with dif- 
ferent values of FZ. 

Finally, you determine which dis- 
play mode you wish to use for the 
characters in AZ$ and, using Table 3, 
assign the appropriate value to FZ. 
(Of course, if FZ has been previously 
defined with the desired value, it is 
not necessary to redefine it. Similar- 
ly, FY increments during the subrou- 
tine, and if new information is to be 
placed on the same line and directly 
following the last entry, FY will al- 
ready have the desired value and 
needn't be redefined.) 

Lines 96 through 101 in the subrou- 
tine (Listing 1) are optional. If you can 
be sure that the data you are poking 
will not exceed the length of the line 



110 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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ORDERING INFORMATION 

Visa, Master Charge and C.O.D. O.K. To order call or 
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1. Name of Product (e.g. Macro I) 

2. Media (e.g. 8" CP/M) 

3. Price and method of payment (e.g. C.O.D.) include 
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Value For 


Resulting 


FZ 


Display Mode 


128 


NORMAL 





FLASHING 


-64 


INVERSE 


Table 3. Values that must be assigned to FZ in 


order to achieve a 


desired display mode for a 


given character type. The ASCII value for the 


specific character 


is incremented (or decre- 


mentedj by the value ofFZ to arrive at the ma- 


chine code which 


corresponds to the desired 


display mode. 





remaining for it, then these lines can 
be omitted. 

A very important word of caution is 
in order here. Whenever you are 
writing a program that modifies its 
own code by poking data into the pro- 
gram, always save a copy of the latest 
version on tape or diskette before test- 
ing or running the program. Failure 
to do this could result in total loss of 
your program if a slight oversight or 
error has been made in the POKE lo- 
cations. 

Flower Garden— A 
Demonstration Program 

The short program in Listing 2 
demonstrates the approach outlined 
above for obtaining mixed-mode 
graphics-plus-text display while us- 
ing page-2 of high-resolution graph- 
ics. It illustrates not only the display 
of static data, but also of variables 
and of interactive keyboard response 
information. 

Compare lines 94 through 125 of 



the two listings. It just happened that 
the required reserved space in this 
program fell in the memory used for 
the POKE subroutine itself. So you 
see lines 95, 98, 104 and 109 embed- 
ded within the subroutine. This may 
occasionally present a problem, al- 
though the only unexpected result in 
this program is a random control-G 
(bell) when these PRINT statements 
are actually executed. An alternative 
might be to add a couple more PRINT 
statements between those shown and 
essentially cordon off the whole 
block of RAM from hex-0A4A through 
0BF8, using a GOTO statement to 
jump around the PRINT commands. 
The principle is, of course, the same. 

When typing the code for this pro- 
gram into the computer, be absolute- 
ly sure that the code is duplicated ex- 
actly, at least through line 109. This 
includes the remarks and all blank 
spaces. For convenience, each large 
blank PRINT statement is accompa- 
nied by a remark specifying the num- 
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quotation marks. 

Line 16 in Listing 2 is a blank PRINT 
buffer, which comes in handy in relo- 
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areas if you must alter any of the code 
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back into higher RAM; deleting 
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The main program lies between 
lines 1000 and 1265. After a brief in- 
troduction, a garden plot is drawn 
(subroutine 70) and you are asked to 
give a location (L) (a number between 
and 24000) for your flower and 



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112 Microcomputing, July 1981 



whether the flower is to be small or 
large (SC and SC$). The plant's loca- 
tion in X, Y coordinates is then calcu- 
lated from L in subroutine 50 and the 
flower is drawn into the garden plot 
from a simple shape table which was 
poked into RAM at the start of the 
program (subroutine 35). The graph- 
ics routine is found beginning at line 
23. 

Interactive keyboard response is 
handled by the subroutine between 
lines 199 and 265. N$ accumulates 
the successive keyboard entries. An- 
other important variable here is FM. 
To prevent you from entering too 
much data, thus overflowing the re- 
served space and potentially crashing 
the program, FM is assigned the max- 
imum value FY may have for the spe- 
cific line being used (see Table 2). 
When FY has been incremented to 
this value, further input is impossible. 

Another use for FM is for single key 
entry for responses such as "Y/N". If 
FM is less than FY when the subrou- 
tine is called, only one key-in is al- 
lowed before a return is made to the 
main program. This is demonstrated 
with the "flower size?" and the "con- 



tinue?" routines. 

As mentioned earlier, before end- 
ing the program it is wise to tidy up 
the reserved space. This is done in 
this program with the subroutine be- 
ginning at line 300. Note that a vari- 
able FZ is used. At the program's con- 
clusion, FZ is given a value of 32 to re- 
store the blank spaces in the PRINT 
statements. However, any other val- 
id number can be used as well, allow- 
ing this routine to be used to fill the 
text window with any desired char- 
acter in any desired mode. Refer to 
page 15 of the Apple Reference Manual 
for the appropriate codes. An exam- 
ple is provided in this program by re- 
sponding with a location that is larger 
than 24000. 

Finally, I should repeat a warning 
that I stated earlier. Before testing the 
program out, do a CALL- 151 and ver- 
ify that the reserved regions are in- 
deed filled with blanks (hex-20) and 
are in the required areas of RAM. 
Then save this copy of the program 
before typing RUN. At least then, 
should there be any problems, you 
won't have to begin coding from the 
beginning. ■ 



Listing 2. Flower Garden program, which demonstrates the techniques of introducing text into the 
text window at the bottom of the screen in page-2 high-resolution graphics. The first 109 lines must be 
reproduced exactly, including remarks and blank spaces in order for the program to work properly. 



1 REM FLOWER GARDEN 






2 REM DEMONSTRPTION 






3 REM OF HIRES-PAGE2 






4 REM GRAPHICS IN 






5 REM MIXED MODE 






10 LOMEM: 24600 






14 REM BZ* HAS TWENTY BLANK SPACES 






15 BZ*=" 






IB PRINT" 


" :REM 31 


BLANKS 


20 GOTO 1000 






23 ROT=0 






24 SCALE=SC 






25 FOR I«l TO 4 






27 DRAW 1 AT X, Y 






28 R0T=15*I 






29 NEXT I 






30 RETURN 






35 POKE 232, 04 






3B POKE 233, 9£ 






40 DATA 1 , 0, 4, 0, 46, 46, 46 






41 DATA 44,44, 36, 39 






42 DATA 39, 55, 55, 55, 00 






AS FOR 1=1 TO 16 






46 READ A 






47 POKE 24579+1, A 






4S NEXT I 






49 RETURN 






50 Y=INTCL/200) 






55 X=L-(200+Y>+39 






60 Y=Y+20 






65 RETURN 







70 HCOLOR=l 

75 HPLOT 37,19 TO 239,19 TO 239,140 TO 37,140 TO 37,19 

S0 RETURN 



90 FOR 1=1 TO 5000 :NEXTI: RETURN 

94 J=LEN«AZ*) 

95 PRINT" 

": REM 60 BLANK SPACES 

96 IF FY<26S0 THEN JJ=26S0-FY: GOTO 101 




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Microcomputing, July 1981 113 



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^37 



Listing 2 continued. 



97 IF FY<2S0B THEN JJ=2808-FY: GOTO 101 

98 PRINT" 

EM 50 BLANKS 

99 IF FY<2936 THEN JJ=2936-FY: GOTO 101 

100 JJ=3064-FY 

101 IF J>JJ THEN J=JJ 

104 PRINT" 
EM 50 BLANKS 

105 FOR 1=1 TO J 

107 FX=0 

108 Z*=MID*<AZ*, Ii 1) 

109 PRINT" 

" : REM 70 BLANKS 

110 IF ASC<Z*><&4 THEN FX=64 
112 POKE FY, ASC< Z$>+FZ+FX 
115 FY=FY+1 

120 NEXTI 
125 RETURN 



,99 N$="" 

200 GET AZ* 

205 IF ASC(AZ$)=13 THEN RETURN 

210 IF ASC<AZS>=8 THEN GOTO 250 

215 G0SUB94 

220 N$=N*+AZ$ 

225 IF FY<FM THEN GOTO 200 

230 RETURN 

250 AZ»= FY=FY-1 

251 N*=LEFT$<:N$, LENiN$)-l) 
255 G0SUB94 

260 FY=FY-1 
265 GOTO200 



300 
305 
310 
315 
320 
325 
330 

1000 
1005 
1010 
1015 
1020 
1025 
1030 
1035 
1040 
1045 
1050 
1055 
10G0 
1065 
1070 
1075 
1080 
1085 
1090 



1095 
1100 
1105 
1110 
1115 
1120 
1125 
1130 
1135 
1140 



1145 
1150 
1155 
1180 
1185 
1170 
1175 
1180 
1185 
1190 
1195 
1200 
1205 



FOR 



1=0 TO 39 
POKE 2640+1, 
POKE 2768*1. 
POKE 2896+1, 
POKE 
NEXTI 
RETURN 



3024+ I , 



FZ 
FZ 

FZ 

FZ 



GOSUB 35 

HGR2 

GOSUB 70 

HC0L0R-2 

POKE -16301,0 

AZ$="WHAT IS YOUR NAME" 

FY=2650:FZ=128 

GOSUB 94 

AZ$="?" :FZ=0:GOSUB 94 

FY=2780:FM=2807 

FZ=-64: GOSUB 199 

AZ$="I AM GLAD TO MEET YOU "+N$ 

FY=3024:FZ=0 

GOSUB 94: GOSUB 90 

AZ*=BZ$+BZ* 

FY=2640:FZ=0 

GOSUB 94 

FY=3024: GOSUB 94: GOSUB 90 

FY=2768:FZ= 128: GOSUB 94 



N=0 

AZ$="THE GARDEN HAS 24000 LOCATIONS. " 

FY=2640:FZ=-64: GOSUB 94 

N=N+1 

AZ$="WHERE DO YOU WANT FLOWER *"+STR$CN) +"? " 

FY=276S:FZ= 128: GOSUB 94 

FY-2896 : FZ=0 : FM-2935 

GOSUB 199 

L=VAL<!N$) 

IF L<0 OR L> 24000 THEN FZ=128 : GOSUB300: GOTOl 100 



AZS="WHAT SIZE FLOWER?" 
FY=3024:FZ= 128: GOSUB 94 
FY=3042:FZ=0 

AZ$="S L" 

GOSUB 94 

AZ*="MALL/" 

FY=3043:FZ= 128: GOSUB 94 

AZ*="ARGE?" 

FY=3049: GOSUB 94 

FZ=0: GOSUB 199 

SC*=LEFT$CAZ$, 1) : SC=2 

IF SC»="S" THEN SC=l:GOTO 1210 

IF SC$<>"L" THEN GOTO 1145 



1210 


GOSUB 50: GOSUB 23 


1215 


FZ=160: GOSUB 300 


1220 


AZ$="DO YOU WANT TO PLANT ANOTHER?" 


1225 


FY=2640 : FZ= 1 28 : G0SUB94 


1230 


AZ*="Y/N" 


1235 


FY=2780:FZ=0: GOSUB 94 


1240 


FZ=-64:FM=2679: GOSUB 199 


1245 


R$=LEFT*(N$, 1) 


1250 


IF R$="Y" THEN GOTO 1100 


1255 


IF R$<>"N" THEN GOTO 1220 


1260 


FZ=32: GOSUB 300 


1265 


HOME: TEXT: END 



114 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 115 



Benefit from this author's experience using graphics routines in a BASIC program. 



New, Improved 
Sorcerer Graphics 



Listing 1. The Sketch program. 

100 rem********************************************************* 

110 REM 

120 REM MEDIUM RESOLUTION SKETCH PROGRAM 

130 REM 

140 REM BY AVRAM R. VENER 

150 REM 

160 rem******************************************************* 10 

7 

170 PRINTCHR$(12):PRINT"THIS IS AN ETCH A SKETCH SIMULATOR" 

180 INPUT"NEED INSTRUCTIONS" ;YN$ 

190 IFYN$=»"N"THEN320 

200 PRINTCHR$(12) 

210 PRINT"THE CURSOR WILL MOVE ABOUT THE SCREEN IN THE DIRECTION 



220 PRINT 

230 PRINT" INDICATED BY THE ARROWS ON THE KEYPAD. DIAGONAL 

240 PRINT 

250 PRINT"MOVEMENT IS CAUSED BY THE 1,3, 7, AND 9 KEYS LOCATED" 

260 PRINT 

270 PRINT" BETWEEN THE ARROWED KEYS. THE 5 KEY STOPS THE CURSOR 

280 PRINT 

290 PRINT"WHILE PRESSIND C CLEARS THE SCREEN AND E LEAVES THE" 

300 PRINT 

310 PRINT" PROGRAM. " : FORWT*1T05000:DM-WT:NEXTWT 

320 DATA 205,24,224,50,15,0,201 :REM GET ROUTINE 

330 F0RXC-8T0 1 4 : READXD : POKEXC , XD : NEXTXC 

340 GOSUB930:PRINTCHR$(12) 

350 DATA 62, 0,246,0, 50, 1,0,201:REM OR ROUTINE 

360 FORXA«OT07:READXB:POKEXA,XB:NEXT 

370 POKE260,8:POKE261,0 

380 GET»USR(0):GOSUB710:GOSUB400 

390 GOTO370 

400 V»X/3:X1-X+1 

410 VP«INT(V+1)*64:HP»Y/2:HE»INT( HP): HE-HP-HE 

420 IFHEO0THENMX«2:G0T0440 

430 MX-1 

440 F0RJJ-0T089STEP9 

450 ON(Xl-JJ)GOTO470,480,490,470,480,490,470,480,490 

460 GOT0500 

470 MY«16:JJ=89:GOTO500 

480 MY-4:JJ-89:GOTO500 

490 MY«l:JJ-89 

500 NEXTJJ 

510 PN«MY*MX 

520 REM SREEN UPDATE 

330 PRINTCHR$(17);"X ";X;" Y";Y 

540 LO-INT(-2048-VP-H1P) 

550 G0SUB650 

560 GOSUB580 

570 RETURN 

580 REM SCREEN UPDATE 

590 POKE260,0:POKE261,0 

600 R=»PEEK(L0)-192 




By Avram R. Vener 



Dr. Colin S. L. Keay provided 
some excellent graphics subrou- 
tines in the March 1980 issue ("Im- 
proved Sorcerer Graphics Resolu- 
tion, ' ' p. 74) that can be used to devel- 
op medium-resolution graphics with- 
in a BASIC program. 

Address correspondence to Avram R. Vener, 7 Old 
Hyde Road, Weston, CT 06883. 




Photo 1. Sample Sketch program output. 






i\A 



Photo 2. Sample plot of the Function Plotting program. 



116 Microcomputing, July 1981 





Photos 3 and 4. Alternative plots. 



900 
910 
920 
930 
940 
950 
900 
970 
980 
982 
984 
98 b 
988 
990 
992 



FORR-0T01 : POKEP ,Q : P=P+1 : NEXTR : RETURN 
POKEP , : P-P+l : RETURN 

re;i function subroutine 
def fny(u)«sin(y/8*u)*10/u 
def fnz(u)=c()s(y/8*u)*10/u 

FORY«OT0127:X=INT(FNY(.5))+45 

GOSUB290:NEXTY 

FORY»0TOl27:X=INT(FNZ(.5))+45 

G0SUB290-.NEXTY 

DEF FNX(U)=«FNY(U)*FNZ(U) 

FORY«OT0127:X=INT(FNX(.5))/10+45 

GOSUB290:NEXTY 

DEF FNW(U)-FNY(U)+FNZ(U) 

FORY-OTOl27:X-INT(FNW(.5))+45 

COSUB290:NEXTY 

Listing 3. Multiple Function Plot subroutine. 



Listing 1 continued. 

610 IF(R<00RR>b3)THENR-0 

620 POKEl,PN:POitE3,R 

630 ZZ-USR(O) 

640 PN»PEEK( 1 )+192 : POKELO ,PN : RETURN 

650 REM SAFETY ROUTINE 

660 IFLO>-3968THEN680 

670 LO»LCH-1920:GOT0660 

IFL0O2049THEN700 

LO-LO-1920 

RETURN 

REM GET EVALUATION 

KI»PEEK(15) 

IFKI-OTHEN750 

KN-KI 

IF(KN<490RKN>57)THEN900 

760 ONKN-48COTO770,780,790,800,810,820,830,840,850 
770 X=X-1:Y-Y-1:C0T0860 

X»X-1:GOT0860 

X-X-l :Y-Y+1 :G0TO860 

Y»Y-1:GOT0860 

GOTO860 

Y«Y+1:COT0860 

X-X+l : Y-Y-l :GOT0860 

X«X+l:G0T08t>0 

X-X+1:Y»Y+1 

IFX>89THENX«89 

IFX<OTHENX-0 

IFYM27THENY-127 

IFY<OTHENY»0 
900 IFKN-67THENPRINTCHR$(12) 
910 IFKN-69THENEND 

RETURN 

REM 3X3 POINT PLOT 

P— 512 

FORN-OTOl :FORM«OT01 :F0RL-0T01 

FORK-OTOl : FORJ-0TO1 : FORI-0TO1 

Q-224*I+14*J:GOSUB1010:GOSUB1020 

Q*224*K+14*L:GOSUB1010:GOSUB1020 

Q*224*M+14*N:G0SUB1010 
NEXTI : NEXTJ : NEXTK : NEXTL : NEXTM : NEXTN : RETU RN 



680 
690 
700 
710 
720 
730 
740 
750 



780 
790 
800 
810 
820 
830 
840 
850 
860 
870 
880 
890 



920 

930 

940 

950 

960 

970 

980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 



FORR-OTO . : POKEP ,Q : P-P+l :NEXTR: RETURN 

POKEP, 0:P»P+1: RETURN 

IFKI-0THEN760 



Unfortunately for less-experienced 
programmers, he did not demonstrate 
the use of these subroutines with an 
actual BASIC program. It took me a 
while to get familiar with them, but 
the time was well-spent. The two BA- 
SIC programs that follow show how I 
used a few of these medium-resolu- 
tion graphics routines. 

Sketch 

The Sketch program (Listing 1) lets 
you create line drawings on the screen 
(see Photo 1). By using the keypad 
you can alter the direction of the 
cursor. 

Lines 320 and 330 insert the ma- 
chine-language GET routine into 
memory. The subroutine at 930 sets 
up the 3*2 point plot characters in the 
user graphics memory. Next, the ma- 
chine-language OR routine is set up 
in RAM with lines 350 and 360. 



Listing 2. The Function Plotting program. 

100 REM ****************************************************** 

101 REM 

102 REM MEDIUM RESOLUTION FUNCTION PLOTTING PROGRAM 

103 REM 

104 REM BY AVRAM R. VENER 

105 REM 

106 REM ******************************************************** 

107 REM 

109 PRINTCiIR$(12):PRINT"GRAPH PLOT BY RUDY VENER 9/25/80" 

110 INPUT"NEEU INSTRUCTIONS" ;YN$ 
120 IFYN$="N"THEN139 

130 PRINT"This is a Medium resolution plotting program. To plot" 

135 PRINT"your function you must modify or completely rewrite" 

136 PKINT"the subroutine at location 900. To see what is " 

137 PRINT"in the subroutine type S. Otherwise hit RETURN. " 

138 PRINT"To reenter the program after modifying 900, type RUN" 

139 INPUTWW$ 

145 IFWW$=*"S"THENLIST900 

170 GOSUB740:PRINTCHR$(12) 

180 DATA 62, 0,246,0, 50, 1,0,201:REM OR ROUTINE 

190 FORXA«0TO7:READXB:POKEXA,XB:NEXT 

200 POKE260,8:POKE261,0 

205 GOTO900 




Microcomputing, July 1981 117 



Listing 2 continued. 

23U V=X/J:X1=X+1 

240 Vi , = INT(V+l)*b4:HP=Y/2:KE=INT(llP):HE=«HP-HE 

250 IFHEOOTHENMX-2:GOT0270 

260 :ix»i 

270 FORJJ-0TO69STEP9 

2*0 ON(Xl-JJ)GOTO300,310,320,300,310,320,300,310,320 

290 C0T0330 

300 MY-16:JJ*89:GOT0330 

310 MY-4:JJ»89:G0T0330 

320 MY-l:JJ-89 

330 NEXTJJ 

340 Ptf-KY*MX 

350 REM SREEN UPDATE 

355 PRINTCHk$(17);"X ";X;" Y";Y 

360 LO«INT(-2048-VP+HP) 

370 GOSUB470 

380 GOSU8400 

390 RETURN 

400 REM SCREEN UPDATE 

410 POKE260,0:POKE261,0 

420 R-PEEK(L0)-192 

430 IF(R<0ORR>63)THENR*0 

440 P0KE1,PN:P0KE3,R 

450 ZZ-USR(O) 

460 PN-PEEK( 1 )+l 92 : POKELO , PN : RETURN 

470 REM SAFETY ROUTINE 

480 IFLO>-3968THEN500 

490 LO=LO+1920:COT0480 

500 IFLCX-2049THEN520 

510 LO-LO-1920 

520 RETURN 

740 REM 3X3 POINT PLOT 

750 P— 512 

760 F0RN«0T01 :FORM«OT01 :FORL-OT01 

770 F0RK=«0T01 :F0RJ»0T()1 :FOR1-OT01 

780 g-224*I-fl4*J:GOSUB820:G0SUH830 

790 Q»224*K+14*L:GOSUH82O:COSUB830 

800 Q*224*M+14*N:GOSUB820 

810 NEXTI:NEXTJ:NEXTK:NEXTL:NEXTM:NEXTN: RETURN 

820 FORR-OTO 1 : POKEP t Q : P-P+l : NEXTR : RETURN 

830 POKEP, : P-P+l : RETURN 

900 REM FUNCTION SUBROUTINE 

903 DEF FNY(U)-SIN(Y/8*U)*25/U 

905 FORY=OT0127:X=INT(FNY(l)+FNY(3)+FNY(5))+45 

910 GOSUB230:NEXTY:END 



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The program begins to sketch by 
getting the key press, which is evalu- 
ated in the subroutine starting at line 
710. Lines 750 to 760 vary the direc- 
tion of the cursor, depending on the 
proper key press. The screen is up- 
dated at the subroutine in line 400, 
and the X and Y coordinates are 
printed at the top left of the screen. 

These coordinates can be useful, 
especially when the cursor is travel- 
ling along a previously drawn line 
and is therefore invisible. The cube in 
Photo 1 was made by first drawing a 
square, and then moving along the 
border of the square until the X and Y 
coordinates indicated the cursor was 
at the corners. A diagonal line was 
then drawn at each corner, and their 
ends connected with a second square. 

Function Plot 

The Function Plot program (Listing 
2) is only a modification of the Sketch 
program. I eliminated the GET func- 
tion and its evaluation routine and re- 
placed them with a function-generat- 
ing subroutine at line 900. As an inte- 
gral part of the program, the user has 
the option of getting a listing of sub- 
routine 900, modifying it and reenter- 
ing the program. 

Photo 2 is the plot of the subroutine 
included in Listing 2. Photos 3 and 4 
are the plots from the listings of some 
alternative subroutines. 

A nice feature of this program is 
that you can observe the relation- 
ships of various functions by generat- 
ing one after the other on the same 
screen. Listing 3, for example, will 
plot the functions Sin(Y), Cos(Y), 
Sin(Y)*Cos(Y) and Sin(Y) + Cos(Y).B 




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118 Microcomputing, July 1981 





• It 



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MPI Disk Drives 

Model B/51 250K, 1 Side, 40 Tracks $321.00 

B/52 500K, 2 Sides, 40 Tracks per side $439.00 

B/91 500K, 1 side, 80 Tracks $439.00 

B/92 1 Meg, 2 Sides, 80 Tracks per side $590.00 

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Here's just a few of the 
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diskettes 




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. $3.95 


operating Systems 




RSDOS2.3 

P Track Patch .... 


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uper Utility 


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48K Model III 

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Expansion Interface 

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• 40/80 Tracks 

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• Hi-Temp stability 



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• Single/double density 

• Optical sensors— no switches 

• 102K per disk 



Printers 



Centronics 737-1 . $815.00 

IDS 460 $1219.00 

Epson MX80 $550.00 

Okidata M80 $499.00 

Microline82 $650.00 

Microline83 $950.00 

Okidata prices include tractors 
NEC Spinwriter 5530 
(freight collect). $2579.00 
16K Memory Kits 

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instructions $39.00 

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Manual $30.00 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 119 



These hvo game programs test your driving skills and the graphics capability of the CI P. 



Hot Rod Graphics 



By Dorn Greenwood 



These two simple programs, Block- 
ade and Roadrace, are for the 
Ohio Scientific CI P. Each takes up 
less than 2K of memory. 

In this version, for two players on- 
ly, each player controls a line (or a 
blockade), by moving it in any one of 
four directions (up, down, left or 
right). The object of the game is to 
make your opponent either run into 
your blockade or the boundary. After 
each collision the clumsy party is 
given a point against him. The first 
person to get four points loses. 

The first player uses the keys I, L, 
M and J for up, right, down and left, 
respectively. The second player uses 
the keys W, D, X and A. 

The blockades will not appear on 
the screen until a direction key has 
been pushed. Also, the two players 
may not go in the same direction at 
once. 

After getting familiar with the 
graphics on my particular system, I 
remembered seeing a roadrace pro- 
gram, and thought it would be easy to 
create my own. 

In this game, you are on a winding 
road and must move to the left or the 
right to avoid hitting the sides of the 
road. You're allowed ten crashes to a 
game. This limit is set in line 205. The 
object of the game is to get as far as 
possible in miles before the ten 
crashes are up. 

When the game starts, you must 
maneuver onto and down the track 
using the G key for left and H for 
right. The program has difficulty 
levels ranging from four to ten. Level 
ten is easy enough for a blind 

Address correspondence to Dorn Greenwood, 
15 Grafton Ave., Toronto, Ontario, M6R 2C3, 
Canada. 




monkey, while level four is very 
hard. For users with the CIS ROM IC, 
add the following line to the program: 

13 FOR 1 = 1 to 26:PRINT:NEXT 



The program is shorter than others 
because instead of having the track in 
data statements, it randomly makes 
the track different every time.B 



Blockade program listing. 

1 INPUT"RIGHT PLAYER"; A 
$: INPUT"- LEFT PLAYER" : B$ 

2 F0RI=53200T05^250:P0KE I ,32: NEXT 
5 POKE 530,1 

10 A= 5*H1 7:Z=5^1 35 

11 MO=53379:FOR S=1T024:M0=M0+32:P0KE MO , 1 6l : NEXT 

12 MO=53*Hl:FOR S=1T027: M0=M0+1 : POKE M0,l6l: NEXT 

13 M0=53436:F0R S=1T02^:M0=M0+32:P0KE M0,l6l:NEXT 

14 M0=54l73: FOR. S=1T027:M0=M0-1: POKE MO , 1 6l : NEXT 

15 K=57088: 1=127: M=191 : N=l6l 
20 POKE K, 239: IF PEEK(K)=L THEN ^5 




More 



120 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Listing continued. 

25 POKE K, 247: IF PEEK(K)=M THEN 55 

30 POKE K, 251: IF PEEK(K)=L THEN 65 

35 POKE K, 253: IF PEEK(K)=M THEN 75 

37 IF PEEK(K)=247 THEN 115 

39 GOTO 1^0 

45 A=A-32:P0KE A,N 

4-6 AA=PEEK( A- 32) 

47 IF AA=l6lOR AA=187 THEN 90 

50 GOTO 140 

55 A=A+1:P0KE A,N 

56AB=PEEK(A+1) 

57 IFAB=l6l OR AB=187 THEN90 

60 GOTO 140 

65 A=A+32:P0KE A,N 

66 AC=PEEK(A+32) 

67 IF AC=l6l OR AC=187 THEN90 
70 GOTO 140 

75 A=A-1:P0KE A,N 

76 AD=PEEK(A-1) 

77 IF AD=l6l OR AD=l87 THEN90 
80 GOTO 140 

90 PRINT B$;" CRASHED" 

95 C=C+1 

97 IF C=4 THEN 260 

100 GOTO 2 

115 GOTO 2 

140 POKE K, 239: IF PEEK(K)=253 THEN 190 

150 POKE K, 247: IF PEEK(K)=251 THEN 200 

160 POKE K,251:IF PEEK(K)=251 THEN 210 

170 POKE K, 223: IF PEEK(K)=191 THEN 220 

180 GOTO 20 

190Z=Z-32:P0KE Z,18? 

195 BB =PEEK(Z-32) 

197 IF BB=1610RBB=187 THEN 230 

198 GOTO 20 

200 Z=Z-1:P0KE Z.187 
205 BC =PEEK(Z-1) 

207 IFBC=l6l OR BC=187 THEN 230 

208 GOTO 20 

210 Z=Z+32:P0KE Z.187 
215BD=PEEK(Z+32) 

217 IFBD=1610RBD=187 THEN 230 

218 GOTO 20 

220 Z»Z+1:P0KE Z.187 
225 BE=PEEK(Z+1) 

227 IF BE=l6l OR BE=187 THEN 230 

228 GOTO 20 

230 D=D+1« PRINT A$;" CRASHED": IF D=4 THEN 260 

240 G0T02 

260 PRINT TAB(IO); "SCORE" 

265 PRINT: PRINT A$;" " ;D 

270 PRINT -.PRINT B$;" ";C 

300 END 



Iff you're looking for 

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in the U.S.A. on 




® 



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Roadrace program listing. 

1 G=53^28 

5 H= 54030 

10 INPUT "HOW DIFFICULT ";C 

1 2 F0RI= 53200T054250 : POKEI , JZ : NEXTI 

15 A =54029 :B=A+C 

20 J=INT((B-A)*RND(1)+A) 

22 IFH+1 = J0RH-1=-J THEN 25 

23 GOTO 20 

25 H=J 

26 POKE J, 161 




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Microcomputing, July 1981 121 



MICRO-80 1M CASSETTES 
100% ERROR-FREE 




LENGTH PACK PACK 

C-10 69c 59c 

C-20 89C 7 9c 



Fully Guaranteed! 
World's Finest Media 
Premium 5-Screw Construction 
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Dealer and Club Discounts Available 
Custom Storage Case, Add 19c Each 
Shipping Charges, Add $1.50 ^308 



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K-2665 NO. BUSBY ROAD 

i OAK HARBOR, WA 98277 4 



Listing continued. 

27 POKE J+C.161 

35 PRINT 

40 GOSUB 60 

45 POKE G f 

47 POKE G-32.32-.P0KE G-64,32 

49 IF PEEK (G+ 32) =161 THEN 200 

50 GOTO 20 

60 POKE 530,1 
70 K=57088 

80 P0KEK,247 

85 IF PEEK(K)=239THEN 100 

90 IF PEEK(K)=247THEN 110 

95 RETURN 

100 G=G-1:P0KE G,0 

101 M=M+1 

102 IF PEEK(G-l)=l6l THEN 200 
105 RETURN 

110 G=G+1:P0KE G,0 

111 M=M+1 

112 IF PEEK(G+l)=l6lTHEN 200 
115 RETURN 

200 PRINT"*** BANG***" 

202 F0RI=1T050:P0KE G,232:P0KE G,233:NEXT 

203 Z=Z+1 

205 IF Z=10 then220 

210 GOTO 20 

220 PRINT"#*#*TEN#*#*" 

230 PRINT"Y0U WENT "; (M*10) ; "MILES" 

250 END 



r 



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122 Microcomputing, July 1981 



DISK DRIVE WOES? 

PRINTER INTERACTION? 

MEMORY LOSS? 

ERRATIC OPERATION? W VP^\ • 

Don't w^ ^ ,01 

Blame The 
Software! 

Power Line Spikes, Surges & 

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• ISOLATOR (ISO-2) 2 filter isolated 3-prong socket banks; (6 
sockets total); integral Spike/Surge suppression; 1875 W Max 
load, 1 KW either bank $62.95 

• SUPER ISOLATOR (ISO-3), similar to ISO-1 except double 
filtering & Suppression $94.95 

• ISOLATOR (lsO-4), similar to ISO-1 except unit has 6 
individually filtered sockets $106.95 

• SUPER ISOLATOR (ISO-1 1) similar to ISO-2 except double 
filtering & Suppression $94.95 

• CIRCUIT BREAKER, any model (add-CB) Add $ 8.00 

• CKT BRKR/SWITCH/PILOT (CBS) Add $16.00 

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sSee List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 123 



ENGINEERING AND PRODUCTION CONTROL SYSTEMS 






< 
O 

Q. 

Q. 
< 





Company founder and president, Walter L. Myers 
(right), pictured with production engineer Joe 
Zellers who developed the production control 
software for the MSI computer system. 

system. Since 1975, the MSI system has been 
expanded to accommodate four users 
simultaneously, performing a variety of plant 
monitoring functions and management 
programs." 

"The system is equipped with 10 megabytes of 
hard disk storage presently and we plan to add an 
additional 10 megabytes of storage soon. The 
maximum downtime has been only one or two 
days in the 5 years that the system has beer> in 
operation. MSI has provided excellent technical 
support and willingness to help us with our 
special requirements. We have nothing but 
praise for MSI, they have provided excellent 
system support." 

SPRING ENGINEERING AND DESIGN 

"All of the production at Myers Spring is 
performed to exact customer specifications 
rather than to the manufacture of standard spring 
products. This causes an ever increasing 
demand for quick and efficient design and 
engineering capabilities. Many parameters have 
to be taken into consideration in the design of 
any particular spring, including wire size, wire 
type, material modulus, spring diameter, number 



THE COMPANY: 

MYERS SPRING COMPANY, INC. 
LOGANSPORT, INDIANA 

Myers Spring Company, Inc. was founded 35 
years ago by Walter L. Myers for the manufacture 
of small mechanical springs which are used 
widely in mechanical appliances, electrical 
equipment, and by the automotive, construction, 
and many other industries. The Myers Spring 
company has grown to several million dollars in 
annual sales and employs approximately 50 
people in its production facility. 
Production engineer Joe Zellers comments, "we 
began looking at computer systems 
approximately ten years ago in order to keep up 
with the increasing demand of order processing, 
custom mechanical spring design engineering, 
and production control. In 1975, we selected the 
MSI system because they were the first company 
in the microcomputer industry to offer the 
necessary peripherals which would convert a 
microcomputer system into a usable business 





One of four workstations where design 
engineering, checking of sales order status, and 
production control monitoring is performed. 



The production facility at Myers Spring Co. is 
equipped with many automated machines for 
mechanical spring production. 

of turns per inch, free length, spring loading, rate, 
solid height, working stress, working 
temperature, number of operating cycles, 
hysteresis, resonant frequency, expansion, and 
whether the spring has to be ground or not. It 
used to take over an hour for an engineer to 
design a spring taking into account all of these 
parameters. However, with the engineering 
software which we have developed for the MSI 
system, spring design can be completed in less 
than one minute by simply keying in the desired 
parameters. The MSI computer system not only 
designs the spring for us but prepares a complete 
quotation for the customer after consideration of 
the material to be used, the amount of waste, 
which equipment the production will use, the 
speed of the machines, the necessary labor rate, 
as well as the desired percentage of profit." 



124 Microcomputing, July 1981 



r 



SALES QUOTATION SYSTEM 

Following the computer spring design procedure, with automatic quotation feature, the actual 
production begins. Each quotation is reviewed and compared to actual job cost reports on the 
production run in order to make any necessary refinements in the quotation system software. This 
feature of our system has greatly improved our ability to prepare accurate quotations and to insure 
profitability of the company. 

PRODUCTION CONTROL/JOB COST ACCOUNTING 

Each production work order is tracked by the computer system at each stage of the production process. 
First, each order is checked against the customer quotation for accuracy. As each order is processed, 
exact shop labor time is recorded, for each production machine used, and each stage of the production 
process. Summary reports are produced showing the total amount of material used, time used on each 
production machine, amount of material used, and a total cost figure for each work order. 
SALES SUMMARY REPORTS 

The system is designed to produce monthly sales summaries which show the amount of products sold by 
each salesman, complete with dates, order numbers, type of product, quantity, type of material, material 
cost, sales commissions, etc. Totals for each desired category and for each salesman are reproduced. 
ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEM 

Each morning, invoices are generated for orders which will be shipped that day. The accounts 
receivable system maintains accounts for over 500 active customers. The system produces monthly 
statements complete with aging of open invoices. 
MULTI USER CAPABILITY 

The MSI system is equipped with four user 
terminals presently which are available for use 
simultaneously by the following departments: 
Order department, for entering new orders and 
checking order status. Inventory department, 
used for checking to see whether a particular 
product has been produced previously. 
Invoicing/Cost Accounting, used for preparation 
of invoices and for entry of labor and material 
cost accounting information. Design 
Engineering, used by company engineers to 
design new products. 

Order entry, invoicing, monthly statements, and 
other management reports are carried out at this 
workstation at Myers Spring Co. 

GENERAL LEDGER TIE-INS 

The MSI system automatically prepares journals for cost 
accounting information and sales data which can then be 
posted to the general ledger. Complete income statements and 
balance sheets are produced by the general ledger programs on 
the system. 

MULTIPLE MANAGEMENT REPORTS 

The MSI system is used in many different areas of the company 
in order to provide more efficient and effective management of 
our production facilities. Several of the reports which we obtain 
from the system are: production schedules, due list for orders, 
new orders list, production summary by department, 
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MSI Helping to make your business run better. 



^144 




t^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 125 



You'll make a wise investment with this Microsoft Disk BASIC program that gives you 

portfolio values at a glance. Part 1 . 



Put Your Micro 
On Wall Street 



By Dex Hart 



PORTVAL is a short program writ- 
ten in Microsoft BASIC to simplify 
periodic evaluation of a common 
stock portfolio. If you are an experi- 
enced programmer, you may want to 
skip to something more complicated, 
like "Fourier Analysis of Three-Di- 
mensional Boolean Hopscotch." Mine 
is simple stuff, because I'm relatively 
new to the game. 

My advantage is that I remember 
every place I got hung up when I 
started, and I'll try to help those of you 
to whom this program is not instantly 
obvious. It doesn't really matter if you 
don't have a big, fat portfolio. Follow 
this program through and learn how 
to do at least something genuinely use- 
ful with BASIC. The forms used have 
wide general application. 

This program lets you list your com- 
mon stocks along with the purchase 
date, number of shares and initial in- 
vestment. Every time you update cur- 
rent share prices (perhaps ten minutes 
total time for a dozen stocks including 
looking up prices in the morning pa- 
per), the program calculates current 
value, dollar difference between cur- 
rent value and initial cost for each 
stock and percentage gain for each 
stock from the date of purchase. Initial 
cost and current value are totaled, and 
the total dollar difference is shown 
along with the percentage gain or loss 
for the total list. 

The sample run, for which I have 
arbitrarily selected five stock issues, 



clearly illustrates the output. The 
prices are real; the numbers of shares 
are for illustration only. Imagine what 
you'd have if you had hocked every- 
thing but your spouse and put it all in 
Humana in early 1977. 

I live in Miami and am not a mem- 
ber of a computer club (the only one I 
know of locally is a hard-core Apple 
group). That makes learning a high- 
level language somewhat tougher. I 
decided to read several different BA- 
SIC books, on the theory that each au- 
thor covers slightly different stuff. 
Good idea, and I ended up nominally 
"literate" in BASIC (I could generate 
nice tables of cubes, square roots and 
trig functions). But I couldn't write my 
portfolio program. 

Value Line Investment Survey of- 
fered a free program to its computer- 
owning subscribers, a very simple 
program for 4K memory machines, 
listing Value Line ratings of timeli- 
ness, safety, and so forth. Lightning 
struck when I saw what they did with 
' ■ print using . ' ' Microsoft literature 
shows many forms of print using, but 



each example is for a single string or 
numerical quantity. Turns out you 
can format a whole line with this com- 
mand. I'll run through the program 
quickly and then elaborate on how to 
use print using, tossing in some other 
comments on using MBASIC along 
the way. 

The Program 

You enter the number of stocks, n, 
on line 30. Originally I dimensioned 
each variable in line 50 to the specific 
number before I realized you could 
use n; much neater. Lines 40 and 50 
only come into play when you use ar- 
ray variables (those with paren- 
theses) and need to count more than 
ten (ten or more passes through the 
loop). With MBASIC, no DIM state- 
ment is needed for a subscript of 10 
or less. Line 40 isn't really necessary, 
as no harm is done by an unneeded 
dimension statement; lines 70-90 
show a loop to read the infrequently 
changed data. The list of variables is 
shown in Table 1. Note that the thim- 
ble I used to list the program on my 



Address correspondence to Dex Hart, 9414 SW 142 
St., Miami, FL 33176. 



1 PORTVAL ' 


. . . . Portfolio 


Valuat 
s Cost 




Value 


as of 31 
Diff 


Dec 80 

%Gain 


Stock 


Date Share 


Price 


1 Carlisle 29Sep80 160 9991 84.0 13440 3449 34.5 

2 Crown Cork 18Mar71 100 2231 28.4 2840 609 27.3 

3 Humana 7Mar77 900 4900 71.4 64260 59360 1211.4 

4 Kysor 18Dec69 200 2758 10.6 2120 -638 -23.1 

5 Travelers 2Dec68 100 3511 38.9 3890 379 10.8 
**************************************************************** 


Totals 




23391 




86550 


63159 


270.0 






Sample run. 









126 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Spinwriter makes parentheses look a 
bit like brackets. They are not. 

When I first wrote the program, I 
was pretty dense. I wrote it in what I 
now call "column input," meaning 
you read in data one column at a 
time, as opposed to "row input." 
Each of the variables in line 80 had to 
have its own loop and the DATA 
statements were all of a kind: first n 
stock names, then n dates, and so on. 
It works, but it's a bitch when you 
want to change a stock (as when you 
buy or sell). I had to count into a 
massed hunk of numbers to enter or 
excise data. 

With row input as shown, each 
stock has its own line. Want to sell 
Kysor? Delete line 130. Add Texaco? 
Enter the four data items on a new 
line 135. Type RENUM and your 
numbers are back to the start 10/in- 
crement 10 shown on my listing, 
chosen, by the way, so you can use 
the AUTO line numbering function 
on disk MB ASIC. 

For inputting the current price I go 
back to column input (data on line 
190). Just enter n prices in order; take 
as many lines as needed. Enter the 
date of the prices, Dl$, as item n+ 1. 
For large portfolios, data lines of ten 
items each make keeping track easi- 
er. This program is especially easy to 
follow because it doesn't jump 
around with GOTOs and branching: 
two sets of READ-DATA lines, then 
the arithmetic section inside its own 
loop (lines 210-290), then print to 
screen (lines 310-490), and finally the 
hard-copy section if you so elect 
(lines 510-730). Keeping LPRINT 
lines clustered in one spot makes it 
easier to include or skip the hard- 
copy operation. 

Note on line 510 that there is a com- 
ma before J instead of the usual semi- 
colon. The semicolon causes the ma- 
chine to print a question mark; the 
comma suppresses the question 
mark. A couple of blanks following 
the word RETURN moves the cursor 
over so the final word is more easily 
read. These are minor, but interest- 
ing, items. Note that you can print a 
string to the screen inside the INPUT 
statement. You don't have to PRINT 
the string and then follow with the 
INPUT line. 

Line 300 is a clear screen command 
(for my Superbrain); your machine 
may be different or you may have a 
CLS command (TRS) to do the same 
thing. It's not necessary, but if you 
are listing a short portfolio, you get 
rid of any leftover listing clutter at the 



A$— stock name 

D$— purchase date 

S— number of shares 

C— initial total cost (not per-share cost) in dollars 

P— current price (dollars and tenths of dollars) 

V— current value (P times S) 

D— dollar difference (V minus C) 

G— percentage gain or loss 

Dl$— current date to be typed on the hard copy for records' purposes 

Tl— total of the C column 

T2— totals of the V column 

T3-difference (T2 minus Tl) 

T4— overall percentage gain or loss 

Table 1. List of variables. 



top of the screen. In MBASIC (and 
others,), a remark can be added to a 
command line (as on line 300) by pre- 
ceding it with an apostrophe. This 
doesn't work on DATA lines. The 
price date entered on line 190 is 
printed on the screen (line 310) and 
on the hard copy (line 550). 

Print Using 

PRINT USING (and LPRINT US- 
ING) are the keys to putting a lot of 
columns on a page, exactly where 
you want them, and in the format in 
which you want them (rounded and 
decimal places as specified). You can 
format the whole line by using sepa- 
rate lines followed by a semicolon to 
keep the machine from line-indexing 
(as I did on the listing), or you can 
spread all the formatting out on one 
line if you so choose. In other words, 
lines 410-440 could be replaced by 
the single line: 

410 PRINT USING "##.# ##### ##### ####.# 
";P(I);V(I);D(I);G(I) 

Spacing is determined by the num- 
ber of blanks between the "number" 
symbols which represent digits, or by 
the number of blanks between the 
symbols and the close-quote mark. If 
you don't allow enough room (if the 
number to be printed is too big), the 
machine will prefix the number with 
a percent sign. Fix it. Lines 480-490 
show two format columns on each 
line. They could have been written as 
one line or as four, with the first three 
terminating in semicolons. 

Backslashes identify the string for- 
mat. Backslash-eight spaces-back- 
slash allows a ten-character string. 
The two sets of backslashes (lines 
370-380) are for A$(I) stock name 
and D$(I) purchase date. Characters 
beyond the space allocated are dis- 
carded. Note on lines 100-140 that 
strings need not be within quotation 
marks in MBASIC, unless left justifi- 



cation is not satisfactory. Where the 
day of the month is a single digit, I 
used quote marks to retain the lead- 
ing blank so that the month and year 
line up properly on the printed table. 
Other minor items: underlining 
lines (I used asterisks) such as line 
460 could be split in two. Just termi- 
nate the first half with a semicolon 
following the close-quote. Line 330 
could likewise be split. In line 480, 
the "tab (n-spaces)" simply starts the 
printing that far from the left margin. 
More blank spaces following the 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 127 






ANNOUNCING 
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open-quote mark would have accom- 
plished the same thing—just not quite 
as neatly. 

If the column headings in line 330 
don't line up with the columns, move 
things about until they do. Do this 
tidying on the screen, not on the 



hard-copy lines. When the screen 
version is perfect, then do a virtual 
copy for the LPRINT section. I find it 
easiest to initially number the 
LPRINT lines 1000 higher than their 
matching PRINT line. And I use 
EDIT 330 instead of LIST 330 be- 



61 Lake Shore Road, Natick, 
(617)653-6136 



MA 01760 



'clear screen 

Portfolio Valuation. .. .prices es of ";D1$ 



Date Shares Cost Price Value 



Diff %Gain" 



II. T . 
t *■ 1 

\ 



10 REM ****** "P0RTVAL" ****** 

20 CLEAR 

30 N=5 

40 IF N<=10 GOTO 60 

50 DIM A$(N),D$(N),S(N},C(N),P(N),V(N),D(N),G(N) 

60 RESTORE 

70 FOR 1=1 TO N 

80 READ A$(I),D$(I),S(I),C(I) 

90 NEXT I 

100 DATA Carlisle, 29Sep80, 160 ,9991 

110 DATA Crown Co rk,18Mar71 ,100,2231 

120 DATA Humana," 7Mar77", 900, 4900 

130 DATA Kysor,18Dec69,200,2758 

140 DATA Travelers," 2Dec68", 100, 3511 

150 FOR 1=1 TO N 

160 READ PlI) 

170 NEXT I 

180 READ D1$ 

190 DATA 84.0,28.4,71.4,10.6,38.9,30 Dec 80 

200 T1=0:T2=0:T3=0:T4=0 

210 FOR 1=1 TO N 

220 V(I)=S(I)*PII) 

230 D(I)=V(I)-C(I) 

240 GII)=100*D(I)/C(I) 

250 T1=T1+C(I) 

260 T2=T2+V(I) 

270 T3=T3+D(I) 

280 T4=100*T3/T1 

290 NEXT I 

300 PRINT CHR$(12) 

310 PRINT" 1 PORT VAL' 

320 PRINT 

330 PRINT" Stock 

340 PRINT 

350 FOR 1=1 TO N 

360 PRINT USING"## 

370 PRINT USING "\ 

380 PRINT USING"\ 

390 PRINT USING"### 

400 PRINT USING"##### 

410 PRINT USING"##.# 

420 PRINT USING"##### 

430 PRINT USING"##### 

440 PRINT USING"####.#";G(I) 

450 NEXT I 

460 print"*****************************************************************" 

470 PRINT "Tote Is"; 

480 PRINT TAB(29)USING" ###### ###### ";T1;T2; 

490 PRINT USING"##### ###.#" ;T3;T4 

500 PRINT 

510 INPUT "Hard copy? — YES enter 1 (printer on I)— NO hit RETURN ",J 
520 IF J=1 THEN 550 ELSE 540 
530 GOTO 550 
540 END 

550 LPRINT "'PORT VAL' Portfolio Valuation Prices as of ";D1$ 

560 LPRINT 

570 LPRINT" Stock Date Shares Cost Price Value Diff %Gain" 

580 LPRINT 

590 FOR 1=1 TO N 

600 LPRINT USING"## ";I; 

610 LPRINT USING"\ \ ";A$(D; 

620 LPRINT USING"\ \ ";D$(IJ; 

630 LPRINT USING"### ";S(I); 

640 LPRINT USING"##### ";C(D; 

650 LPRINT USING"##.# ";P(D; 

660 LPRINT USING"##### ";V(IJ; 

670 LPRINT USING"##### ";D(D; 

680 LPRINT USING"####.#";G(I) 

690 NEXT I 

700 lprint"****************************************************************" 

710 LPRINT"Totals"; 

720 LPRINT TAB(28)USING" ###### ###### ";T1;T2; 

730 LPRINT USING"##### ###.#";T3;T4 

740 GOTO 540 

Program listing. PORTVAL stock portfolio program in Microsoft BASIC. 



\ ";A$(D; 
";D$(D; 
";S(D; 
";C(I); 
";PID; 

";V(D; 
";D(D; 



128 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 129 



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cause the edit (hit the return again to 
print the line) doesn't leave an "OK" 
or "ready" line in between. Then 
when I type 1330, it is easier to copy 
the line now directly above; I just 
substitute the hard-copy LPRINT for 
the screen-copy PRINT command. 

The purpose of the plus- 1000 num- 
bering is to make the many initial 
spacing adjustments easier. If you 
have trouble on line 1420, you know 
you can solve it by comparing it to 
line 420. Once you've got screen and 
hard-copy spacing down it will never 
have to be changed— unless your 
portfolio grows so much you have to 
add more room for those larger num- 
bers! 

After you've checked the hard- 
copy layout and made any minor 
spacing corrections necessary, you 
can RENUM. For those of you who 
haven't used the RENUM command, 
learn it. It not only renumbers line 
numbers, but automatically changes 
any GOTO or IF-THEN-ELSE num- 
bers. It is a joy to watch. 

Before I figured out that I could use 
PRINT USING to format neat tables, 
I thought I had to have VisiCalc or 
T-Maker to make a many-columned 
table with "field arithmetic" opera- 
tions. Not so. Once you understand 
this program you can make most ta- 
bles you need. Most arithmetic com- 
mands are fairly obvious, and in ad- 
dition to those shown here, you can 
average, calculate weighted averages 
and do other common manipulations. 
One operation that may not seem 
simple at first glance is totaling a col- 
umn. Look at line 250: Tl =T1 +C(I). 
This is the command to total all the 
initial dollar costs. It wasn't obvious 
to me. If it's not to you, I'll lay out a 
numerical example that I found help- 
ful. 

Totaling a Column 

Assume you have three numbers: 
C(l) is 5; C(2) is 7; C(3) is 6. In a loop, 
where n = 3, you would say "FOR 
1=1 to N/Tl=Tl+C(I)/next I." OK. 
Initially Tl is zero (as you said in line 
200). So for the first pass, Tl =zero + 
C(l) or zero + 5. You're really saying 
the new Tl is the sum of the old Tl 
plus some number (identified to the 
computer by its subscript i). The ma- 
chine indexes and makes pass num- 
ber 2; the current Tl is now 5 and you 
say the next Tl = 5 + C(2) or 5 + 7. Af- 
ter two passes, the "newest" Tl is 12. 

One more pass. Tl will become the 
existing Tl (that is, 12) plus C(3). The 
most up-to-date Tl becomes the sec- 



ond pass Tl plus 6, or 12 plus 6. Yes, I 
know you did it in your head. And 
you're right: the final value of Tl is 
18. What the machine will call Tl 
(and will print when you call for Tl) 
is the final, or most recent, value. 
That's what is stored in its electronic 
pigeonhole labeled Tl. 

Stock split? Just change shares, S, 
for the stock involved, use the new 
lower price. No other change is nec- 
essary, as the total initial dollar cost 
is, of course, unchanged. No special 
effort has been made to identify 
stocks as long-term or short-term. 
Since the holding period is currently 
one year, a glance at the acquisition 
date makes the status obvious. Active 
traders, for whom this tax status is a 
key consideration, may want to run 
separate portfolios of long- and short- 
term stocks, switching listings as nec- 
essary. I find it helpful to list stocks 
alphabetically by exchange to make 
looking up prices faster. First NYSE, 
then American, then over-the-coun- 
ter. 

Coming Attractions 

Next month I'll give you an even 
shorter program called TIMEGAIN, 
which will demonstrate how to 
CHAIN to another program, passing 
selected variables to it. TIMEGAIN 
has no variables of its own. If you 
have several different portfolio valu- 
ation programs, you can run TIME- 
GAIN with any of them, with no data 
additions ever. This is done by stor- 
ing some "old" price data in a revised 
PORTVAL, even though it is not used 
there. It's just easier to do it that way. 

What is TIMEGAIN? It evaluates 
the performance of your portfolio 
over a fixed time period, not from the 
varying purchase dates of your 
stocks. You can, for example, follow 
dollar differences and percentage 
gains from the last day of one month 
to the last day of the next. It answers 
the question, 'But what have my 
stocks done for me lately?" Just be- 
cause it seemed like a nice idea, I've 
also added a "percent of portfolio" 
column. 

These are simple programs which 
will not make buy-or-sell decisions, 
but will make it easy for you to see 
long-term and current performance, 
for individual stocks as well as for the 
total portfolio. The key idea is that 
updating is so easy, you'll do it on a 
regular basis. Your decisions should 
be better simply because you have 
up-to-date management information, 
nicely presented. ■ 



130 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 131 



No complex hardware/software requirements needed to implement the time and date on your micro. 



Clock/Calendar 
For the 6809 



By David R. Rawson 



This digital calendar/clock will 
keep track of the current time 
and supply all information from the 
year to the second. This even in- 
cludes the day of the week. A small 
rechargeable Nicad battery pack 
keeps the clock functioning during 
computer off-time. 

The described application is for a 
6809 processor running under Flex 
9.0; however, it should be easy to 
adapt to other systems and proces- 
sors. 

Two listings provide the software 
for Flex 9.0 support. Listing 1 shows 
the method of setting the clock initial- 
ly and after a power loss. 

The amount of support electronics 
required is small, consisting of a par- 
allel interface and a few resistors and 
capacitors. 

The complete circuit (see Fig. 1) 
was assembled on a Percom I/O pro- 
totype board for the SS-50 bus. There 
are only three ICs on the board, in- 
cluding the power supply. The larg- 
est is a 6821 PI A (parallel interface 
adapter), which interfaces the clock 
to the computer bus, handling data, 
control and address information for 
the clock circuit. The next is the 
MSM5832 calendar/clock IC, which 
requires a 32.768 kHz crystal similar 
to the type used in digital watches. 
The last IC is an LM340T-5 regulator 
for the 5-volt supply. 



DavidR. Rawson, 1825Gary, Wichita, KS67219, 
is a computer hobbyist and flight simulator techni- 
cian. 



The heart of the clock is the 
MSM5832 microprocessor real-time 
clock/calendar IC made by OKI Semi- 
conductor, 1333 Lawrence Express- 
way, Santa Clara, CA 95051. I chose 
this IC because it interfaces easily to 
the 6809, requires minimal software 
and has many features. Some of these 
features include a leap year register, 
12- or 24-hour format, a single 5-volt 
supply, a reliable battery backup (to 
Vcc = 2.2 volts), low power dissipa- 
tion (2.5 mW max.) and an 18-pin 
DIP package. 

This IC greatly simplifies the cir- 
cuit when compared to other designs 
recently published. No level shifting 
is required when connecting any of 



SS-50 
I/O BUS 



5V 

20 



18 



15 



14 



13 



12 



— DO 

— Dl 
— D2 

— D3 

— D4 

— D5 
—06 

— D7 



21 



20 



— RSO 

— RSI 



CD- 



RST 



10 



II 



22 —IRQ 
I — CS 
— R/W 
-♦2 



33 
32 
31 
30 
29 

28 
27 

26 

36 

35 

34 

36 
23 
21 
25 



J. 



♦5V 



DO 

Dl 

02 

D3 

D4 

05 

06 

D7 

RSO 
RSI 

RST 



ICI 
6821 



AO 
Al 
A2 
A3 

B0 
Bl 
B2 

B 



B4 
B5 
B6 

B7 



OK (12) 
(>— <*/* 1 



IHWr-j 



(»->W\^— i 



(MM. ■» 



i>-^WV 1 



IMWV 1 



(►-'S/V/V , 



(MM 1 



()-**** 1 



IROA 
CS2 
R/W 
*2 



CSO 
CSI 



•3- 



♦8V 



GND 

J 



♦ 5V 

6 



22 



24 



the data, control or address lines to 
TTL-compatible loads. Also, the 
clock has a hold function that stops 
operation during a read or write; this 
prevents confusing updates of data. 
The register data is static and no digit 
scanning is used. This means that any 
digit is available for reading at any 
time. 

The MSM5832 can also generate 
timed interrupts. Table 1 gives the 
list of conditions and possible inter- 
vals. When using a PIA as the inter- 
face, you can simply connect the de- 
sired output to the appropriate inter- 
rupt line (CA1, CB1). The selection of 
the rate could even be under soft- 
ware control by using the spare I/O 



10 



1 1 



12 



15 



18 



IC2 
MSM5832 



DO 
01 
02 
D3 

A0 
Al 
A2 
A3 

WRITE 
READ 
±30 SEC 



XT 



XT 



CS 



V CC 



HOLD 



TST 
GND 



CI 
IO-35pF 



17 



T 



¥- 



,XI 
^ 32 768KHZ 



16 



C2 
20pF 



^h 



♦ 5V 



♦ 5V 



2N3906 



4 7 M F 



14 



13 



100 



2N3904 



-=-1.2*3 = 
— 36V 
ll-CD 



i" 





Fig. 1. 



132 Microcomputing, July 1981 



lines and a switching circuit. I don't 
use this as yet, but I do plan to incor- 
porate it in the future. 

Hardware Design 

The schematic is shown in Fig. 1. 
The PIA connections to the I/O bus 
are standard; however, I have labeled 
the functions and pin numbers on the 
schematic. The A side of the PIA is 
used for data transfers to and from 
the clock IC. It is configured as an in- 
put or output depending on the cur- 
rent function. It connects to the four 
clock-data lines. The high-order data 
lines are unused and their status is 
masked during a read. 

The B side of the PIA is divided into 
two four-bit parts. The low-order bits 
are used to address the registers in 
the clock, and are therefore connect- 
ed to the address lines. The high- 
order bits are used for controlling the 
hold, read and write functions. All of 
the data, address and control lines are 
tied to -»-5 through a 10k resistor, 
since they are tied low by the clock 
IC. The crystal and load capacitors 
connect to pins 16 and 17 to complete 
the oscillator circuit. 

CI allows minor trimming of the 
32.768 kHz oscillator. The chip select 
pin labeled CS (8) ties directly to +5. 
This is because the threshold on this 
pin is set higher than any other pin. 
This means that when the computer 
is turned off and the power supply 
drops to zero, the chip is deselected 
and the I/O pins are placed in the 
high-impedance state before any- 
thing can accidentally be changed by 
a processor in its death throes. 

A two-transistor regulator charges 



the Nicads and supplies about 4.4 V 
to the clock IC. I used three 2/3 AA 
batteries for the backup supply. 
These require about 50 mA charge 
current for 14 hours to reach full 
charge. You can charge them prior to 
installation (be sure the circuit is 
ready to have power applied) or you 
can run the computer for a while to 
build up a good charge. I found the 
latter to be far more enjoyable. Either 
way, with a full charge, several 
months of standby operation is possi- 
ble. 

Construction is simple, using num- 
ber 30 wire-wrap wire and point-to- 
point wiring. Component layout is 
not critical, so I oriented the ICs for 
the shortest distance between inter- 
connected pins. 

When the clock is completed, a fre- 
quency counter can be used to check 
and correct the 32.768 kHz oscillator 
using CI. This can be done with the 
board out of the computer, as accura- 
cy only varies ± 2 ppm between nor- 
mal and battery operation. 

Software Interface 

The software required to make the 



clock operational is fairly simple and 
straightforward. Listing 1 is the pro- 
gram to set the clock. The label 
CLOCK refers to the address of the 
board. I used slot 4, so the address is 
$E010. Two Flex routines, GETCHR 
and PSTRNG, are used for communi- 
cation with the operator's terminal. 
The following is a description of the 
flow of the program. 

First, the PIA is initialized and set 
up with the A and B sides' outputs. 
Also, a check is run to see if a board 
has been installed in the computer. If 
one is not found the program states 
this and returns to Flex. 

If all is OK so far, then each of the 
particulars for the current time is 
asked for. As each is input, it is com- 
pared to its maximum and checked to 
be sure it is a number, to catch input 
errors. 

The operator is also asked if this is a 
leap year. If the answer is yes, then 
the proper bit is set in the D10 digit. I 
only use the 24-hour mode, so the 
proper flag is set in the H 10 digit. Ta- 
ble 2 shows each register address, its 
limits and any special function bits. 

After all data is entered, the opera- 







Reference 


Pulse 


Conditions 


Output 


Frequency 


Width 


HOLD = L 


DO 


1024 Hz 


50% duty 


READ = H 


Dl 


1 Hz 


122.1 us 


CS = H 


D2 


1/60 Hz 


122.1 us 


A0-A3 = H 


D3 


1/3600 Hz 


122.1 us 



Note: 1024 Hz signal not affected by HOLD input. 
Others stop during HOLD. 

Table 1. Clock/calendar registers, limits and data. 



Address 


Inputs 


Counter 




Data I/O 




Limits 


Notes 


A3 


A2 


A2 


A0 




D3 


D2 


Dl 


DO 


















SI 


X 


X 


X 


X 


0to9 


SI and S10 set to on write. 











1 


S10 




X 


X 


X 


0to5 










1 





Mil 


X 


X 


X 


X 


0to9 










1 


1 


mho 




X 


X 


X 


0to5 







1 








HI 


X 


X 


X 


X 


to 9 







1 





1 


H10 


+ 


+ 


X 


X 


to 1/0 to 2 


D2 = 1 for PM D3= 1 for 24 hr 
D2 = 0for AMD3 = 0for 12 hr 





1 


1 





W 




X 


X 


X 


to 6 


days from Sunday 





1 


1 


1 


Dl 


X 


X 


X 


X 


0to9 




1 











D10 




+ 


X 


X 


0to3 


D2 = 1 for leap year 


1 








1 


M01 


X 


X 


X 


X 


0to9 




1 





1 





M010 








X 


Oto 1 




1 





1 


1 


YR1 


X 


X 


X 


X 






1 


1 








YR10 


X 


X 


X 


X 







Note: + = special function bits 
X = significant bits 

Table 2. Interrupt timer data. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 133 



tor is asked if he would like to reenter 
data for any mistakes. No data has 
been written to the IC at this point, so 
the entire entry sequence is repeated 
for a yes answer. A no answer will 
load data into the clock and will hold 
it there until released. This lets you 
synch it to some standard like WWV. 

Listing 2 shows how Flex 9.0 is 
modified so that the clock chip is read 
for the start-up information instead of 
the normal operator entry. The first 
portion supplies the jump to the new 
sequence from the old one at $CA50. 
The PIA is then initialized as before, 
and the same check is made for an in- 
stalled board. If no board is found, 
then the standard start-up sequence 
is used. 

Assuming a board is in place, the 
clock data is then read into a buffer 
area. As each register is read it is 
masked to remove erroneous data 
bits. The appropriate numbers are 
moved to the Flex constants SYS- 
DAY, SYSMON and SYSYR. Finally, 
each is output to the terminal as fol- 
lows: 

(HOME.CLEAR) 
SIGN ON 



The following 


is a list of supplier? 


> and costs as 


of this writing 


for the 


main components. 








Name 


Address 


Part 


Catalog No. 


Cost 


Digi-Key Corp. 


PO Box 677 


MSM5832 


MSM5832 


9.80 




Hiway 32 South 


Crystal 


KF36G 


2.70 




Thief River Falls 










MN 56701 








Percom Data 


211 N. Kirby 
Garland, TX 
75042 


Proto 
Board 




14.95 




tipple 








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^254 



Listing 1. 



^k ^^ yto ^k sto ^k ^b ^^ t^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^b ^^ \b i^ ^k t^ \b ^b ^b t^ ^b ^^ ^^ ^^ ^# ^b ^b ^U ^f ^# ^b t^ ^b ^b i^ ^b ^^ ^k ^U ^b ^^ ^^ ^U ^^ %^ ^b ^^ ^U ^b J# %^ ^^ %b ^k 
*^ *^ *^ ^* *^ ^^ *^ ^m *^ ^* ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ *^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 



** 

** THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO INITIALLY SET THE CLOCK/ 

** AND CALENDAR IT MAY ALSO BE USED IF SOME TYPE 

** OF POUER OUTAGE HAS CAUSED THE CHIP TO LOSE DATA 

** 

THE PROGRAM ASSUMES THAT THE BOARD IS INSTALLED 
IN PORT #4 AT ADDRESS *E010, HOUEVER IF NO BOARD 
IS INSTALLED THE PROGRAM UILL SO STATE AND EXIT 
TO FLEX GRACEFULLY. 



** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
** 



ALL DATA MUST BE ENTERED AS TUO DECIMAL DIGITS 
NUMBERS <10 SHOULD BE PREFACED WITH A 'O* 

AUGUST 7,1980 UOULD BE ENTERED AS FOLLOWS 
(YEAR ? 19)80 
(MONTH?) 08 
(DAY ?) 07 

PRINTING IN BRACKETS ARE THE COMPUTER PROMPTS 
DAY OF UEEK FROM SUNDAY REFER TO NUMBER OF DAYS 
PAST EX FOR THURSDAY ENTER 4 (THIS IS A SINGLE 
DIGIT) 

HOUR IS IN 24 HOUR FORMAT SO 6 00 PM IS HOUR 18 
SET MINUTES TO 1 OR 2 FROM PRESENT THEN TYPE ANY 
CHARACTER AT THIS MINUTE TO SYNC THE CLOCK 



** 
** 
** 
** 
** 
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** 
** 



1* *T* 1* ^ ^ 1* f* *H 1* 1* f* *^ f* »H f^ 1* ^ fl J|l ^ 1^ f^ f^ 1^ f^ f^^ Ffk J|l f^ ffi ^ ^ r^ ^ ffi f^k f^k f^k r^ f^ f^ f^ f^ J^ ^ ^ 1^ ffi /^ ^ ^ ^ l^ /fl J|| 

******************************************** 





* FLEX ROUTINES * 


CD1E 


PSTRNG EQU *CD1E 


CD15. 


GETCHR EQU *CD15 


CD03 


UARMS EQU *CD03 




* EXTERNAL EQUATES * 


0001 


VERSION EQU 1 


E010 


CLOCK EQU *E010 



BD 
8D 



C100 



C102 01 
C103 17 
C106 24 
C108 30 
C10C BD 
C10F 7E 
C112 30 
C116 BD 
C119 31 
CUD 30 
C121 
C124 
C126 30 
C12A BD 
C12D 8D 
C12F 30 
C133 BD 
C136 8D 
C138 30 
C13C BD 
C13F 8D 
C141 30 
C145 BD 
C148 8D 
C14A 30 
C14E BD 
C151 8D 
C153 30 
C157 BD 
C15A BD 
C15D 81 
C15F 26 
C161 B6 



ORG 



*C100 



00B4 

OA 

8D 011C 

CD1E 

CD03 

8D 0100 

CD1E 

8D 01BF 

8D 0120 

CD1E 

70 

8D 0120 

CD1E 

67 

8D 0120 

CD1E 

5E 

8D 0120 

CD1E 

51 

8D 0129 

CD1E 

4C 

8D 0129 

CD1E 

43 

8D 0129 

CD1E 

CD15 

59 

08 

C2E0 



* MAIN PROGRAM * 



TIME1 



OK 2 



FCB 


VERSION 






LBSR 


INIT 






BCC 


0K2 


IF SET THEN 


NO BOARD 


LEAX 


NOBD.PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 


REPORT THIS 




JMP 


UARMS 


EXIT 




LEAX 


INTRO, PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 






LEAY 


BLOCK, PCR 


LIST OF MAX 


FOR EACH DIGIT 


LEAX 


YEAR, PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 






BSR 


GET 2 






LEAX 


MONTH, PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 






BSR 


GET2 






LEAX 


DAY , PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 






BSR 


GET2 






LEAX 


DOU.PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 






BSR 


GET1 






LEAX 


HOUR , PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 






BSR 


GET2 






LEAX 


MINUTE, PCR 




JSR 


PSTRNG 






BSR 


GET2 






LEAX 


LPYR,PCR 






JSR 


PSTRNG 






JSR 


GETCHR 






CMPA 


#' Y 






BNE 


ONI 


IF LEAPYEAR 


SET CLOCK BIT 


LDA 


DAY 10 








134 Microcomputing, July 1981 



MICROPROCESSOR SUPPORT f.C.'S 



WE GUARANTEE FACTORY PRIME PARTS 



We are going to become the largest supplier of prime 
microprocessor support I.C.'S. We guarantee that our I.C.'S 
are purchased from manufacturer authorized distributors. 
This is the only way to deliver prime parts at the lowest 
possible prices. Our committment is to offer the best price 
and the fastest delivery to our customer. We give many 
thanks to our valued customers who have helped us grow. 



8080A 

8085A 

8086 

8088 

Z-80 

Z-80A 



CPU 
CPU 
CPU 
CPU 
CPU 
CPU 



4.95 
8.95 
99.95 
44.95 
6.70 
7.25 



Z80-P10 6.00 

Z80A-P10 7.10 
Z80 CTC 6.00 

Z80ACTC 7.10 
Z80-DMA 18.50 
Z80A-DMA 22.50 
Z80S10/0 18.50 
Z80AS10/0 22.50 
Z80-S10/1 18.50 
Z80A S10/1 22.50 
Z80-S10/2 18.50 
Z80A-S1 0/2 22.50 



3205 

3242 

8155 

8185 

8185-2 

8202 

8205 

8212 

8214 

8216 

8224 

8226 

8228 

8238 

8243 

8251A 

8253 

8255A 

8255A 5 

8257 

8257-5 

8259A 

8271 

8275 

8279 

8279-5 

8282 

8283 

8284 

8286 

8287 

8288 

8289 



3.95 

10.00 

11.25 

29.95 

39.95 

45.00 

3.95 

2.00 

3.95 

1.85 

2.65 

1.85 

5.00 

5.45 

4.65 

5.55 

9.85 

5.40 

5.40 

9.25 

9.25 

7.30 

60.00 

32.95 

10.80 

10.80 

6.70 

6.70 

5.85 

6.70 

6.70 

25.40 

49.95 



2708 EPROM 1Kx8 4.50 

2716 EPROM 2Kx8 7.00 

2732 EPROM 4Kx8 19.00 

4118 STATIC 1Kx8 15.00 

4164 200ns 64Kx1 Call 

Z80B CPU 21.00 



8755 

4000 

4001 

4002 

4006 

4007 

4008 

4009 

4010 

4011 

4012 

4013 

4014 

4015 

4016 

4017 

4018 

4019 

4020 

4021 

4022 

4023 

4024 

4025 

4026 

4027 

4028 

4029 

4030 

4031 

4032 

4033 

4034 

4035 

4037 

4040 

4041 

4042 

4043 

4044 

4046 

4047 

4048 

4049 



49.95 
.35 
.35 
.35 
1.39 
.29 
1.39 
.49 
.49 
.35 
.29 
.49 
1.39 
1.15 
.59 
1.19 
.99 
.49 
1.19 
1.19 
1.15 
.38 
.79 
.38 
2.50 
.65 
.85 
1.29 
.45 
3.25 
2.15 
2.15 
3.25 
.95 
1.95 
1.29 
1.25 
.95 
.85 
.85 
1.75 
1.25 
.99 
.69 



4050 

4051 

4052 

4053 

4055 

4056 

4059 

4060 

4066 

4068 

4069 

4070 

4071 

4072 

4073 

4075 

4076 

4078 

4081 

4082 

4085 

4086 

4093 

4099 

4104 

4501 

4502 

4503 

4505 

4506 

4507 

4508 

4510 

4511 

4512 

4514 

4515 

4516 

4519 

4520 

4522 

4526 

4527 

4528 



1. 
1. 
1. 
3. 
2. 
9. 
1. 



69 
10 
10 
10 
95 
95 
95 
39 
.75 
.35 
.35 
.49 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
1.29 
.35 
.35 
.35 
1.95 
.79 
.99 
2.25 
1.99 
.39 
1.65 
.69 
8.95 
.75 
.95 
3.95 
1.39 
1.39 
1.39 
3.95 
95 
69 
99 
39 
99 
15 
75 
99 



3 

1 



4531 

4532 

4539 

4543 

4553 

4555 

4556 

4581 

4582 

4584 

4585 

4702 

74C00 

74C02 

74C04 

74C08 

74C10 

74C14 

74C20 

74C30 

74C32 

74C42 

74C48 

74C73 

74C74 

74C85 

74C89 

74C90 

74C93 

74C95 

74C107 

74C151 

74C154 

74C157 

74C160 

74C161 

74C163 

74C164 

74C173 

74C174 

74C175 

74C192 

74C193 

74C195 



NEC 16Kx1 DYNAMIC RAM 200 N.S. 

These are prime 4116's from one of the best 
MOS RAM manufacturers in the world. 
4116 200ns 

8 for $25.00 32 for 96.00 



NEC 1Kx4 STATIC RAM 250 N.S. 

These are prime low power static ram's NEC 
for the finest in MOS MEMORY. 

2114L 250ns 

8 for $25.00 32 for $96.00 



.99 
1.25 
.99 
1.99 
3.50 
.75 
.75 
1.99 
1.01 
.55 
.99 
9.95 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.49 
.49 
1.65 
.39 
.39 
.99 
1.85 
2.39 
.85 
.85 
2.49 
4.95 
1.85 
1.85 
1.85 
1.19 
2.49 
3.50 
2.10 
2.39 
2.30 
2.39 
2.39 
2.59 
2.75 
2.75 
2.39 
2.39 
2.39 



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Telephone Orders & Inquiries 1-800-426-2668 

Minimum Order $10.00 Add $3.00 Shipping 



74C925 

74LS00 

74LS01 

74LS02 

74LS03 

74LS04 

74LS05 

74LS08 

74LS09 

74LS10 

74LS11 

74LS12 

74LS13 

74LS14 

74LS15 

74LS20 

74LS21 

74LS22 

74LS26 

74LS27 

74LS28 

74LS30 

74LS32 

74LS37 

74LS38 

74LS42 

74LS47 

74LS48 

74LS51 

74LS54 

74LS55 

74LS73 

74LS74 

74LS75 

74LS76 

74LS78 

74LS83 

74LS85 

74LS86 

74LS90 

74LS92 

74LS93 

74LS95 

74LS96 



1 



6.95 
.35 
.28 
.28 
.28 
.39 
.28 
.39 
.39 
.28 
.39 
.39 
.47 
25 
.39 
.26 
.38 
.38 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.26 
.39 
.79 
.39 
.79 
.79 
.79 
.26 
.35 
.35 
.45 
.59 
.68 
.45 
.65 
.99 

1.19 
.45 
.75 
.75 
.75 
.88 
.98 



74LS107 

74LS109 

74LS112 

74LS122 

74LS123 

74LS125 

74LS126 

74LS132 

74LS136 

74LS138 

74 LSI 39 

74LS145 

74LS148 

74LS151 

74LS153 

74LS155 

74LS156 

74LS157 

74LS158 

74LS160 

74LS161 

74LS162 

74LS163 

74LS164 

74LS165 

74LS166 

74LS170 

74LS173 

74LS174 

74LS175 

74LS181 

74LS190 

74LS191 

74LS192 

74LS193 

74LS194 

74LS195 

74LS196 

74LS197 

74LS221 

74LS240 

74LS241 

74LS242 

74LS243 



.45 
.45 
.49 
.55 
1.19 
1.35 
.89 
.79 
.59 
.89 
.89 
1.25 
1.49 
.79 
.79 
1.19 
.99 
.99 
.75 
.98 
1.15 
.98 
.98 
1.19 
.89 
2.49 
1.99 
.89 
.99 
.99 
2.20 
1.15 
1.15 
.98 
.98 
1.15 
.95 
.89 
.89 
1.49 
1.95 
1.90 
1.95 
1.95 



74LS244 

74LS245 

74LS247 

74LS248 

74LS249 

74LS251 

74LS253 

74LS257 

74LS258 

74LS259 

74LS260 

74LS261 

74LS266 

74LS273 

74LS275 

74LS279 

74LS283 

74LS290 

74LS293 

74LS295 

74LS298 

74LS324 

74LS347 

74LS348 

74LS352 

74LS353 

74LS363 

74LS365 

74LS366 

74LS367 

74LS368 

74LS373 

74LS374 

74LS375 

74LS377 

74LS385 

74LS386 

74LS390 

74LS393 

74LS395 

74LS399 

74LS424 

74LS668 

74LS670 



1.95 
4.95 
1.10 
1.10 
1.69 
1.79 
.98 
.98 
.98 
2.95 
.69 
2.49 
.59 
1.75 
4.40 
.59 
1.10 
1.29 
1.95 
1.10 
1.29 
1.75 
1.95 
1.95 
1.65 
1.65 
1.49 
.99 
.99 
.73 
.73 
2.75 
2.75 
.69 
1.95 
1.95 
.65 
1.95 
1.95 
1.70 
2.95 
2.95 
1.75 
2.29 



HANUY ENGINEERING 

(206) 643-0792 
13400 NORTHUP WAY 22 
BELLEVUE, WASHINGTON 98005 



^5 



FOR THE FINEST IN MICROPROCESSOR SUPPORT I.C.'S 



Listing 1 


cor 


C164 


BA 


C166 


B7 


C169 


B6 


C16C 


8ft 


C16E 


B7 


C171 


30 


C175 


BD 


C178 


BD 


C17B 


81 


C17D 


27 


C17F 


8D 


C181 


30 


C185 


BD 


C188 


BO 


C18B 


4F 


CISC 


B7 


C18F 


7E 



C192 C6 
C194 20 
C196 C6 
C198 BD 
C19B 81 
C19D 2D 
C19F 81 
Clftl 2E 
Clft3 80 
Clft5 ftl 
Clft7 2E 
Clft9 ft7 
ClftB 5ft 
ClftC 27 
ClftE 20 
C1B0 39 
C1B1 30 
C1B5 BD 
C1B8 20 



04 

C2E0 

C2E3 

08 

C2E3 

8D 014C 

CD1E 

CD15 

59 

84 

5E 

8D 0106 

CD1E 

CD15 

E012 
CD03 



01 

02 

02 

CD15 

30 

12 

39 

OE 

30 

2B 

08 

ftO 

02 
E8 

8D 00F9 

CD1E 

DE 



ORft 
STft 
ONI LDft 
ORft 
STft 
LEftX 
JSR 
JSR 
CMPft 
BEQ 
B5R 
LEftX 
JSR 
JSR 
CLRft 
STft 
JMP 



GET1 

GET2 
GET 



RTN1 
G2ERR 



LDB 

BRft 

LDB 

JSR 

CMPft 

BLT 

CMPft 

BGT 

SUBft 

CMPft 

BGT 

STft 

DECB 

BEQ 

BRft 

RTS 

LEftX 

JSR 

BRft 



BIT IS IN MONTH DftTft 



24 HOUR FORMftT ONLY 
SO SET BIT IN HOURS 



*S4 

DftYlO 

H10 

*«8 

H10 

ERR0R1,PCR UftNT TO REDO 

PSTRNG 

GETCHR 

#' Y 

TIME1 

SET PUT DftTft IN CLOCK 

STftRT.PCR 

PSTRNG 

GETCHR DON'T RELEASE CLOCK UNTIL TOLD TO 

CLOCKS RELEftSE HOLD 
WARMS 



* SUBROUTINES * 



#1 

GET 

#2 

GETCHR 

*$30 

G2ERR 

#*39 

G2ERR 

#*30 

11. Y 

G2ERR 

,Y+ 



GET TUO NUMBERS ftND VERIFY LIMITS 
THEN STORE IN DftTft BLOCK 



COMPARE TO LIMIT 
THEN STORE 



RTN1 
GET 

ERRORS . PCR 

PSTRNG 

GET 



* SETUP PIft ftND CHK FOR BOftRD * 



ClBft 4F 
C1BB B7 



INIT 



E011 



CLRft 
STft 



CLOCK*! 




(day of week) 
DATE XX:XX:XX 
TIME XX:XX:XX 

+ + + 

When appending this to Flex, you 
must modify the last three bytes in 
the last sector of the file. These cur- 
rently contain $16 CD 00, which is a 
loader command, and the transfer ad- 
dress for Flex startup. This tells the 
computer where to start execution of 
the DOS. These should be changed to 
$00 00 00 to remove the transfer at 
this point. 

As you will note, the last line of the 
listing is END $CD00. This will re- 
store the transfer at the new end of 
the file. The program currently re- 
sides at $BDB0, but the object code is 
location-independent, and will run 
anywhere without modification. 

An indirect jump table is stored at 
the top of the utility command space; 
no utility uses this part of memory so 
it is safe here. Each clock function is 
available through this table. The list 
of possibilities is in the listing. I have 
used this method because changes in 



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136 Microcomputing, July 1981 



the clock programs will not require 
each calling program to be changed, 
since the appropriate new address 
will be stored in the table. I have 
modified most of the programs that 
use a date printout so that they now 
also print out the time. This is very 
handy if you do several listings in a 
day and want to find the most recent 
one quickly. One nonstandard Flex 
subroutine, labeled PTEXT, is used. 
This routine is the same as PSTRNG 
except that no carriage return and 
line feed are issued. 

Most of the required programming 
to read and write the clock data is 
supplied in these listings. There are 
even routines for conversion from 
two decimal digits to one binary digit 
and back. 

Conclusion 

This clock is an enjoyable and use- 
ful addition to my system. I no longer 
have to enter the date at each start- 
up, and I can now time operations 
and control things on a timed basis. 
The small hardware requirement and 
the simple software make it easy to 
adapt to any system. ■ 



Listing 1 continued. 



C1BE B7 
C1C1 43 
C1C2 B7 
C1C5 B7 
C1C8 86 
C1CA B7 
C1CD B7 
C1D0 F6 
C1D3 Bl 
C1D6 24 
C1D8 1A 
C1DA 20 
C1DC 1C 
C1DE 39 



C1DF 86 
C1E1 B7 
C1E4 8D 
C1E6 C6 
C1E8 30 
C1EC F7 
C1EF A6 
C1F1 B7 
C1F4 CA 
C1F6 F7 
C1F9 C4 
C1FB F7 
C1FE CI 
C200 27 
C202 5A 
C203 20 
C205 39 



E013 

E010 

E012 

3E 

E011 

E013 

E012 

E013 

04 

01 

02 

FE 



NFG 

OK 
RTN 



STA 

COMA 

STA 

STA 

LDA 

STA 

STA 

LDB 

CMPA 

BCC 

ORCC 

BRA 

ANDCC 

RTS 



CL0CK+3 

CLOCK 

CLOCK+2 

#*3E 

CLOCK+1 

CLOCK+3 

CLOCK+2 

CLOCK+3 

OK 

#1 

RTN 

#*FE 



* SET DATA IN CLOCK/CALENDAR * 



80 

E012 

20 

8C 

8D 00F0 

E012 

80 

E010 

10 

E012 

8F 

E012 

80 

03 

E7 



SET 

ON 
DLY2 



C206 34 

C208 86 

>C20A 1021 FFF8 

C20E 4A 

C20F 27 

C211 20 

C213 35 

C215 39 



02 
13 



02 
F7 
02 



0N3 



DELAY 



DELAY1 



OVER 



LDA 

STA 

BSR 

LDB 

LEAX 

STB 

LDA 

STA 

ORB 

STB 

ANDB 

STB 

CMPB 

BEQ 

DECB 

BRA 

RTS 



PSHS 

LDA 

LBRN 

DECA 

BEQ 

BRA 

PULS 

RTS 



#*80 

CLOCK+2 

DELAY 

#*8C 

BLOCK, PCR 

CLOCK+2 

,X+ 

CLOCK 

#*10 

CLOCK+2 

#*8F 

CLOCK+2 

#$80 

0N3 

DLY2 



A 

*»13 

DELAY 

OVER 

DELAY1 

A 




MORE STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT DISK DRIVES 



DON'T BE CONFUSED BY ALL THE BRAND NAMES YOU SEE IN THE MARKET PLACE, THERE ARE VERY FEN MANUFACTURERS OF THE BASIC 

DRIVE CHASSIS, ALL THE OTHER NAHES ARE THOSE OF THE ASSEMBLERS OR THE RETAILERS. 

AS MANUFACTURED, THE DRIVE WILL NOT RUN ON A TRS-80!, IT MUST BE MODIFIED BY THE ASSEMBLER. 

THE QUALITY OF THE DRIVE DELIVERED TO YOU IS DEPENDENT ON BOTH THE MANUFACTURER AND THE ASSEMBLER, THE BEST CAN TURN 

TO JUNK IF THE ASSEMBLY IS IMPROPERLY DONE. 

THE POWER SUPPLY AND CASE ARE VERY IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF THE COMPLETE DRIVE, THE CASE MUST ALLOW PROPER COOLING 

AIR FLGW, AND THE POWER SUPPLY MUST MAINTAIN TWO CONSTANT VOLTAGES. 

YOU MUST DEPEND OH WE COMPANY SELLIN6 YOU THE DRIVE TO SERVICE IT AT REASONABLE COST WHEN IT FAILS YOU THE 

MANUFACTURER IS NOT EQUIPPED TO DO THIS! 

THE BEST MEASURE OF QUALITY IN A DRIVE IS IT'S SPECIFICATIONS, WILL IT HANDLE DOUBLE DENSITY, WHAT IS THE TRACK TO 

TRACK ACCESS TIME, THE ANSWERS TO THESE TWO QUESTIONS INDICATE THE PRECISION OF IT'S COMPONENTS. 

WHAT KIND OF DRIVE SHOULD YOU BUY ? LEVEL IV HAS CHOSEN TO DISTRIBUTE EXCLUSIVELY, THE MPI LINE, ALL MODELS OF MPI 

ARE DOUBLE DENSITY RATED AND REQUIRE ONLY A FIVE MILLI-SECQND TRACK TO TRACK ACCESS TIME. 

WHAT DO ALL THE MODEL NUMBERS MEAN? 

B-52= 40/40 TRACKS DOUBLE HEAD DOUBLE SIDE 
B-92= 80/80 TRACKS DOUBLE HEAD DOUBLE SIDE 

(DUALS) -TWO DRIVES IN ONE CASE (RAW) -NO POWER SUPPLY OR CASE 
IS ONE OF THE OLDEST AND LAR6EST DISTRIBUTORS OF TRS-801 EQUIPMENT, LOOK 
AT WE MS IN WUR OLD MA6AZINES, MANY OF THE ADVERTISERS ARE NO LONGER IN BUSINESS, LEVEL IV HAS BEEN A LEADER 
SINCE THE BEGINNING, WE STAND BEHIND OUR PRODUCTS, AND WE'LL BE HERE WHEN YOU NEED HELP. 

■ WHERE DO THE NATIONALLY KNOWN AUTHORS BUY THEIR DRIVES ? LEVEL IV CAN SHOW COPIES OF SALES RECEIPTS FOR DRIVES TO 
HOST OF THEM, LEVEL IV ALSO PROVIDES SERVICE FOR THEIR DRIVES AND COMPUTER SYSTEMS IN OUR FULLY EQUIPPED TECH CENTER. 

■ CALL FOR OUR LOW PRICES ON NEW AND USED DRIVES, AND REMEMBER, WE ALSO TAKE TRADES! 

LEVEL IV PRODUCTS INC. 32461 SCHOOLCRAFT, LIVONIA, MI 48150 
PHONES: MI (313) 525-6200 OTHERS 800-521-3305 (TOLL FREE) 

I a trademark of the RADIO SHACK DIV. of TANDY CORP. ^23 



B-51= 40 TRACKS SINGLE HEAD SINGLE SIDE 
B-91= 80 TRACKS SINGLE HEAD SINGLE SIDE 
(DOUBLE HEADS) -READ BOTH SIDES OF DISK 
WHERE SHOULD YOU BUY YOUR DRIVE, LEVEL IV 



^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 137 



SINGLE BOARD 
COMPUTER 

$49.95 




The MASTER CONTROLLER 
BOARD contains: 

Z-80 Microprocessor: will run 
8080/8085 and Z-80 programs. 
72 - Parallel I/O lines; three 8255s 
Keyboard controller: 8279 
(also can control a 16 digit 
seven segment display) 
12K - EPROM: three sockets for 
2708,2716,2732, 
2K-RAM: 2114s 
8 - Sixteen bit counter timer 
channels: one 8253 and one 
AMD 9513 
2 - Serial I/O ports; one Z-80 SIO 
chip. One port has an RS-232 
interface and connector. 
1 - High speed arithmetic 
processor: AMD 951 1 or 
AMD 9512 

All the I/O chips are memory 
mapped AND I/O mapped. A 
bus expansion connector is 
provided. Can be operated on 
5 volts only. 

All this on one board less than 
nine inches on a side 

Only three LSI chips (Z-80, 8255, 

and EPROM) plus support gates 

and buffers are required for a 

working controller. 

BARE BOARD $49.95 
With documentation. 

MINIMUM KIT $99.95 Includes bare 
board with documentation, one each 
Z-80, 8255, 2708, two 2114s, and 
support gates and buffers, all socketed. 

MONITOR $39.95 This program allows 
a TTY or CRT to control the MASTER 
CONTROLLER. This program requires 
the minimum kit and monitor parts kit. 
A programmed 2708 is supplied with 
the MONITOR. 

MONITOR PARTS $54.95 

Includes 8253, Z-80 SIO, 1488, 1489, 
and connector. 

POWER SUPPLY $39.95 +5V 1A, -5V 
'/•A, +12V%A,-12V V4A 

POWER SUPPLY $44.95 + 5V 2A, other- 
wise same as above. 

Please include $2 postage and handling. 

OEM and dealer inquiries invited. 
VISA and MASTER CARD accepted. 

R.W. ELECTRONICS ^390 

3165 North Clybourn 

Chicago, IL 60618 

(312)248-2480 



Listing 1 continued. 













* STRINGS * 


C216 


45 


4E 


54 


45 


INTRO FCC 


C21A 


52 


20 


44 


41 




C21E 


54 


45 


20 


26 




C222 


20 


54 


49 


4D 




C226 


45 










C227 


04 








FCB 


C228 


4E 


4F 


20 


43 


NOBD FCC 



/ENTER DATE & TIME/ 



/NO CLOCK BOARD INSTALLED/ 



C22C 4C 4F 43 4B 
C230 20 42 4F 41 
C234 52 44 20 49 
C238 4E 53 54 41 
C23C 4C 4C 45 44 
C240 04 

C241 59 45 41 52 
C245 3F 20 31 39 
C249 04 

C24A 4D 4F 4E 54 
C24E 4B 3F 20 20 
C252 04 

C253 44 41 59 3F 
C257 20 20 20 20 
C25B 04 

C25C 44 41 59 53 
C260 20 46 52 4F 
C264 4D 20 53 55 
C268 4E 44 41 59 
C26C 3F 
C26D 04 

C26E 48 4F 55 52 
C272 3F 20 20 20 
C276 04 

C277 4D 49 4E 55 
C27B 54 45 3F 20 
C27F 04 

C:280 4C 45 41 50 
C284 20 59 45 41 
C288 52 3F 
C28A 04 

C28B 50 52 45 53 
C28F 53 20 41 4E 
C293 59 20 4B 45 
C297 59 20 54 4F 
C29B 20 53 54 41 
C29F 52 54 20 43 
C2A3 4C 4F 43 4B 
C2A7 3E 3E 3E 3E 
C2AB 3E 3E 
C2AD 04 

C2AE 45 52 52 4F 
C2B2 52 20 20 52 
C2B6 45 2D 45 4E 
C2BA 54 45 52 21 
C2BE 21 21 
C2C0 04 

C2C1 57 41 4E 54 
C2C5 20 54 4F 20 
C2C9 52 45 44 4F 
C2CD 20 46 4F 52 
C2D1 20 4D 49 53 
C2D5 54 41 4B 45 
C2D9 53 3F 
C2DB 04 

C2DC 

C2DC 

C2DC 
C2DD 
C2DE 
C2DF 
C2E0 
C2E1 
C2E2 
C2E3 
C2E4 
C2E5 
C2E6 

C2E7 09 09 01 09 
C2EB 03 09 06 02 
C2EF 09 05 09 



YEAR 



MONTH 



DAY 



DOU 



FCB 
FCC 


4 

/YEAR? 19/ 


FCB 
FCC 


4 

/MONTH? / 


FCB 
FCC 


4 

/DAY? / 


FCB 
FCC 


4 

/DAYS FROM 



HOUR 



FCB 

FCC 



FCB 
MINUTE FCC 



LPYR 



FCB 
FCC 



/HOUR? / 



/MINUTE? / 



/LEAP YEAR?/ 



FCB 
START FCC 



/PRESS ANY KEY TO START CLOCK) >>>>>/ 



FCB 
ERRORS FCC 



/ERROR RE-ENTER! ! !/ 



FCB 
ERR0R1 FCC 



/UANT TO REDO FOR MISTAKES?/ 





FCB 


4 


BLOCK 


EQU 


* 




ORG 


BLOCK 


YR10 


RMB 




YR1 


RMB 




M010 


RMB 




M01 


RMB 




DAY 10 


RMB 




DAY1 


RMB 




DOUK 


RMB 




H10 


RMB 




HI 


RMB 




MI10 


RMB 




Mil 


RMB 





DAY OF UEEK (NUMBER FROM SUNDAY) 



MAX 



FCB 



END 



9,9,1,9,3,9,6,2,9,5,9 



CALSET 



SYMBOL 


TABLE ' 


















BL OCK 


C2DC 


CALSET 


C100 


CLOCK 


E010 


DAY 


C253 


DAY1 


C2E1 


DAY10 


C2E0 


DELAY 


C206 


DELAY1 


C20A 


DLY2 


C1EC 


DOU 


C25C 


E>OUK 


C2E2 


ERROR1 


C2C1 


ERRORS 


C2AE 


G2ERR 


C1B1 


GET 


C198 


6FT1 


C192 


GET2 


C196 


GETCHR 


CD15 


HI 


C2E4 


H10 


C2E3 


HOUR 


C26E 


INIT 


C1BA 


INTRO 


C216 


LPYR 


C280 


MAX 


C2E7 


MI 1 


C2E6 


MHO 


C2E5 


MINUTE 


C277 


MOl 


C2DF 


M010 


C2DE 


MONTH 


C24A 


NFG 


C1D8 


NOBD 


C228 


OK 


C1DC 


OK 2 


C112 


ON 


C1E6 


ONI 


C169 


0N3 


C205 


OVER 


C213 


PSTRNG 


CD1E 


RTN 


C1DE 


RTN1 


C1B0 


SET 


C1DF 


START 


C28B 


TIME1 


C103 


VERS 10 


0001 


UARMS 


CD03 


YEAR 


C241 


YR1 


C2DD 


YR10 


C2DC 



138 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Listing 2 



^k ite ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^t i^ ^b ^b ^# tb ^b ^b tl# ^L tA> ^u tb ^b 4f ^* tit tAf tit ti# ^t tA# ^u *A# tfa tAf J ■ tAt tAt ^b tA> %h ^b tAt tA# %if 

^^ ^p ^^ ^* *^* ^^ ^^ ^p ^^ ^^ ^p ^t* ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^M ^M ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^M ^^ ^^ ^^ *^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b tA# ^b ^b ^b tAf tAf it/ ^b ^b ^b tAf tAf ^b tAr ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b tAr %fa ^b ^b ^b tb ^b ^b iAf ^b ^b ^b ^b Wb 
^P ^P ^P ^P ^^ ^^ ^P ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^* ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

** NEU VERSION OF FLEX PATCH. ADDS NEU ROU- ** 

** TINES TO ALLOW ANY PROGRAM TO PRINT TIME ** 

** OR READ ANY CLOCK DATA SITS AT TOP OF ** 

** USER AND PROTECTS ITSELF ** 

^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b %A# ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^^ ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b/ ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b 

^^ ^% ^^ ^^ ^* ^^ ^M ^^ ^^ ^^ ^M ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^M ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^M ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^M '^ ^M ^^ 

^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^A# ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b %A# ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b tA# ^b tAf ^b ^b ^b %b %b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b ^b %b ^b ^b ^b 
^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ *^* ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

* FLEX EQUATES * 



CCIO 


SYSYR 


EQU 


♦CCIO 


CCOF 


SYSDAY 


EQU 


♦CCOF 


CCOE 


SYSMTH 


EQU 


♦CCOE 


CD18 


PUTCHR 


EQU 


♦CD18 


CD1E 


PSTRN6 


EQU 


♦CD1E 


CD24 


PCRLF 


EQU 


♦CD24 


CE84 


PTEXT 


EQU 


♦CE84 


CC2B 


MEMEND 


EQU 


♦CC2B 



* CLOCK BOARD ADDRESS FOR PORT #4 * 

EOIO CLOCK EQU ♦EOIO 

* CURRENT TOP OF MEMORY * 



BFFF TOP 



EQU 



♦BFFF 



*** ADJUST FOR YOUR SYSTEM *** 



* INDIRECT JUMP TABLE FOR CLOCK FUNCTIONS * 

* PUT TABLE AT TOP OF UTILITY SPACE * 



C6E0 
C6E0 
C6E2 
C6E4 
C6E6 
C6E8 
C6EA 
C6EC 
C6EE 
C6F0 
C6F2 



BEC3 
BECA 
BFD2 
BFBO 
BF66 
BF3C 
BF43 
BF45 
BE12 
BE6E 





ORG 


♦C6E0 


CLOCK1 


FDB 


DATEH 


CL0CK2 


FDB 


DATEN 


CLOCK3 


FDB 


DATEA 


CLOCK* 


FDB 


DATA 


CLOCKS 


FDB 


GETTIM 


CL0CK6 


FDB 


TIMEH 


CLOCK7 


FDB 


TIMEN 


CLOCK8 


FDB 


LSTTIM 


CL0CK9 


FDB 


DOU 


CLOCKA 


FDB 


GETDAT 



PRINT DATE UITH LABEL 

PRINT DATE AS MM/DD/YY 

PRINT DATE AS DD-MMM-YY 

BLOCK OF 13 BYTES AS CLOCK DATA 

GET NEU TIME TO BUFFER 

PRINT TIME WITH LABEL 

PRINT PLAIN TIME AS XX ' XX ' XX 

PRINT LAST CALLED TIME PLAIN 

PRINTS DAY OF WEEK 

GET DATA FROM STT TO STP 



* PATCH TO JUMP TO NEU STARTUP * 



CA50 
CA50 7E 
CA53 00 
CA37 00 
CA39 8D 
BDBO 
BDBO CC 
BDB3 FD 
BDB6 4F 
BDB7 B7 
BDBA B7 
BDBD B7 
BDCO 43 
BDC1 B7 
BDC4 86 
BDC6 B7 
BDC9 B7 
BDCC Ffe 
BDCF Bl 
BDD2 27 
BDD4 BE 
BDD7 BD 
BDDA BD 
BDDD 7E 
BDEO 86 
BDE2 A7 
BDE6 86 
BDE8 A7 
BDEC AD 
BDFO 17 
BDF3 30 
BDF7 BD 
BDFA BD 
BDFD AD 
BE01 BD 
BECK AD 
BEOS BD 
BEOB AD 
BEOF 7E 
BE12 34 
BE14 30 
BE18 E6 
BE1A 86 
BE1C 3D 
BE1D 30 
BE21 3A 
BE22 BD 
BE25 35 
BE27 39 
BE28 53 
BE2C 41 
BE30 20 
BE31 04 
BE32 4D 
BE36 41 
BE3A 20 



BDBO 
00 00 00 

00 

5B 

BDAF 
CC2B 

E011 
E013 
EOIO 

E012 

3E 

E011 

E013 

E012 

E013 

OC 

CADO 

CE82 

CE2C 

CA59 

AO 



PATCH 
FILL 

RETURN 
START1 
START2 



BRDOK 



8D 
AC 
8D 
9F 



01E4 



01DF 
C6F2 

OOAD 

8D 019C 

CD1E 

CD24 

9F C6F0 

CD24 

9F C6E0 

CD24 

9F C6EA 

CA71 
16 

8D 0198 

06 

OA 

8D 0007 

CE84 
16 

55 4E 44 
59 20 20 



4F 4E 44 
59 20 20 



DOU 



WKDYS 



ORG 

JMP 
FCB 



BSR 

ORG 

LDD 

STD 

CLRA 

STA 

STA 

STA 

COMA 

STA 

LDA 

STA 

STA 

LDB 

CMPA 

BEQ 

LDX 

JSR 

JSR 

JMP 

LDA 

STA 

LDA 

STA 

JSR 

LBSR 

LEAK 

JSR 

JSR 

JSR 

JSR 

JSR 

JSR 

JSR 

JMP 

PSHS 

LEAK 

LDB 

LDA 

MUL 

LEAX 

ABX 

JSR 

PULS 

RTS 

FCC 



FCB 
FCC 



♦CA50 

START1 

0,0,0,0,0,0 



♦CAB6 
♦BDBO 
#START1-1 
MEMEND 



SETUP PIA 



CLOCK+1 
CLOCK+3 
CLOCK 

CLOCK+2 

^♦3E 

CLOCK+1 

CLOCK+3 

CLOCK+2 

CLOCK+3 

BRDOK 

♦♦♦CADO 

♦CE82 

♦CE2C 

♦CA59 

*^A0 

STT,PCR 

♦♦♦AC 

STP,PCR 

C CLOCKA D 

DT2FLX 

INTRO, PCR 

PSTRNG 

PCRLF 

CCL0CK9D 

PCRLF 

CCL0CK1 3 

PCRLF 

CCLOCK6 3 

♦CA71 

A.B.X 

DATA, PCR 

6,X 

#10 

WKDYS, PCR 

PTEXT 
A,B,X 

/SUNDAY 



/MONDAY 



BOARD OK, THEN GET DATA 
ELSE USE STANDARD START 



SET UP TO GET ALL DATA 



GETDATA 

MOVE DATE TO FLEX 



PRINT CURRENT DAY OF WEEK 
PRINT DATE 
PRINT TIME 

PRINT PLAIN DAY OF WEEK 




MICROSETTE 
CASSETTES 



A 




i » 



• • 



t v 1 






• 






| £ - 






W 1 












1 


• • 




* 


. . J 



C-10 C-20 

COMPUTER CASSETTES 



■*l 



A-l 














(60 Afe 




I Afe »o 


WF 




Wf 


>** » -fcl *i* o I 


(>J. - 


t »* Vtm t >■ v*k. t 



• * 









1 J*i 








1 C-90 A^ 1 




■ • l 






- ■«. 


■ 


m * * 


* 


* * k 



C-60 C-90 

AUDIO CASSETTES 



Microsette, the undisputed industry 
leader in short cassettes for micro- 
computer applications also offers 
equally high grade audio cassettes 
at budget prices. Credit card buyers 
may phone (415) 968-1604. 

LOOK AT OUR PRICES 



Length 


10 Pack 


50 Pack 


C-10 


$ 7.50 


$32.50 


C-20 


$ 9.00 


$39.00 


C-60 


$13.50 


$57.50 


C-90 


$17.50 


$77.50 



UPS shipment in Cont. USA incl. 
We can not ship to P.O. Boxes 



Length 


Qty. 


Price 


Total 


















SUBTOTAL 




Calif. Cust. add Sales Tax 




TOTAL 





Check or money order enclosed □ 
Charge to: Visa □ Master Card □ 
Account No. 

Expiration Date 



/ 

I 

I 



SIGNATURE 



KM 



MICROSETTE CO. 

475 Ellis Street 
Mt. View, CA 94043 



•See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 139 



Sprint 68 
Microcomputer 




CONTROL COMPUTER 
DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

6800 MPU, serial I/O, 48K RAM, dual 8" 
drives, WIZRD multitasking DOS, editor, 
assembler, 12K BASIC, all for $3995. 

OPTIONS 

C, PL/W, PASCAL, FORTRAN, EROM pro- 
grammer, analog I/O, parallel I/O, 488 
GPIB interface, CMOS RAM/battery, power 
tail detect/power on reset 



WIXII-K 



Wintek Corp «^ 163 
1801 South Street 
Lafayette. IN 47904 
317-742-8428 



System Software Design. Inc. 

presents 

Ultimate Data System 

for 

The Rpple II* computer with 

• Applesoft* in ROM or language System* 

• 48K of ftRM 

• 2 Disk Drives 

• Optional PVinter 

This easy-to-use data manager will make 

• General Ledger 

• Moiling Lists 

• Inventory 

• Rny other data related tasks 
quick and efficient to manage 

Seek times under l /2 second for data lists 

up to 7500 records 

Many more fast and poaierful features 

Snglecopy SI 00 00 

Dealer terms available 

UJnte to 

System Software Design. Inc 

1 24 Seventh St 

Providence R I 02906 



*T M of Rpple Computer Inc 



^367 




f^yX if You've Written an 

V Extraordinary Program- 

We'd Like to Publish It! 
Programs needed for MANAGE- 
MENT applications: 
PERT & CPM SCHEDULING 
PREDICTIVE MODELING 
DECISION-MAKING SIMULATIONS 
PRODUCTION SCHEDULING 
EXPENSE ANALYSES 
Royalty checks may be in YOUR 
future. Write for our free Pro- 
grammer's Kit today. 

INSTANT SOFTWARE, INC. ^75 
Submissions Dept. 
Peterborough, NH 03458 















Listing 2 continued. 










BE3B 04 






FCB 


4 




BE3C 54 55 


45 53 




FCC 


/TUESDAY / 




BE40 44 41 


59 20 










BE44 20 












BE45 04 






FCB 


4 




BF46 57 45 


44 4E 




FCC 


/UEDNFSDAY/ 




BE4A 45 53 


44 41 










BE4E 59 












BE4F 04 






FCB 


4 




BE50 54 48 


55 32 




FCC 


/THURSDAY / 




BE54 53 44 


41 59 










BE58 20 












BE59 04 






FCB 


4 




BF5A 46 52 


49 44 




FCC 


/FRTDAY / 




BE5E 41 59 


20 20 










BF62 20 












BE63 04 






FCB 


4 




BE64 53 41 


54 55 




FCC 


/SATURDAY / 




BE68 52 44 


41 59 










BE6C 20 












BF6D 04 
BE6E 34 


36 


GETDAT 


FCB 
PSHS 


4 

A,B,X,Y GET DATA FROM STT TO STP 




BE70 17 


0102 




LBSR 


HOLDIN 




BE 73 30 


8D 0139 




LEAK 


DATA, PCR 




BE77 31 


80 0142 




LERY 


LIMIT. PCR 




BE7B A6 


8D 014B 




LDR 


STT,PCR 




BE7F B7 


E012 


DRTR1 


STA 


CL0CK+2 




>BE82 1021 


FFFC 




LBRN 


* 




>BE86 1021 


FFFC 




LBRN 


* 




BE8A F6 


E010 




LDB 


CLOCK 




BE8D E4 


R0 




RNDB 


0, Y + 




BE8F E7 


80 




STB 


0,X + 




BE91 Al 


8D 0136 




CMPA 


STP, PCR 




BE95 27 


03 




BEQ 


DATA2 




BE97 4C 






INCR 






BE98 20 


E5 




BRA 


DATA1 




BE9A 17 


00ED 


DATA2 


LBSR 


HLDOUT 




BE9D 35 
BE9F 39 
BEA0 30 


36 

8D 0118 


DT2FLX 


PULS 

RTS 

LEAX 


A , B , X , Y 

DATA+12.PCR MOVE DATA FROM BUFFER TO FLEX 




BEA4 A6 


84 




LDA 


0,X 




BEA6 C6 


OR 




LDB 


#10 




BEA8 3D 






MUL 






BEA9 EB 


82 




ADDB 


o,-x 




BEAB F7 


CC10 




STB 


SYSYR 




BEAE A6 


82 




LDA 


, -X 




BEB0 C6 


OR 




LDB 


#10 




BEB2 3D 






MUL 






BEB3 EB 


82 




ADDB 


o,-x 




BEB5 F7 


CC0E 




STB 


SYSMTH 




BEB8 A6 


82 




LDA 


0,-X 




BEBA C6 


OR 




LDB 


#10 




BEBC 3D 






MUL 






BEBD EB 


82 




ADDB 


o,-x 




BEBF F7 


CC0F 




STB 


SYSDRY 




BEC2 39 
BEC3 30 


8D 00DB 


DRTEH 


RTS 
LEAX 


DATES, PCR PRINT DATE UITH LABEL 




BEC7 BD 


CE84 




JSR 


PTEXT 




BECA 30 


8D 00E2 


DRTEN 


LEAX 


DATA, PCR PRINT PLAIN DATE 




BECE A6 


OR 




LDA 


10, X 




BED0 8B 


30 




ADDA 


#»30 




BED2 BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BED5 A6 


09 




LDA 


9,X 




BED7 8B 


30 




ADDA 


#$30 




BED9 BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BEDC 86 


2F 




LDA 


#' / 




BEDE BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BEE1 A6 


08 




LDA 


8,X 




BEE3 8B 


30 




ADDA 


#$30 




BEE5 BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BEE8 A6 


07 




LDA 


7,X 




BEER 8B 


30 




ADDA 


§•30 




BEEC BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BEEF 86 


2F 




LDA 


#'/ 




BEF1 BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BEF4 R6 


OC 




LDA 


12, X 




BEF6 8B 


30 




ADDA 


#S30 




BEF8 BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BEFB A6 


0B 




LDA 


11, X 




BEFD 8B 


30 




ADDA 


#$30 




BEFF 7E 
BF02 10AE 


CD18 
8D 00R9 


DRTER 


JMP 
LDY 


PUTCHR 

DATA, PCR PRINT ALPHA MONTH IN DATE 




BF07 A6 


28 




LDA 


8. Y 




BF09 8B 


30 




ADDA 


#*30 




BF0B BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BFOE A6 


27 




LDA 


7, Y 




BF10 8B 
BF12 BD 


30 
CD18 




ADDA 
JSR 


#*30 
PUTCHR 




r BF15 86 


2D 




LDA 


#'- 




BF17 BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 




BF1A AE 


8D 00AE 




LDX 


MONTHS, PCR 




BF1E F6 


CC0E 




LDB 


SYSMTH 




BF21 5A 






DECB 






BF22 86 


04 




LDA 


#4 




BF24 3D 






MUL 






BF25 3A 






ABX 






BF26 BD 


CE84 




JSR 


PTEXT 




BF29 86 


2D 




LDA 


#'- . 




BF2B BD 
BF2E A6 


CD18 
2C 




JSR 
LDA 


PUTCHR ( M 

12, Y ^ * 





140 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Listing 2 continued. 
















BF30 


8B 


30 






ADDA 


#*30 








BF32 


BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 








BF35 


A6 


2B 






LDA 


11, Y 








BF37 


SB 


30 






ADDA 


#$30 








BF39 


7E 


CD18 




JMP 


PUTCHR 








BF3C 


30 


8D 


Q069 


TIMEH 


LEAX 


TIMES, PCR PRINT TIME 


UITH LABI 


BF40 


BD 


CE84 




JSR 


PTEXT 








BFA3 


8D 


21 




TIMEN 


BSR 


GETTIM 








BFA3 


30 


8D 


0O6C 


LSTTIM 


LEAK 


DATA-»-5,PCR PRINT TIME IN BUFFER 


BF49 


C6 


03 






LDB 


#3 








■F4I 


A6 


84 




TIME1 


LDA 


0,X 








BF4D 


8B 


30 






ADDA 


#*30 








BF4F 


BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 








BF52 


A6 


82 






LDA 


0,-X 








BF54 


8B 


30 






ADDA 


#$30 








BF56 


BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 








BF59 


30 


IF 






LEAX 


-1,X 








BF5B 


5A 








DECB 










BF5C 


27 


07 






BEQ 


TIME2 








BF5E 


86 


3A 






LDA 


#' i 








BF60 


BD 


CD18 




JSR 


PUTCHR 








BF63 


8D 


E6 






BSR 


TIME1 








BF65 


39 






TIME2 


RTS 










BF66 


86 


AO 




GETTIM 


LDA 


#$A0 








BF68 


A7 


8D l 


D05E 




STA 


STT, PCR 








BF6C 


86 


A5 






LDA 


#SA5 








BF6E 


A7 


8D 0059 




STA 


STP, PCR 








BF72 


16 


FEF9 




LBRA 


GETDAT 








BF75 


34 


02 




HOLDIN 


PSHS 


A HOLD 


FOR REfl 




BF77 


86 


80 






LDA 


MM 








BF79 


B7 


E012 




STA 


CLOCK+2 








BF7C 


86 


23 






LDA 


#♦23 








>BF7E 


1021 FFFC 


DLY1 


LBRN 


DLY1 








BF82 


4A 








DECA 










BF83 


27 


02 






BEQ 


DLY2 








BF85 


20 


F7 






BRA 


DLY1 








BF87 


35 


02 




DLY2 


PULS 


A 








BF89 


39 








RTS 










BF8A 


34 


02 




HLDOUT 


PSHS 


A 








BF8C 


AF 








CLRA 










BF8D 


B7 


E012 




STA 


CLOCK+2 








BF90 


35 


02 






PULS 


A 








BF92 


39 








RTS 










BF93 


00 


00 00 




INTRO 


FCB 


0,0,0 








BF96 


53 


49 47 


4E 




FCC 


/SIGN ON / 








BF9A 


20 


4F 4E 


20 














BF9E 


3A 


















BF9F 


OD 


OA 04 






FCB 


13,10,4 








BFA2 


44 


41 54 


45 


DATES 


FCC 


/DATE / 








BFA6 


20 


20 
















BFA8 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFA9 


54 


49 4D 


45 


TIMES 


FCC 


/TIME / 








BFftD 


20 


20 
















BFAF 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFBO 








DATA 


RMB 


13 








BFBD 


OF 


OF OF 


07 


LIMIT 


FCB 


*F , %F , %F , 7 , %F , 3 , 7 , *F , 


3,*F,3,i 


IF,*F 


BFC1 


OF 


03 07 


OF 














BFC5 


03 


OF 03 


OF 














BFC9 


OF 


















BFCA 








STT 


RMB 


1 








BFCB 








STP 


RMB 


1 








BFCC 


4A 


41 4E 




MONTHS 


FCC 


/JAN/ 








BFCF 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFDO 


46 


45 42 






FCC 


/FEB/ 








BFD3 


04 








FCB 


4 








■FD4 


4D 


41 52 






FCC 


/MAR/ 








BFD7 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFD8 


41 


50 52 






FCC 


/APR/ 








BFDB 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFDC 


4D 


41 59 






FCC 


/MAY/ 








BFDF 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFEO 


4A 


55 4E 






FCC 


/JUN/ 








BFE3 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFE4 


4A 


55 4C 






FCC 


/JUL/ 








BFE7 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFE8 


41 


55 47 






FCC 


/AUG/ 








BFEB 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFEC 


53 


45 50 






FCC 


/SEP/ 








BFEF 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFFO 


4F 


43 54 






FCC 


/OCT/ 








BFF3 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFFA 


4E 


4F 56 






FCC 


/NOV/ 








BFF7 


04 








FCB 


4 








BFF8 


44 


45 43 






FCC 


/DEC/ 








BFFB 


04 








FCB 
END 


4 
SCDOO 








SYMBOL TABLE: 
















BRDOK BDEO 


CLOCK E010 


CL0CK1 C6E0 CL0CK2 


C6E2 


CL0CK3 


C6E4 


CLOCKS C6E6 


CL0CK5 C6E8 


CL0CK6 C6EA CL0CK7 


C6EC 


CLOCKS 


C6EE 


CL0CK9 C6F0 


CLOCK* C6F2 


DATA 


BFBO DATA1 


BE7F 


DATA2 


BE9A 


DATEA BF02 


DATEH BEC3 


DATEN 


BECA DATES 


BFA2 


DLY1 


BF7E 


DLY2 


BF87 


DOU 


BE12 


DT2FLX BEAO FILL 


CA53 


GETDAT 


BE6E 


&l TTIM BF66 


HLDOUT BFBfi 


HOLDIN BF75 INTRO 


BF93 


LIMIT 


BFBD 


LSTTIM BF45 


MEMEND CC2B 


MONTHS BFCC PATCH 


CA50 


PCRLF 


CD24 


FSTRNG CD1E 


PTEXT CE84 


PUTCHR CD18 RETURN 


CA59 


START1 


BDBO 


ST ART 2 BDBfe 


STP 


BFCB 


STT 


BFCA SYSDAY 


CCOF 


SYSMTH 


CCOE 


SYSYR CCIO 


TIME1 BF4B 


TIME2 


BF65 TIMEH 


BF3C 


TIMEN 


BF43 


TIMES BFA9 


TOP 


BFFF 


WKDYS 


BE28 









If you're looking for 

the best prices 



on TRS-80 



® 




Model II 64K$ 3298 




Model MM 6K $839 




Color Computer 4K $ s 19.00 



Other TRS-80 Model II, or Model 
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are in stock at similar savings. 

Check out our low, low prices 

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WRITE OR CALL FOR OUR COMPLETE 
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ful RadtoShock warranty 

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CALL (602) 458-2477 

or write today 



RAND'S 

2185 E. FRY BLVD 



^102 



® 



SIERRA VISTA, AZ 85635 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



■See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 141 






AD & DA CONVERTER 




JBE A-D & D-A Converter can be used 
with any system having parallel ports 

• Interfaces with JBE Parallel I/O Card 

• D-A conversion time — 5 /us • A-D 
conversion time — 20 /us • Uses JBE 
5V power supply • Parallel inputs & 
outputs include 8 data bits, strobe 
lines & latches • Analog inputs & out- 
puts are medium impedance to 5 volt 
range. 



Z80 MICROCOMPUTER 



79-287 

Bare Board $39.95 



ASSM. $79.95 
k Kit $59.95 



6502 MICROCOMPUTER 




This control computer has: • 1024 
bytes RAM (two 2114s) • 2048 bytes 
EPROM (2716) • Uses one 6522 VIA 
(comp. doc. incl.) • Interfaces with JBE 
Solid State Switches & A-D & D-A Con- 
verter • Uses JBE 5V power supply 
• 2716 EPROM available separately 
(2716 can be programmed with an 
Apple II & JBE EPROM Programmer & 
Parallel Interface) • 50 pin connector 
included in kit & assm. 



80-153 

Bare Board $49.95 



ASSM. $110.95 
Kit$ 89.95 



SOLID STATE SWITCH 




Your computer can control power to 
your printer, lights, stereo & any 
120VAC appliances up to 720 watts (6 
amps at 120VAC). Input 3 to 15VDC 
• 2-14MA TTL compatible • Isolation 
— 1500V • Non zero crossing • Comes 
in 1 or 4 channel version • Includes 
doc. for interfacing with Dimmer Con- 
trol. 



79-282-1 

Bare Board $6.95 

79-282-4 

Bare Board $24.95 



ASSM. $13.95 
Kit $10.95 

ASSM. $49.95 
Kit $39.95 



APPLE II DISPLAY BOARD 




l^gmmmmmmmm^M 



JBE is announcing a single board 
dedicated computer designed for con- 
trol functions. It features: • A Z80 
Microprocessor software compatible 
with the Z80, 8080 & 8085 
Microprocessors • Uses a Z80 PIO chip 
for I/O which has 2 independent 8 bit 
bidirectional peripheral interface ports 
with handshake & data transfer control 
• Uses one 2716 EPROM (2K) & two 21 14 
RAM memories (1K) • Single 5V power 
supply at 300MA req. • Clock frequency 
is 2MHz, RC controlled • Board comes 
with complete doc. • 50 pin connector is 
included «2716 EPROM available 
separately. jpi^ j 

80-280 ASSM. $129.95 

Bare Board $49.95 Kit $119.95 



PRINTER INTERFACE 




JBE Parallel Printer Interface interfaces your 
Apple II® to Centronics® compatible 
printers. This 3" x 4" board features: on 
board ROM compatible with Integer Basic, 
Applesoft® and Pascal® • Has one 8 bit 
parallel latched output port with selectable 
positive or negative stro be and one bit input 
selectable for Ready or Ready • Cable and 
Connectors available separately. 

80-297 ASSM. $79.95 

Kit $69.95 
4 ft. Std. Dip Jumpers 16 pin $ 4.25 
Champ Connector $ 9.95 



POWER SUPPLIES 



• Use wall transformers for safety 

• Protected against short circuit and 
thermal breakdown. 

5 VOLT POWER SUPPLY 

Rated at 5V 500MA • Operates JBE A-D 
& D-A Converter, Z80 & 6502 Microcom- 
puters, 8085 & 8088 Microcomputers. 

80-160 ASSM. $20.95 

Bare Board $8.95 Kit $16.95 

± 12 VOLT POWER SUPPLY 

Rated at ± 12V 120MA • Can be used as 
a single 24V power supply • Ideally 
suited to OP-AMP experiments. 

80-161 ASSM. $22.95 

Bare Board $8.95 Kit $18.95 



80-144 

Bare Board $25.95 



ASSM. $49.95 
Kit $42.95 



• Has run-stop, single 
step switch • Has 16 
address LEDs, 8 data 
LEDs & 1 RDY LED 

• All lines are buf- 
fered. 



ICS 



6502 
6522 
Z80 

Z80 PIO 
2716 5V 



$9.95 
$9.95 
$9.95 
$9.95 
$14.95 



6522 APPLE II INTERFACE 




• Interfaces printers, synthesizers, 
keyboards, JBE A-D & D-A Converter & 
Solid State Switches • Has handshak- 
ing logic, two 6522 VIAs & a 74LS74 for 
timing. Inputs & outputs are TTL com- 
patible. 

79-295 ASSM. $69.95 

Bare Board $39.95 Kit $59.95 



2716 EPROM PROGRAMMER 



JBE 2716 EPROM Pro- 
grammer was designed 
to program 5V 2716 
EPROMS • It can also 
read 2716s. It interfaces 
to the Apple II using 
JBE Parallel I/O Card & 
four ribbon cable con- 
nectors • An LED indicates when 
power is being applied to the EPROM 
• A textool zero insertion force socket 
is used for the EPROM • Comes with 
complete doc. for writing and reading 
in the Apple II or Apple II + • Cables 
available separately. 



r. ■■ 

"I mi 

*G a 



80-244 

Bare Board $24.95 



ASSM. $49.95 
Kit $39.95 



BARE BOARDS 



APPLE II EXTENDER BOARD 

3 1 /2" x 2 1 / 2 ". Price includes 50 pin 
Apple Connector. Ik 

80-143 $12.95 

8085 3 CHIP SYSTEM 

State-of-the-art system using an 8085, 
8156 & either an 8355 or 8755 

• Instruction set 100% upward com- 
patible with 8080A. 

Bare Board $24.95 

8088 5 CHIP SYSTEM 

An 8086 family microcomputer system 
using an 8088 CPU, 8284, 8155, 8755A 
& an 8185. 
Bare Board $29.95 

CRT CONTROLLER 

This intelligent CRT Controller is 
based on an 8085A Microprocessor & 
an 8275 Integrated CRT Controller. It 
features: • 25 lines, 80 characters/line 

• 5x7 dot matrix • Upper case only 

• Two 2716s • Serial Interface RS232 
& TTL • Baud rates of 110, 150, 300, 
600, 1200, 2400, 4800 & 9600 

• Keyboard scanning system • Req's. 
unencoded keyboard • Uses + 5V & 
± 12V power supplies. 

Bare Board $39.95 



50 pin connector 
STD. Dip Jumpers 
16 Pin, 2 ft. 



$5.95 
$4.25 




•Johiv Bell Eivgiiveeriivg 



»^99 



MC 



ALL PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE FROM JOHN BELL ENGINEERING • P.O. BOX 338 
REDWOOD CITY, CA 94064 • ADD 6% SALES TAX IN CALIFORNIA • ADD 5% SHIPPING & HANDLING 



VISA 



(415)367-1137 



142 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Here's a timesaving approach to handling subscription lists. 



6800 Disk-Based 
Mailing List 



By Dr. Gordon Wolfe 



As a regional officer in a nonprofit 
educational corporation, I fre- 
quently send out mailings to officers 
of local branches within the region. 
Also, as part of my responsibilities, 
I'm co-editor of a small monthly mag- 
azine. Therefore, I know how frus- 
trating it can be to keep track of ad- 
dresses, changes of address and sub- 
scription dates on paper. 

A microcomputer is one way to 
keep yourself from going crazy. Un- 
fortunately, most existing mailing list 
programs have one or two draw- 
backs: Either all entries are resident 
in memory at the same time, thus 
limiting the number of entries, or the 
program is cassette-based, thus in- 
creasing the execution time. 

The solution is to store your infor- 
mation on disk. Execution is faster, 
and the size of the list is limited only 
by the capacity of the disk. 

The program MAILST is written in 
Smoke Signal Broadcasting's disk file 
BASIC for the SWTP 6800. It requires 
3K of memory in addition to the UK 
BASIC interpreter, so at least 16K of 
memory is needed. 

Hardware requirements are sim- 
ple. Along with the CPU and disk you 
need a control terminal and a printer 
on port 7. 

The program is self-explanatory, 
easy to use and tries to cover all con- 
tingencies. Also, much information 
on the disk may be useful in other 
programs. 

Option List 

You are first asked for the current 
date to be used in evaluating expired 
names. Then the program prints a us- 
er menu of services (Sample run 1): 

1. ENTER NEW FILE-you may 



Dr. Gordon Wolfe, University of Mississippi Ox- 
ford, MS 38677. 



create a new file or mailing list. 

2. ADD TO EXISTING FILE-you 
may add new entries to the list file. 

3. PRINT MAILING TAPE-the 
printer puts out only names and ad- 
dresses on the list file. Peel-and-stick 
mailing labels may be placed in the 
printer, since the list uses four lines 
to a name (Dennison's File Folder La- 
bels, type 43-751, work perfectly in a 
PR-40 printer). After printing the list, 
the program outputs labels for all en- 
tries whose expiration date is previ- 
ous to the present date, so that re- 
minder notices may be sent for re- 
newal. (See Sample run 2.) 

4. DELETE EXPIRED NAMES- 
deletes any entry from the file whose 
expiration date is less than the cur- 
rent date. This is the only way to de- 
lete an entry, although it may be used 
in conjunction with the following op- 



TODfiV'S DATE (MO, VR)? 6,86 


OPTION LIST 


1 


ENTER NEU FILE 


2 


ADD TO EXISTING FILE 


3 


PRINT MAILING TAPE 


4 


DELETE EXPIRED NAMES 


5 


CHANGE INFO ON FILE 


6 


PRINT LIST 


7 


LIST FILES 


8 


SEARCH 


9 


TRANSFER INFO TO OTHER FILE 


6 


EXIT 



OPTION 



D0S68 . 31 
DFH680. 342 
MAILST. BfiS 
KINGDO. LST 
MAILST. KIL 
RPHflR . LST 
KIL06A. LST 
FRIEND. LST 
CORPOR. LST 



DFP16SC. 341 
DFMbCC. 343 
DfiTRED. BfiS 
OFFICE. LST 
REGNUfv LST 
SCIENC. LST 
BOARD . LST 
DATBAS. BfiS 
HANKER. LST 



Sample run 1. 



tion (no. 5). 

5. CHANGE INFO ON FILE- 
prints each entry of the file on the ter- 
minal and asks if it is correct. If the 
answer is "no," you may change any 
or all of the entry by reentering the 
whole entry. To delete an entry en- 
tirely, simply enter zeros for the expi- 
ration date and then run option 4. 
(See Sample run 4.) 

6. PRINT LIST-prints the com- 
plete list, with expiration dates and 
identifiers on the printer, with a 



OPTION LIST 

1 ENTER NEU FILE 

2 ADD TO EXISTING FILE 

3 PRINT MAILING TRPE 

4 DELETE EXPIRED NRMcS 

5 CHANGE INFO ON FILE 

6 PRINT LIST 

7 LIST FILES 

8 SEARCH 

9 TRANSFER INFO TO OTHER FILE 
EXIT 



OPTION 






FIILE NRTC <H0 EX7>? KILQBF 
HON HfltfY COPIES'- 1 
DR. GORDO* W. WOLFE 
PHYSICS DEPT. U. M. 
UNIVERSJTV MS 38677 

JAICS E. CARTER 

1686 PENNSYLVANIA AVE 

WASHINGTON DC 20644 

WAYNE GREEN 
PINE ST. 
PETERBOROUGH NH 



EXPIRED SUBSCRIPTIONS 



JOE KLOTZ 
1234 ANVSTREFT 

SINGAPORE SO 
EXPIRED 726.9 



99999 



Sample run 2. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 143 



"NIBBLE 
IS TERRIFIC" 

(For Your Apple) 




NUWM .■ 8 



THE WISP 

K* Advtnluft (unit 
T EM 



U TAft CASSfTTt 
MO«ITM 



NIBBLE IS: 

77?e Reference for Apple computing! 

NIBBLE IS: 

One of the Fastest Growing new Magazines in 
the Personal Computing Field. 

NIBBLE IS: 

Providing Comprehensive, Useful and Instructive 
Programs for the Home, Small Business, and 
Entertainment. 

NIBBLE IS: 

A Reference to Graphics, Games, Systems Pro- 
gramming Tips, Product News and Reviews, 
Hardware Construction Projects, and a host of 
other features. 

NIBBLE IS: 

A magazine suitable for both the Beginner and 
the Advanced Programmer. 

NIBBLE is focused completely on the Apple 
Computer systems. 

And each issue features significant new Pro- 
grams of Commercial Quality. • 

Buy NIBBLE through your local Apple Dealer or 
subscribe now with the coupon below. 

Try a NIBBLE! 



NIBBLE 

Box 325, Lincoln, MA 01773 ^286 
(617) 259-9710 

I'll try nibble! 

Enclosed is my $17.50 (for 8 issues) 

D check D money order 

Your subscription will start with the first issue 
after receipt of your payment. (Outside the U.S. 
see below)* 



Name 



Address 

City 

State _ 
Zip 




'First Class or Air Mail is required for all APO. FPO 
and all foreign addresses with the following addi- 
tional amounts. 

—Airmail Postage Rates, 12-140Z x 8 
—Europe— $32 

— Mexico & Central America— $21 
—South America— $32 
—Middle East— $35 

—Africa: North — $32, Central— $43, South— $43 

— Far East, Australia— $43 
—Canada— $18 

— APO-FPO-$7 50 

1980 by MICRO SPARC, INC , Lincoln, MA 01773 
All rights reserved. 

•Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Comput- 
er Company 



Program listing. 



0016 STRING-- 23 
0015 DIM T1C2) 
0028 HOME 

0025 INPUT "TODAY S DATE <MC,YR)M1,Y 

0026 LET T=168*Y+K 
8038 RZY 

0031 REM MAILING LIST PROGRr-I* 

0032 REM DATA ON DISK 

0033 9EY EXTENSION Of FILE IS 

0034 REM ALWAYS . LST 

0035 REM 

0036 DATA . LST, TEKP. LST 
2e27 READ E$, D* 

003S PRINT CHR*(16>;CHR*<ii)jCHRi<il):H0 

ME 

0048 PRINT "OPTION LIST" -PRINT 

0041 PRIKT li TfiB<5); "ENTER NEW FILE" 

0042 PRINT 2; TRB(5); "ADD TO EXISTING FIL 
E" 

0043 PRINT 3; T»<5>; "PRINT NAILING TflPl' 

0044 PRINT 4; Tfi6<5>; "OOETE EXPIRED NAKE 

S" 

0045 PRINT 5, TAD<5>; "CHANGE INFO ON FILE 

0046 PRINT ft TRB<3>; "PRINT LIST" 

0047 PRINT 7; TAB<5); "LIST FILES" 

0048 PRINT 8; TAB(5); "SEARCH" 

0049 PRINT Si TA8<5>; "TRANSFER INFO TO OT 
HER FILE" 

0058 PRINT 6; TABC5); "EXIT* 
0051 PRINT 

0068 INPUT "OPTION", 
0078 LET 0=INT(0) 

0071 IF 0>9 THEN €$ 

0072 IF Oa THEN END 

0075 ON GOTO 1000. 390fc 7a *8& 5000/ 69 
00,780^8039, 9000 

0078 GQSUB 80 

0079 GOTO 109 

0088 INPUT "FILE NflKE (NO EXT) ", F* 
0098 LET F*=LEFT* (Ff, €>*£$ 
0095 RETURN 
0188 OPEN #1, FS 

0185 INPUT "HOW MANY COPIES", Q 

0186 FOR I9=i TO Q 
0118 RESTORE II 
0128 READ #1/ N 
0138 FOR 1=1 TO N 

0148 READ #i, N*, H$, C$, 2, D, It 

0145 IF IXT THEN 196 

0158 PRINT #7,NS 

0168 PRINT §7*9$ 

0178 PRINT #7, CS, 

0173 IF ZO8880 THEN PRINT #7, "6"; 

0176 PRINT #7,2 

0188 PRINT #7 

0198 NEXT I 

0288 RESTORE 11 

0218 SKIP #7, 4 

0228 PRINT #7, "EXPIRED SUBSCRIPTIONS" 

0238 SKIP #7, 3 

0233 READ #i, N 

0235 FOR 1=1 TO N 

0248 READ #1, H$, ft*/ Ct, 2, D, If 

0258 IF D>T THEN 308 

0268 PRINT #7,N* 

0278 PRINT #7, A* 

0288 PRINT #7,C$, 

0283 IF 2O8086 THEN PRINT #7, "0"; 

0286 PRINT #7,2 

0298 PRINT #7, "EXPIRED ",D 

0388 NEXT I 

0385 NEXT 19 

0318 CLOSE #i 

0328 GOTO 39 

1008 GOSUS 80 

1028 OPEN #2, F* 

1022 INPUT "NUKBER OF ENTRIES", N 

1024 WRITE #2,N 

1026 FOP 1=1 TO N 

1038 G0SU8 2008 

1048 WRITE #2, NS, R$, Cfc 2, D, I* 

1058 NEXT I 

1068 CLOSE #2 

1078 GOTO 39 

2088 INPUT H NAKE",N* 

2028 INPUT "ADDRESS", A$ 

2038 INPUT "CITY/STATE", C* 




More 



blank line between entries. (See Sam- 
ple run 3.) 

7. LIST FILES— lists all nonsystems 
(i.e., all files without a .$ extension) 
on the terminal. (See Sample run 1.) 

8. SEARCH— searches for all en- 
tries within a file that meet the search 
criterion and prints all those entries. 
A search may be made on any catego- 
ry within the list, but only on one cat- 
egory. A search on strings looks for 
any string in the specified category 
that is identical to the search string, 
or for which the search string is a sub- 
string of the string in the category. 
Numerical searches request a range 
of values to search upon. (See Sample 
run 5.) 

9. TRANSFER DATA TO OTHER 
FILE— searches for a specific name 
and, if found, will transfer the entire 
entry to another mailing list file, so 
that one name may appear in several 
files and need only be typed in once. 

0. EXIT— returns to BASIC. 



Using the Options 

After you ask for each option (ex- 



OPTION LIST 


1 


ENTER NEW FILE 


2 


ADD TO EXISTING FILE 


3 


PRINT MAILING TAPE 


4 


DELETE EXPIRED NAMES 


5 


CHANGE INFO ON FILE 


6 


PRINT LIST 


7 


LIST FILES 


8 


SEARCH 


9 


TRANSFER INFO TO OTHER FILE 





EXIT 



OPTION e 

FIILE MAKE (NO EXT)? KILOBAUD 

HOW MANY COPIES? 1 

OUTPUT ON SCREEN OR PRINTER? 

P 



GENIUS 

DR. GORDON U. WOLFE 

PHVSICS DEPT. U. M. 

UNIVERSITY MS 38677 

8088 

PRESIDENT 

JAMES E. CARTER 

1688 PENNSYLVANIA AVE 

WASHINGTON DC 20644 

8101 

PUBLISHER/MICROCGr<PUTING 

WAYNE GREEN 

PIfC ST. 

PETERPORCUGvl NH 

9018 

ESCftPEE FROM THE HOKE 
JOE KLOTZ 
1234 RNVSTREET 
SINGAPORE SD 99999 
7289 



03458 



Sample run 3. 



144 Microcomputing, July 1981 



cept for options and 7), the program 
will request the name of the source 
file (with no extension). The program 
will truncate the string to the first six 
characters and add the extension 
.LST. In this way, you can keep many 
lists on a disk. 

Also notice that this makes it easier 
to remember filenames. In Sample 
run 3, the file used is KILOBA.LST; I 
enter KILOBAUD, meaning this is a 
demonstration for this article in Kilo- 
baud, and the program uses only the 
first six letters. 

Sample run 1 shows the format of 
the option list and the execution of 
the list files option. Notice that the 
listing includes all nonsystem files 
(files without a .$ extension) resident 
on the disk, including the disk operat- 
ing system, disk file management, 
mailing list routine, files for other 
programs and the .LST files. 

Sample run 3 shows the execution 
of option 6, which lists the contents of 
the file. I specify the filename (no ex- 
tension), tell it I only want one copy 
(but I may print as many as I wish) 
and have it place the results on the 
terminal rather than the PR-40 print- 



OPTION LIST 


1 


ENTER NEW FILE 


2 


ADD 70 EXISTING FILE 


3 


PRINT MAILING TAPE 


4 


DELETE EXPIRED NRMES 


5 


CHANGE INFO ON FILE 


6 


PRINT LIST 


7 


LIST FILES 


8 


SEARCH 


9 


TRANSFER INFO TO OTHER FILE 


e 


EXIT 



OP1WN 5 

FIILE NflKE (NO EXT)? KILOBF 

GENIUS 

DR. GORDON W. WOLFE 

PHVSICS DEPT. U. fl. 

UNIVERSITY MS 38677 

8888 

RNV CHANGES (V OR N>? V 
NHC? GORDON WOLFE 
RD0KES5? PHVSICS DEPT U. ft 
CITY/STATE? UNIVERSITY PIS 
ZIP? 38677 

IDENTIFIER? SUPERGE^IJS 
EXPIRES (MO/ VR)? 39 , 99 

PRESIDENT 

JAHES E. CARTER 

1688 PENNSYLVANIA AVE 



WASHINGTON DC 
8181 



20644 



AHV CHANGES (Y OR M>? N 

PUBLISHER^IICROCOMPUTI NG 

WAYNE GREEN 

PINE ST. 

PETERBOROUGH NH 

9018 

flHV CHANGES (V OR N>? H 
Sample run 4. 



63458 



Listing continued. 

2648 INPUT "ZIP", 2 

2058 INPUT "EXPIRES <MG, YR) M ,Ki, VI 

2051 INPUT "IDENTIFIERMI 

2055 LET D=i0O*Vi->tfi 

2068 RETURN 

3088 GOSU8 SO 

3018 OPEN lii F$ 

3028 OPEN #2, 0$ 

3038 REHD li> N 

3048 INPUT "NUMBER OF NEW ENTRIES", Ni 

3058 LET N=N+Ni 

3068 WRITE #2,N 

3078 FOR 1=1 TO N-Ni 

3088 REW #1, H$, M, C$, 1, D, 1$ 

3098 WRITE #2, M, fl$, C$, 2, D, I* 

3188 NEXT I 

3118 FOR 1=1 TO Nl 

3128 G0SU8 2800 

3138 WRITE #2, Nl, fi$, CI, 2, D, II 

3148 NEXT I 

3158 CLOSE #2 

3155 CLOSE #i 

3168 FDEL Fl 

3178 FREN Dl, F$ 

3188 GOTO 39 

4088 GOSUB 83 

4028 OPEN #1, F$ 

4038 READ #1, N 

4048 FOR I=i TO N 

4058 READ #1, Nl, Hi, CI, 2, D, II 

4068 IF D<T THEN N*N-1 

4078 NEXT I 

4088 OPEN #2, M 

4098 WRITE #2,N 

4188 IF N=8 THEN 4300 

4118 RESTORE #i 

4128 READ #i, Ni 

4125 FOR 1=1 TO Ni 

4138 READ #i, Nl, A*, CI, 2, D, II 

4148 IF D<T THEN 4280 

4158 WRITE #2, Nl, A*, CI, 2, D, II 

4288 NEXT I 

4388 CLOSE #1 

4318 CLOSE #2 

4328 FDEL Fl 

4338 FREN Dl, Fl 

4348 GOTO 39 

5688 G0SU8 80 

5028 OPEN #i, Fl 

5025 OPEN #2, Dl 

5038 READ #i, N 

5035 WRITE #2,N 

5848 FOR 1=1 TO N 

5058 READ #i, Nl, Bl, CI, 2, D, II 

5068 HOME 

5065 LET N2=i 

5078 GOSUB 6059 

5128 PRINT 

5138 INPUT "ANY CHANGES? (V OR N>",VI 

5148 LET VI=LEF7ICS*I, i) 

5158 IF VI="V" THEN 5170 

5168 IF VIO"N" THEN 5130 

5165 GOTO 5300 

5178 GOSUB 2000 

5388 WRITE #2, Nl, Rl, CI, Z, D, 1$ 

5318 NEXT I 

5328 GOTO 4300 

6088 GOSUB 80 

6001 INPUT "HOW MflKV COPIES", X 

6002 GOSUB 9300 
6005 FOR V=i TO X 
6018 OPEN #i, Fl 
6028 READ #i, N 
6038 FOR 1=1 TO N 

6048 READ #i, Nl, HI, CI, 2, D, II 

6044 GOSU8 6050 

6046 GOTO 6110 

6058 PRINT #N2 

6068 PRINT #N2, II 

6078 PRINT #N2,NI 

6088 PRINT #N2, HI 

6098 PRINT #N2, CI, 

6093 IF ZU0000 THEN PRINT #N2, M 0"; 

6096 PRINT #N2,2 

6188 PRINT #N2,D 

6185 RETURN 

6118 NEXT I 

6128 CLOSE #1 

6124 PRINT .PRINT 

6125 NEXT V 




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Listing continued. 

6138 GOTO 39 

7880 HOKE 

7018 FLIST 

7038 WRIT 5 

7834 GOTO 39 

8888 REK SERRCH 

8818 GOSUS 88 

8828 OPEN 11, F$ 

8038 RERD #1, N 

8848 HOKE : PRINT "SERRCH ON" 

889B PRINT 1; "NrVE" 

8851 PRINT 2; "ADDRESS" 

8053 PRINT 3> "CITY" 

8054 PRINT 4; "STRT£" 
8855 PRINT 5; "ZIP CODE" 

8056 PRINT 6; "EXPIRATION DATE" 

8057 PRINT ^"IDENTIFIER" 

8059 PRINT 8; "EXIT" 

8060 INPUT "OPTION", 01 
8078 LET 0i=IN7(0i> 
8088 IF OKI THBN8048 
8098 IF 01>=8 THEN 39 
8095 G0SUS 9308 

8188 ON 01 GOTO 8178, 8293, 8370, 8878, 8538 

, 8558, 8458 

8118 INPUT "SEARCH STRING", S* 

8128 LET L=LEN<S*> 

8138 RETURN 

8148 INPUT "HflXIIW VALUE", M2 

8150 INPUT "MINIMUM VALUE", Mi 

8168 RETURN 

8178 G0SUB 6118 

8175 FOR 1=1 TO N 

8188 GO-SUB 8905 

8198 LET T$=NS 

8298 GOSUS 8920 

8218 IF 113=1 THEN G0SU8 8258 

8228 NEXT I 

8238 PRINT "END OF FILE ";F* 

8248 GOTO 8270 

8258 G0SU3 6858 

8265 RETURN 

8278 CLOSE #i 

8288 GOTO 39 

8298 G0SU3 8118 

8380 FOR 1=1 TO N 

8318 G0SU8 8985 

8328 LET T*=RS 

8338 G0SU3 8929 

8348 IF M3=i THEN G0SU3 8258 

8358 NEXT I 

8360 GOTO 8238 

8378 GOSUS 8118 

8388 FOR 1=1 TO N 

8398 GOSUS 8905 

8488 LET T$=C* 

8418 GOSUS 8920 

8420 IF M3=l THEN G0SJ8 8258 

8430 NEXT I 

8440 GOTO 8230 

8450 G0SU8 8118 

8460 FOR 1=1 TO N 

8470 GOSUS 8985 

8480 LET T$=I* 

8490 GOSUS 8920 

8508 IF M3=l Tr€N G0SU8 8250 

8518 NEXT I 

8528 GOTO 8230 

8538 LET T=i 

8548 GOTO 8560 

8558 LET T=2 

8568 GOSUS 8140 

8578 FOR 1=1 TO N 

8588 GOSUS 8985 

8598 IF Ti(T»M2 THEN 8718 

8688 IF TKTKMi THEN 8710 

8650 LET N2=7 

8700 GOSUS 6850 

8710 REM NO MRTCK 

8720 NEXT I 

8738 GOTO 8238 

8870 GOSUS 8110 

8880 LET S*=" M +S$ 

8890 GOTO 8388 

8908 REK REftD DflTfi FROM FILE 

8985 RERD II, N$, R*, C*, Tl(l), Ti(2), If 

8918 LET Z=TKl):D=Ti(2) 

8915 RETURN 

8928 REK COKPRRE STRINGS 

8925 LET L2=LEN(T$) (More 



er. The program reads the disk file 
and prints: 

Identifier 
Name 
Address 

City/state and zip 
Expiration date 
Blank line 

for each entry in the file. 

This could be used by itself as a 
mailing list. But option 3 will do the 
same without the identifier or the ex- 
piration date and will do it only on 
the PR-40 printer, so I can use peel- 
and-stick mailing labels (Sample run 
2). Notice that only current subscrip- 
tions are printed, with an expiration 
list for renewal notices. In particular, 
notice that three subscribers will get 
their mailing, while Joe Klootz, who 
hasn't renewed his subscription, will 
get a reminder postcard. After print- 
ing, option 4 will delete his name. 

Sample run 4 shows how changes 
are made. Option 5 is executed on the 
file KILOBA. In this case, I want to 
change the identifier on my name 
from "genius" to "supergenius.' The 
program reads each entry from the 
disk and displays it and then asks for 
changes. If there are none, it reads 
and displays the next entry. If 
changes are to be made, the entire en- 
try is reentered with corrections. 

Sample run 5 demonstrates the 
search option. Option 8 is executed, 
and again the KILOBA file is speci- 
fied. 

At this point, the program asks 
what category to search. Suppose I 
wish to send letters to all presidents 
on the list (maybe I have a list of 
world leaders or a list of officers of lo- 
cal chapters within the state). "Presi- 
dent" is an identifier, so I select op- 
tion 7. 

After specifying that I want the re- 
sults on the terminal, I input the 
string "PRES" to search. The pro- 
gram will read the entire file, and 
anytime the substring "PRES" is 
found in an identifier string, the en- 
try will be printed as shown. When 
the end of the file is reached, the pro- 
gram tells me, so I'll know it's done 
even if it hasn't found anything. 

Also, note that it would have print- 
ed the entry if it had found an identi- 
fier "AXPLPRESYZT," since it con- 
tains "PRES." 

No commas are allowed during 
string input. BASIC will truncate any 
string just before the comma, since it 
assumes you're ending one string and 
beginning another. This means that 
the usual method of entering city and 



146 Microcomputing, July 1981 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 147 



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a Floppy Oik Controllar lor three 5" Drive* 

a Printer port. Centronic type compatible 

a Keyboard/Parellel interface 

a Rum Flan DOS 

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a IK bytei of RAM and 2K bytei of EPROM 

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8928 LET M3=G 

8938 IF L2<L TI€N 8998 

8935 FOR J=i TO L2-L+1 

8948 IF SK>MIDS(T$,J,J+L-i> THEN 8980 

8958 REM MATCH 

8968 LET K3=*l 

8978 GOTO 8998 

8988 NEXT J 

8998 RETURN 

9888 HOME 

9818 PRINT "SOURCE" 

9828 G0SU3 88 

9838 OPEN Ii, F$ 

9848 PRINT -DESTINATION" 

9858 G0SU8 88 

9868 OPEN #2, F$ 

9678 OPEN #3, D$ 

9075 INPUT "NUMBER OF ITEMS TO TRANSFER" 

, II 

9888 READ #2, N 

9898 WRITE I3.N+I1 

9895 FOR J=i TO II 

9188 READ ii, Mi 

9105 INPUT "NAME TO TRANSFER", S* 

9118 FOR 1=1 TO Ml 

9128 G0SU3 8985 

9138 IF N*OS$ THEN 9168 

9148 WRITE #3, K*, 9*, C$, 2> D, IS 

91SB GOTO 9178 

9168 NEXT I 

9178 RESTORE II 

9188 NEXT J 

9198 CLOSE Ii 

9288 FOR 1=1 TO N 

9218 READ 12. H$, flfc C$, Z> D, I* 

9228 WRITE 13/ N$, ft*, Ct, I* D, 1$ 

9238 NEXT I 

9248 CLOSE 12, 13 

9258 FDEL F$ 

9268 FREN D*,F* 

9278 GOTO 39 

9388 PRINT "OUTPUT ON SCREEN OR PRINTER? 



ii 



9385 LET N2=8 

9318 INPUT Y$ 

9320 LET Vf*LEFT$<V*. 1) 

9338 IF V$="S" Tf£N N2=i 

9348 IF V$='P" THEN N2=? 

9358 IF N2=8 THEN 9388 

9368 RETURN 



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OPTION LIST 

1 ENTER NEW FILE 

2 ADD TO EXISTING FILE 

3 PRINT MAILING TAPE 

4 DELETE EXPIRED NAMES 

5 CHANGE INTO ON FILE 

6 PRINT LIST 

7 LIST FILES 

8 SEARCH 

9 TRANSFER INFO TO OTHER FILE 
8 EXIT 

OPTION 8 

FIILE NAME (NO EXT)? KILOBP 



SEflRCH ON 

1 NRME 

2 ADDRESS 

3 CITY 

4 STATE 

5 ZIP CODE 

6 EVIRATION DATE 

7 IDENTIFIER 

8 EXIT 
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state— "Baltimore, MD"— will not 
work because ", MD" will be cut off. 
The program has been structured to 
use a space instead of a comma (i.e., 
"Baltimore MD"). 

City and state are in the same 
string. A search on the state assumes 
that there is a space just before the 
state. You need not enter this space 
when requested to do so for the 
search string, but it must be there on 
the file, so you must enter it when 
you originally enter the data. 

An identifier entry is also included 
with the name and address informa- 
tion. This is a string variable, which 
may be anything at all. In keeping a 
mailing list of officers for my non- 
profit group, I simply write the posi- 
tion, a slash and the name of the local 
branch. Keeping track of who's doing 
what is much easier. 

For lists that do not deal with sub- 
scriptions and where a name does not 
expire at a fixed time, enter "99" for 
the month and year of expiration. 

All information is stored in string 
format, except for zip codes and expi- 
ration dates, which are stored as nu- 
meric variables so that a sorting rou- 
tine may be written to print a mailing 
tape in zip-code order to take advan- 
tage of the post office's reduced rates 
for pre-sorted mail.H 



148 Microcomputing, July 1981 



COMPUTER STOP 



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ORDER BY PHONE 

MON.— SAT. 

10-6 

(213)539-7670 PST 
TELEX: 678401 TAB IRIN 



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APPLE ///OPTION A: 3850 

APPLE /// 96K 

Information Analyst Package 

12" B/W Monitor 
APPLE ///OPTION B: 4350 

SAME AS OPTION A PLUS: 

DISK II for APPLE /// 
APPLE ///OPTION C: 4800 

SAME AS OPTION A PLUS: 

DISK II FOR APPLE/// 

SILENTYPE Thermal Printer 



APPLE HARDWARE 

Parallel Printer Interface Card 160 

Communications Card 195 

High Speed Serial Interface 175 

Pascal Language System 425 

Centronics Printer Interface 185 

Applesoft Firmware Card 160 

Integer Firmware Card 160 

Disk ][ with Controller DOS 3.3 529 

Disk ][ only 475 

Graphics Tablet 625 



OTHER HARDWARE 

Alf Music Synthesizer (3 Voice) 245 

9 voice 1 75 

ABT Numeric Keypad 119 

Micromodem ][ 295 

Apple Clock 245 

Rom Plus with Keyboard Filter 1 75 

lntrol/X-10 System 250 

Romwriter 150 

DoubleVision 80 x 24 Video Interface 295 

CCS Arithmetic Processor 399 

CCS Parallel Interface 119 

16K Ram Card 145 

Microworks DS-65 Digisector 339 

SVA 8 inch Disk Controller 335 

Sup-R-Mod 30 

CCS Synchronous Serial Interface 159 

CCS Asynchronous Serial Interface 159 

Corvus 10 Meg. Hard Disk 4395 

Corvus Constellation 595 

MISCELLANEOUS/SUPPLIES 

16K RAM (200-250 NS) 49 

Verbatium Datalife Diskette (Box of 10) 30 

Dysan Diskettes (Box of 5) 22 

Apple Diskettes (Box of 10) 45 

Verbatim Diskette Boxes (Holds 50 Disks) 18 

Silentype Paper (Box of 10 rolls) 40 




APPLE ][ Plus 

16K $1075 

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Disk][Drive..$529 

with Controller & Dos. 3.3 

PASCAL SYSTEM 

$425 

Z-80 Softcard 

$299 



MONITORS/DISPLAYS 

Leedex Video 100 12" 140 

Sanyo 9" Monitor 195 

KG-12C Green Phos. Monitor 275 

Sanyo 12" Green Phosphor. Monitor 275 

NEC 12" Green Phosphor. Monitor 275 

Sanyo 12" B/W Monitor 250 



PRINTERS 

Apple Silentype with Interface 525 

IDS445 (Paper Tiger) with Graphics 695 

IDS460 with Graphics 1099 

IDS560 with Graphics 1295 

Centronics 737 395 

NEC Spinwriter (RO, Serial) 2650 



SOFTWARE 

The Controller 525 

Apple Post (Mailing List Program) 40 

Easywriter Professional System 195 

Apple Pie 2.0 95 

DB Master Data Management 150 

The Cashier 210 

Apple Writer .65 

Visicalc 125 

CCA Data Management System 90 

Full Screen Mapping for CCA DMS 59 

Pascal Interactive Terminal Software (PITS) 29 

Basic Interactive Terminal Software (BITS) 29 

Data Capture 29 

Data Factory DMS 95 

Apple Plot 55 

Apple Pilot 120 

Magic Wand Word Processor (Needs Z-80 Softcard) 345 

Dow Jones Portfolio Evaluator 45 

Fortran 1 40 



ORDERING INFORMATION: Phone orders invited using VISA, MASTERCARD or bank wire transfers. VISA & MC credit card service charge of 2%. Mail order may send charge 
card number (include exp.ration date), cashier's check, money order or personal check (allow 10 business days to clear). Please include a telephone number with all orders 
Foreign orders (excluding Military POs) add 5% for shipping. All funds must be in U.S. dollars (letters of credit permitted). Shipping, handling and insurance in U S add 2% 
(minimum $4.00). California residents add 6% sales tax. Our low margins prohibit us to send COD or on purchase orders or open account (please send for written quotation) All 
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RETAIL STORE PRICES MAY DIFFER FROM MAIL ORDER PRICES. 



'See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 149 



Simulate planetary motion in the solar system using high-resolution graphics on the Apple II. 



Electronic Orrery 



By Fred J. Gunther 



Have you ever visited a planetar- 
ium? Or perhaps taken a class in 
astronomy? If so, you have probably 
encountered an orrery— a mechanical 
model of the solar system. 

An orrery usually consists of a box 
containing many interconnected 
gears. A number of smaller spheres, 
representing the planets, are connect- 
ed to the gears so that they revolve 
around a central sphere, the Sun. The 
orrery shows the sequence, orbits 
and motions of the planets and some 
of the moons. 

Driven by clockwork and con- 
trolled by the gears, these models 
have been built by clock instrument 
makers since the Middle Ages. This 
program lets you use your Apple II to 
bring modern technology to this tra- 
ditional craft. Using Applesoft BASIC 
and high-resolution graphics, it will 
turn your Apple into a simple orrery. 

The program in its present form 
could be used for a beginning course 
in earth science or astronomy. Or it 
could be used as a basis for a space 
wars game. The orrery can be as com- 
plex as you would like it. 

The Program 

I've made several adjustments to 
reduce the programming problems. 
First, the planetary orbits are circles 
rather than ellipses. (With the scales 
provided, though, you can't tell the 
difference.) Second, each planet, no 



Fred J. Gunther (9464 Wandering Way, Colum- 
bia, MD 21045} is a geologist who has been using 
computers in research and teaching for about 14 
years. 



matter how big or small, is represent- 
ed by a single dot. (Again, this is a 
matter of scale.) And third, the pro- 
gram does not plot any moons, since 
they're too close to their primaries to 
show up on an orrery done to scale. 



The program gives you a choice of 
scales. Different scales are needed to 
show details in the orbit and posi- 
tions of the inner versus the outer 
planets. You can much better appre- 
ciate the size of the solar system 



10 

50 

80 

90 

100 

105 

110 

115 

120 

130 

135 

140 

150 

160 

165 

170 

175 

180 

190 

195 

200 

210 

215 

220 

300 

500 

505 

510 

520 

530 

540 

550 

560 

570 

580 

590 

600 

650 

700 

800 

820 

825 

850 

875 

1000 



TEXT t HOME I CLEAR 

DIM 0P(9)»PY(9)>I(9> 

GOTO 300 

HOME t VTAB 21 

PRINT " APPLE 
REM PLOT CIRCULAR ORBITS 
REM OFFSET PLUTO'S ORBIT TO 
INVERSE J PRINT "DAY 



ORRERY 



SIMULATE ELLIPSE. 

YEAR (EARTH) 



■: NORMAL 



HGR 
LET 
FOR 
LET 
LET 
LET 
LET 
IF 



t HC0L0R= 7\ POKE 34»22 

W = (1 * PI) / 180 

J = 1 TO 9t LET R = 0P<J) / SCALE 

I(J) = I(J) + (PY(3) / PY<J) * TD) 

Y = Z * I(J) 

X = XC + R » COS (U + 

Y * YC - R * SIN <W + 
J = 9 THEN LET X = X + 



OR 
OR 



X 
Y 



1»YC 



IF X > 279 

IF Y > 159 

HPLOT X»Y 

NEXT j: IF 

CALL 62450 

HPLOT XC - 

HPLOT XCrYC - 1 

PRINT I(3)»I<3) 

GOTO 130 

REM 

REM 

REM 

LET 0P(1) 

OP ( 2 ) 

0P(3) 

0P<4) 

0P(5) 

OP ( 6 ) 

0P<7) 

OP < 8 ) 

0P(9) 

PI = 








THEN 
THEN 



Y) 

Y) 

(1500E06 
GOTO 190 
GOTO 190 



/ SCALE) 



RBIT = 1 THEN GOTO 200 



TO XC + 1>YC 
TO XCtYC + 1 
/ PY(3) 



LET 
LET 
LET 
LET 
LET 
LET 
LET 
LET 
LET 
FOR 
LET 
INPUT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
INPUT 
INPUT 
GOTO 



SET UP SOLAR SYSTEM 
OP(I) = DIAMETER OF PLANETARY 

PY<I) ■ PLANETARY YEAR. 

57.9E06J LET PY(1) = 87.97 
108.2E06: LET PY(2) = 224.7 
149.6E06: LET PY(3) 
227.9E06*. LET PY(4) 
778.3E06: LET PY(5) 
1427E06: LET PY(6) = 



ORBIT 



= 365.26 
= 686.98 
» 11.86 * PY(3) 
29.46 * PY<3) 



= 2869. 6E06t LET PY<7) = 84.01 * PY<3) 
= 4496. 6E06: LET PY(8) = 164.79 * PY(3) 
= 5.9E09J LET PY(9) = 248.4 * PY<3) 
3.141591 LET P2 = PI * 2 



J 

Z 



= o to 9:kj) = o: NEXT J 

= P2 / 360 

■SCALE = <5E5 -1E8) "JSCALE 

•PLOT ORBITAL PATH (TYPE '1') OR' 

: INPUT 'PLANET POSITION ONLY (TYPE 

•SUN LOCATION (X»l-278f Y»l-158)? ■ 

•TIME INCREMENT (DAYS) "JTD 

80 : END 



'0') "JRBIT 
fXCfYC 



Program listing. 



150 Microcomputing, July 1981 



when, at any scale that includes 
Pluto, the display shows the inner 
planets practically merged with the 
Sun. On the other hand, any scale 
that shows orbital details for the in- 
ner planets has all of the outer planets 
(except perhaps Jupiter) off the 
screen. 

The program prompts for the scale 
factor when the run starts. Then it 
prompts you for the location of the 
Sun. The Sun must be on the display 
screen (between 1 and 158 vertically 
and 1 and 278 horizontally), but it 
does not have to be in the center of 
the display. It is OK for a planet to be 
beyond the screen boundary; in fact, 
that's where the outermost planets 
usually are. 

The program always starts with the 
planets in a standard starting posi- 
tion. As it runs, each planet progress- 
es around the Sun in its own orbit at 
its own rate. The progression is dis- 
continuous rather than continuous; 
that is, the new position is shown for 
the planet after the passage of a cer- 
tain amount of time (you are prompt- 
ed to provide the time increment), 
usually one Earth day. The program 
also gives you the option of showing 
only the instantaneous location of 
each planet, or of showing all of the 
points that make up the orbital paths. 
In either case, a short time interval is 
appropriate for the inner planets and 
a long one for the outer planets. 

Let's talk about "scale" for a mo- 
ment. The scale factor requested at 
the start of the program run is divid- 
ed into the distance from the Sun to 
the planet. This yields the orbital ra- 
dius in screen units. For example, the 
distance from the Earth to the Sun is 
an average of 149.6 x 10 6 km (93 x 10 6 
mi.). If you type in a scale factor of 
"1E6" (l.Ox 10 6 ), then the Earth-Sun 
radius will be represented by 150 
screen urfits. This distance, one astro- 



RUN 






SCALE = (5E5 


-1E8) 1E7 


PLOT 


ORBITAL 


PATH (TYPE '1') OR 


PLANET POSITION ONLY (TYPE '0') 


SUN LOCATION 


(Xfl-278* Y, 1-158)? 100»80 


TIME 


INCREMENT (DAYS) 5 




A P P 


LE ORRERY 


DAY 




YEAR (EARTH) 


5 




.0136888792 


10 




.0273777583 


15 




.0410666375 


20 




.0547555166 


25 




.0684443958 


30 




.0821332749 


35 




.0958221541 


40 




.109511033 


45 




.123199912 


50 




.136888792 




Input sequence and partial run. 






r. 



nomical unit (1 AU), is a standard 
yardstick for measurement within 
and near the solar system. 

Modifications 

Experienced programmers will find 
certain modifications challenging. 
Try adding the Earth's moon. Try 
adding at least the Galilean moons to 
Jupiter. Add, if you can, the O'Neill 
space colonies at the Legrangian 
points for the Earth-Moon system. 
Add the Trojan asteroids (this is an 
easy one). 

Try to add a few comets (start with 
a nice periodic one like Halley's 
Comet, but remember that it moves 
around the Sun in a direction oppo- 
site that of the planets). The comets 
must have elliptical orbits (Kepler's 
First Law of Planetary Motion) and 
obey the "equal areas in equal time" 
law (Kepler's Second Law). 

Try making the orbit of Mercury 
properly elliptical and with the prop- 
er precession of its "aphelion" (clos- 
est approach to the Sun). 

Not all added features can be ap- 
preciated at one scale, so add a scale- 
change feature, perhaps under the 



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control of the game paddles. Add a 
window feature, perhaps under the 
control of a joystick, so that you can 
look at different portions of the solar 
system. (Hint— move the Sun relative 
to the screen.) 

If you have added both a scale- 
change feature and a window fea- 
ture, then add all of the moons, give 
each planet and large moon a disk 
rather than a point, and get ready for 
a grand tour of the solar system. ■ 

Suggested Readings 

Weaver, Kenneth F. "Voyage to the 
Planets.' National Geographic, vol- 
ume 138, number 2 (August 1970), 
pp. 147-193. 

Henderson, Arthur, Jr., and Jerry 
Grey. Exploration of the Solar System. 
National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration EP-122. U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1974. Washing- 
ton, DC, 67 pp. $2.05. 

"The Solar System." Scientific 
American (September 1975), 280 pp. 
Special issue. 

Pournelle, J. E. "The Endless Fron- 
tier." In The Endless Frontier, Ace 
Books, 1974, pp. 3-24. 



'ten* 




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^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 151 



Here's an in-depth look at a word processor that has become the de facto standard for microcomputers. 



Word Processor 
Extraordinaire 



By Glenn A. Hart 



WordStar is an integrated word- 
processing program for CP/M 
and derivative operating systems. 
Sold by MicroPro International Cor- 
poration (1299 Fourth Street, Suite 
400, San Rafael, CA 94901), Word- 
Star is a powerful and complex pro- 
gram which provides a high level of 
operating flexibility and has become 
almost a standard against which all 
microcomputer word processors are 
judged. After several generations of 
development, the newest version 
(2.26) contains even more features. 

Installation 

WordStar is unique in its ability to 
accommodate various operating en- 
vironments. The distribution disk 
contains four files: a message file 
used to print the many prompts and 
messages to the user, an 'unin- 
stalled' ' WordStar system, an associ- 
ated overlay file and an Install utility. 
After making safety backup copies, 
the user runs Install to customize 
Wordstar to his equipment configu- 
ration. 

The various serial terminals and 
memory-mapped video boards which 
WordStar can support are listed in 
Table 1. Almost all major types are 
available, and instructions are also 
given to the technically adept to 
patch in nonstandard terminal driv- 
ers other than these. WordStar takes 
advantage of the special characteris- 
tics of most terminals, using reverse 
video, dual intensity, cursor address- 
ing and clear screen, if available. 

Two main classes of printers are 
supported: daisywheel and other 
similar printers and "Teletype-like" 
standard printers (which means prac- 
tically any printer usable with a mi- 



crocomputer). Specialty printers from 
Diablo, Qume and NEC are support- 
ed with special drivers, as indicated 
in Table 2, and WordStar will print 
bidirectionally with such printers, 
using a microspace justification algo- 
rithm which uses both added spacing 
between words and character spread- 
ing. 

A memory location can be patched 
to change the spreading emphasis to 
less character spacing and more in- 
terword spacing if desired. Standard 
printers are further subdivided into 
those that can backspace or half line- 
feed in either direction, and Word- 
Star will change the way it prints 
boldface, underscores and other spe- 
cial printing tasks to accommodate 
the printer's abilities. 

If required by his printer, the user 
has a choice of communications pro- 
tocols. The standard Diablo ETX/ 
ACK is normally used, but the newer 
XON/XOFF (DC3/DC1) protocol is 
also supported, as is hardware hand- 
shaking or other protocols resident in 
the user's BIOS. 

WordStar can communicate to the 
printer in different methods: Output 
can be sent to the standard CP/M 
LST: device, which would be the 
most normal setup; to secondary 
CP/M devices such as TTY: or CRT:; 
or directly through output ports 
unique to the user's hardware. Com- 
pletely customized output drivers 
can also be added. 

Unlike earlier versions, the newest 
WordStar is not set up for Imsai port 
configurations; the user must supply 
the hex address of his input and out- 
put data and control ports. WordStar 
will then determine the correct bits to 
use automatically. Direct output to 



the ports provides faster printer 
speed and results in better overall 
performance. 

MicroPro is the only word proces- 
sor supplier which provides the code 
necessary to customize the system to 
different terminals and printers. 
Other programs require that the 
hardware configuration be specified 
at the time the program is purchased, 
and the program then supplied will 
work only on that configuration. Mi- 
croPro's method allows the user with 
different printers to create special 
versions; I use two versions called 
WS1650 and WS1760 with my two 
very different printer terminals— a 
Diablo 1650 metal daisywheel termi- 
nal and a Xerox 1760 high-speed ma- 
trix terminal. 

While the installation procedure is 
very well done and the documenta- 
tion provided is excellent, novice us- 
ers may have to do some digging in 
their manuals to decide what options 
to use. Of course, their dealers can 
configure the system in advance. 

Start-Up 

WordStar begins with a heading 
showing the equipment configura- 
tion which has been patched to the 
program. This and all other menus 
and prompts are shown in reverse 
video or highlighted areas if the ter- 
minal system supports such features. 
After a brief pause, the basic menu is 
displayed, with the program remind- 
ing you that "no file is now being ed- 
ited." The choices available are 
shown in Table 3. 



Glenn A. Hart is a computer consultant who re- 
sides at 51 Church Road, Monsey, NY 10952. 



152 Microcomputing, July 1981 



The difference between a "docu- 
ment" and a "non-document" is that 
documents are preformatted by 
WordStar and stored on disk that way 
(more about this later). Defaults for 
word-wrap, tabulation, justification 
and other parameters are also differ- 
ent, with the non-document mode 
used for assembly-language pro- 
grams, high-level programs or any 
file which will be accessed by some 
other program. This distinction is 
necessary since WordStar inserts 
many control codes in a document 
file to control on-screen formatting, 
and these control codes make a docu- 
ment file incompatible with other 
programs. 

WordStar has various levels of user 
prompting and assistance shown on 
the screen throughout the editing and 
printing process. These prompts ex- 
plain almost all the commands avail- 
able to the user and are necessary to 
make the system usable without an 
unacceptable amount of memoriza- 
tion or frequent references to the 
manual. 

After a while, most of the common 
functions become familiar and the 
screen space taken up by the prompt- 
ing menus can be better used to dis- 
play more text. WordStar gives the 
user the ability to change the amount 
of prompting displayed to one of four 
"help levels." 

Previously edited and formatted 
files can be printed without entering 
the editing process. You are asked for 
the name of the file to print, followed 
by either an escape or return. If an es- 
cape is entered, printing begins with 
certain default conditions. If a return 
is entered, you are asked whether 
disk file output is desired (to print a 
formatted file to disk for later view- 
ing or further processing), what page 
to start and stop printing on, whether 
to pause for the paper to be changed 
after each page (for use with single 
sheets rather than continuous forms) 
and whether to use form feeds or line 
feeds to advance to the top of subse- 
quent pages. Printing proceeds once 
these conditions are specified. Files 
can also be printed with an optional 
utility called Mail-Merge, which per- 
forms many other options and will be 
discussed later. 

This "no-file" menu also performs 
many "operating system" type func- 
tions like deleting files, renaming 
files and copying files. Version 2.26 
also allows running an unrelated pro- 
gram from WordStar with control re- 



Lear-Si 


egler ADM-3A 




Soroc IQ-120 




Lear-Si 


egler ADM-31 




Perkin-Elmer 550 


(Bantam) 


Hazeltin 




Tel 


svideo 912 




Microte 


rm ACT-IV 




Visual 200 




Microterm ACT-V 




Flashwriter I 




Beehive 


150/Cromemco 3100 




Flashwriter II 




Imsai VIO 




SWTPC CT-8 2 




Hewlett 


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Compucolor 8001G 




Infoton 


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TEC 


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Processor Tech Sol/VDM 












Table 1. Terminals supported by version 2.26. 




A 


Any "Teletype-like" 


printer 


(i .e a 


lmost any printer) 


C 


"Teletype-like" printer that 


can BACKSPACE 




D 


DIABLO 1610/1620 daisy wheel 


printer 




E 


DIABLO 1640/1650 daisy wheel 


printer 




F 


QUME Sprint 5 daisy 


wheel printer 






G 


NEC Spin Writer 5510/5520 th 


imble 


printer 




I 


"Half-Line-Feed" Printers 








U 


No change 










Z 


None of the above 










PLEASE ENTER SELECTION 


(1 LETTER 


> : 








Table 2. Printer] 


menu. 








no file is now bei 


rig edited 








D=create or edit a Document file 




H=set Help 


level 


N=create or edit a Non-document fi 


Le 


X=eXit to 


system 


M=Merc 


le-print a file 






P=Print a 


file 


F=File 


i directory off (ON) 






Y=delete a 


file 


L=Change Logged disk 






0=cOpy a f 


ile 


R=Run 


a program 






E=rEname a 


file 


DIRECTORY of disk A: 










WORDSTAR. REV WS16 50.COM 


WS1760.COM 


WSMSGS . COM 






Table 3. 


"No-file" 


menu. 







turning to WordStar after completion 
of the run program. This is conve- 
nient if you use WordStar to prepare 
compiler programs. The compiler 
can be called from WordStar, and 
when errors are encountered Word- 
Star will be automatically loaded to 
make the necessary corrections. An- 
other use is to load one of the new 
spelling-correction programs from 
WordStar so the editor will be en- 
tered after the spelling errors are iso- 
lated. 

Version 2.26 includes provisions 
for displaying a directory of files on 
the default disk (which can also be 
changed with a new "logged-disk" 
feature). The directory can be dis- 
played during the "no-file" menu or 
while editing is in progress. The lack 
of such a directory feature was a ma- 
jor inconvenience in earlier versions 
of WordStar. Incidentally, Micro-Pro 
will upgrade earlier versions for a 
$25 copying charge and will supply 
the relevant new manual pages for 
$15. 

Once the user indicates he wants to 
edit a file, the program prompts with 



a complete explanation of CP/M file- 
naming conventions and asks for the 
desired filename. No default exten- 
sions are provided, and the user is 
free to use whatever extension desig- 
nations he wants (or none at all). 
WordStar either indicates that the file 
is new or reads in a portion of a pre- 
existing file and displays the first 
menu and the initial screen of text. 
The handling of files too large to fit 
completely in memory is transparent 
to the user, with WordStar perform- 
ing all disk reads and writes automat- 
ically. 

Operation 

The top screen line is a status line 
which always appears, even if the 
help level chosen inhibits some or all 
of the normal prompting. The status 
line indicates the current operating 
status and definitions in use, includ- 
ing the name of the file being edited; 
the page, line and column number for 
documents (lines and bytes from the 
beginning of the file for non-docu- 
ments); INSERT ON, WAIT (usually 
during disk accesses); MAR REL 



Microcomputing, July 1981 153 



CURSOR: 

SCROLL: 
DELETE: 
OTHER: 



M 



PAGE 1 LINE 1 
"A=left word 
~E=up line 
~Z»Up line 
DEL=char left 
~V=insert on/off 
insert a RETURN 



COL 1 

~S=left char 
~X=down line 
~W=down line 
~G=char right 



~F=right word 

~R=down screen 
/s Y=entire line 
X*tab RETURN=end para ~U=stop 
~B=reform to end para A L=f ind/replace again 
2LP: ~J displays menu of information commands 
PREFIX KEYS A Q "J A K "0 "P display menus of additional commands 
j i i J 1 1 ! 1 ! 1 R 



^D=right char 

"C=up screen 
~T=word right 
RETURN=end para 




(margin release); LINE SPACING n 
(if more than single-spaced lines); 
and PRINT PAUSED (for insertion of 
single sheets). The status line is inval- 
uable in determining what is going on 
and is displayed like a message, in 
highlighted or reverse video if avail- 
able. 

Under the status line is a "ruler 
line," which shows tab settings and 
the position of the left and right mar- 
gins. This line can be disabled if de- 
sired, and tab settings can be changed 
at will. When menus are displayed, 
they displace the text which was un- 
der them, but everything returns to 
normal after the menu is removed. 
Note that all commands can be en- 
tered in either upper or lowercase. 

Perhaps the best way to examine 
all the functions available in Word- 
Star is to review the prompting 
menus and explain the various opera- 
tions shown on each. 

The Basic Menu 

The basic menu (see Table 4) cov- 
ers all the commands which can be 
entered with a single control charac- 
ter (indicated by t). The screen cursor 
can be moved in any direction a char- 
acter at a time or a "word" at a time. 
Word boundaries do not include 
punctuation. The ability to move by 
words is unusual, and speeds cursor 
movement dramatically. The cursor 
will only move to areas which con- 
tain text, so moving down a line will 
often move the cursor to the left edge 
of the screen. The layout of the con- 
trol codes chosen is very logical, with 
the functions of the codes suggested 
by the relationship of the keys on the 
keyboard. The cursor can also be 
moved in several other ways by more 
complicated commands. 

Scrolling can be done in both direc- 
tions either a line at a time or by 
chunks representing a little less than 
one full screen of text. This provides 
a useful overlap so each screen of in- 
formation contains a bit of the pre- 
ceding screen for continuity. 

Simple deletions in either direction 

154 Microcomputing, July 1981 



by character or word are possible. 
Entire lines or segments of lines in 
either direction can be deleted. Some 
of these commands are specified on 
the next menu. 

Insert mode is toggled on or off 
with tV, and the status line indicates 
whether insertion is on or off. tN in- 
serts a return, providing an empty 
line in the file for spacing or upon 
which to enter text. tU interrupts a 
command in progress, and tL repeats 
a search or find (more about search- 
ing later). 

The tB command is a hint of what 
is probably WordStar's most dramat- 
ic and useful feature. As with many 
other word processors, text is entered 
continuously with no need for the 
typist to enter carriage returns at the 
end of screen lines. Words are auto- 
matically moved down to the next 
line (hyphenated words may be split 
at the hyphen) if they won't fit on the 
current line. But when WordStar 
completes filling a line of text, each 
screen line is automatically formatted 
and justified just as it will appear in the 
final printed copy! 

The implications of this are tre- 
mendous. Not only can the typist see 
how each line will look and change 
words or spacing if desired, but the 
program can also keep track of how 
each page will look. WordStar dis- 
plays an end of page indicator (a com- 
plete line of dashes followed by P) ex- 
actly where each page break will oc- 
cur. This is invaluable in many re- 
spects. Widow paragraphs (only one 
or two lines at the end or beginning of 
a page) are easily avoided without 
conditional statements prefacing 
each paragraph. Multiple line head- 
ings can be typed in at the top of each 
page. Many other uses are possible as 
well. 

The tB command also invokes an- 
other unique WordStar feature: hy- 
phenation help. If a line is likely to 
look bad when printed due to the 
presence of a long word, the program 
will suggest that the word be hyphen- 
ated and will even recommend where 



to place the hyphen. The operator has 
the option of accepting the program' s 
suggested location, moving the hy- 
phen to another spot in the word or 
rejecting hyphenation entirely. Hy- 
phenation help can be disabled if de- 
sired. 

WordStar is the only word proces- 
sor to incorporate these features. 
Now the meaning of the tB command 
can be understood: the tB command 
reformats each paragraph after inser- 
tions and/or deletions or when a com- 
pletely different layout is desired. An 
entire document can be reformatted 
with a repeat command described 
later. 

There are a few problems with this 
feature. Certain commands which set 
up formatting must be entered care- 
fully and at the beginning of the 
document if pagination is to be accu- 
rate. Reformatting long paragraphs 
can take a few seconds, and even 
longer for a long document. Also, the 
formatting adds a lot of special con- 
trol characters to the file to distin- 
guish between spaces entered by the 
typist (which are always retained) 
and "soft' ' spaces inserted by the pro- 
gram for justification. This makes 
formatted text files much longer than 
normal files or the files produced by 
other word processors. All in all, 
however, the on-screen formatting 
and pagination are fantastic. 

The basic menu continues with tj, 
the help command. When this com- 
mand is invoked, a special menu ap- 
pears which has helpful paragraphs 
explaining most functions or the 
meaning of special on-screen end of 
line indicators. This is useful for mak- 
ing sure of the correct usage of infre- 
quently used commands, and is also a 
tremendous help in using the pro- 
gram without constant reference to 
the excellent but lengthy documenta- 
tion. 

The final menu entry indicates the 
"prefix keys, ' ' which allow use of the 
remainder of WordStar's commands 
as well as examining the various 
other menus. Entering just these con- 
trol characters brings up the other 
menus, which then allow either the 
desired command to be entered and 
executed or a return to normal edit- 
ing with the cursor returned to its 
previous position. 

Note that other than the normal 
commands shown on the basic menu, 
all WordStar commands involve two 
or even three control or regular char- 
acters. Fortunately, the control key 
can be held down continuously while 



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the sequence of letters is entered, and 
quickly entering the characters inhib- 
its display of the menu involved. This 
speeds things up quite a bit, but there 
is no question that a lot of control 
characters have to be typed. This is 
the price that must be paid for the 
large number of commands available. 

It's almost a maxim that flexibility 
implies a certain complexity, and 
there just aren't enough keys on a 
keyboard to incorporate all of Word- 
Star' s commands without multiple 
keystrokes. WordStar's designers de- 
liberately avoided the use of any spe- 
cial function keys which may be avail- 
able on a given terminal, not only for 
portability but also because use of 
such keys is less comfortable and 
may actually slow throughput for ex- 
perienced typists. 

The tQ Menu 

The tQ menu (shown in Table 5) 
begins with more cursor control se- 
quences. The cursor can be moved to 
either side or the top or bottom of the 
screen, the beginning or end of the 
file or to special markers which can 
be embedded in the text. Markers 



Q PREFIX 

CURSOR: S=left Side screen 

R=beginning file C=end file 
SCROLL: Z=continuous up 

DELETE TO END LINE: DEL=left 
FIND, REPLACE: F=Find a string 



(to cancel prefix, hit SPACE bar) 
E=top screen X=bottom D=right enD line 

0-9, B, K, V, P = to marker 
W=continuous down 
Y=r ight 
A=find And substitute 



REPEAT NEXT COMMAND: 



Q=repeat until key hit 



Table 5. tQ menu. 



numbered through 9 are inserted 
with commands shown on the next 
menu and allow jumping to specified 
places in the text. This is very useful 
with long files to mark and find the 
beginning of chapters, tables, etc. 
The cursor can also be moved to the 
beginning or end of marked blocks 
(explained later), the place where a 
block was moved from or to the posi- 
tion where the cursor was before a 
command which moves the cursor 
was executed. 

This menu also completes the list of 
deletion commands which began on 
the basic menu. Note that the com- 
mands are logically organized; most 
of the commands are extensions of 
the single keystroke commands with 
the prefix tQ. This makes learning 
the double keystroke commands a 



much simpler task. 

WordStar can repetitively execute 
many commands. Entering tQtQ fol- 
lowed by the desired command will 
begin execution at a default speed. A 
prompt appears which allows the us- 
er to speed up or slow down the re- 
petitive process or interrupt it entire- 
ly. There are many uses for repetitive 
commands, including tQtQtB to re- 
format an entire document, tQtQtY 
to remove all lines after the current 
one, etc. 

This menu also contains the se- 
quences for WordStar's comprehen- 
sive find, search and/or replace 
mechanism. All these instructions 
work similarly and with a reasonably 
simple syntax, but the flexibility pro- 
vided is impressive. When one of 
these commands is entered, Word- 



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~K PREFIX 
END EDIT/SAVE: 
MARK BLOCK: 
BLOCK OPERATIONS: 
ADDITIONAL FILES 

& PRINTING: 
DISK & DIRECTORY: 
PLACE MARKERS: 



(to cancel 
X=done, exit 
K=BlocK end 
C=Copy block 
W=write block 
E=rEname file 

L=change Logged disk 

0-9 = set/hide place marker 0-9 



D=Done edit 
B=Block start 
V=raoVe block 
R=Read file 
0=cOpy file 



prefix, hit SPACE 
S=Save, reedit 
H=Hide/di splay 
Y=delete block 
J=delete file 
P=Print a file 
F=File directory on (OFF) 



bar) 

Q=abandon 

W=Write 



Table 6. \K menu. 



Star prompts for the string to be 
found and, if a search and replace has 
been requested, the string to use as 
the replacement. The find string en- 
tered can contain special characters 
to specify classes of characters to 
match. tA matches any character, tS 
matches any character not a letter or 
digit, tOx matches any character 
other than x, and tN matches the car- 
riage return/line feed sequence. Al- 
though rarely used, these special 
"wild-card" characters permit very 
sophisticated searching procedures. 

After obtaining the search and re- 
place strings, the program prompts 
for any desired options, which in- 
clude specifying the exact number of 
times to perform the operation, 
searching the entire file (global 



search), replacing without asking (the 
system normally moves the cursor to 
each located string, displays the sur- 
rounding area and asks if you do, in 
fact, wish to replace this particular 
occurrence), searching backwards in- 
stead of forwards, ignoring the dis- 
tinction between upper and lower- 
case and searching for whole word 
occurrences only. 

Global searches can be done with- 
out fear of changing an occurrence 
when you don't want to or changing a 
small part of a word unintentionally. 
How many of us have changed the 
word "date" to today's date on a file 
of multiple letters and accidentally 
also changed "candidate" to "candi- 
February 22, 1981"! With WordStar 
just specify option W and this can't 



happen. 

Scrolling in either direction is pro- 
vided. While acceptable in the for- 
ward direction, reverse scrolling is 
useful only on memory-mapped dis- 
plays since a serial terminal must re- 
write the entire screen. Most users 
will find it easier to page backwards 
rather than scroll. 

The tK Menu 

This menu is primarily concerned 
with file and block operations (see 
Table 6). Four ending sequences are 
available: the user can complete edit- 
ing the current file and move on to 
editing a different one, complete the 
edit and exit WordStar to return to 
CP/M, save the current file and re- 
turn to editing it (a useful safety op- 
tion) or abandon the current edit in 
progress. WordStar automatically 
creates a backup file whenever it 
saves an edit or exits, so the previous 
version is always available in case of 
problems. 

A block is a section of text which 
can be of any length. When the begin- 
ning and end points of the block are 
defined, WordStar highlights the en- 
tire block so there is no confusion 




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about the segment of text to be oper- 
ated upon. The highlighting can be 
turned on or off ("hidden" or "dis- 
played" in WordStar terminology), 
and the cursor can be moved to the 
beginning or end points as described 
earlier. 

Once a block is defined, it can be 
moved to any other location in the 
file by simply moving the cursor to 
the desired destination and executing 
the tKtV command. Similarly, a 
block can be copied to a new loca- 
tion, in which case the original block 
still exists at its original location, or a 
block can be deleted. 

A block can also be written out to 
disk, and the program will ask what 
filename the block should be saved 
under. Blocks (or entire files) can also 
be read into the current file at the lo- 
cation of the cursor. This allows read- 
ing in boilerplate text, letterheads, 
etc., and makes generation of letters 
using standard paragraphs easy. Files 
can also be deleted, copied or re- 
named from this menu. 

The logged disk feature changes 
the default disk (useful for getting a 
directory of a disk other than that 
from which WordStar was started) 
and toggles on or off the directory list- 
ing. If this feature is on, a complete 
directory is displayed (five files to a 
line) at all times between the basic 
menu and the ruler line. If the entire 
directory would occupy too much of 
the screen to allow convenient edit- 
ing, WordStar displays only a few 
lines and allows the user to scroll the 
directory portion of the screen sepa- 
rately from the status displays and 
text. 

tK followed by a number between 
and 9 sets the place markers (de- 
scribed earlier), which allow the cur- 



sor to be jumped around in a long file. 
The final command on this menu 
prints a user-specified file. This seems 
simple enough until one realizes ex- 
actly what happens. WordStar can 
actually print one file while editing a 
completely different one! This is a 
form of multitasking, or spooling, 
and is a rarity on today's microcom- 
puters. Keyboard response becomes 
rather sluggish in this foreground/ 
background mode, however, so entry 
of text while simultaneously printing 
is likely to lose characters, especially 
if printing is directed through the 
CP/M LST: device. 

The tO Menu 

On-screen formatting is controlled 
by the commands listed in Table 7. 
Many of them are self-explanatory, 
but note that whatever formatting is 
specified occurs in full view on the 
screen. Margins can be set either to a 
specified column number or to the 
current position of the cursor; any de- 
sired tab stops can be set or cleared 
and are reflected in the tab ruler line 
below the status line; margins can be 
released as on a normal typewriter to 
allow hanging paragraphs; and vari- 
ous options can be toggled on or off. 
The status of several options is indi- 
cated on the menu itself by capitaliz- 
ing and highlighting the status. 

Version 2.26 allows special "soft" 
hyphens to be typed while text is en- 
tered if the tOE option is set. These 
"soft" hyphens (which are displayed 
highlighted) will only print if they ap- 
pear at the end of a printed line. A 
normal "hard" hyphen always 
prints, so words like "mother-in- 
law" are handled correctly. Display 
of the soft hyphens (and other special 
WordStar characters embedded in 



S=set line Spacing 
L=set Left margin 
R=set Right margin 
I=set tab stop 
N=clear tab stop 
G=paraGraph tab 



PREFIX: on-screen formatting commands 

C=Center cursor line F=margins/tabs from File line 
X=margin release E=soft hyphen - Entry on (OFF) 
W=Word wrap off (ON) D= -, print Ctrl dspy off (ON) 
J=Justif ication off (ON) P=Page break display off (ON) 
V=Variable tabs off (ON) T=Ruler display off (ON) 
H=Hyphenate-Help on (OFF) SPACE=cancel prefix 

Table 7. tO menu. 



*p PREFIX: Put Control Character in File 



V=subscript begin/end 
S=underScore begin/end 
A=Alternate pitch 
O=non-break space 
C=pause when printing 



T=superscr ipt begin/end Y=ribbon color change 
B=Boldface begin/end D=Double strike begin/end 
N=standard pitch X=strikeout begin/end 

F=phantom space G=ph. rubout (see manual) 

H=overprint next character RETURN=overpr int next line 



Q, W, E, R = user printer controls 



SPACE=cancel prefix 



Table 8. tP menu. 



the text) can be disabled to see exact- 
ly how printed lines will look. 

In addition to regular tab stops, 
WordStar can set special "decimal 
tab stops." When the cursor is tabbed 
to such a column, numbers typed are 
entered to the left of the tab stop until 
a decimal point is typed. This makes 
entering numerical tables incredibly 

easy. 

Tabs and/or margins can be set 
from a line in the file itself. If a line of 
dashes, exclamation points and 
pound signs is entered and the cursor 
is positioned on this line, the tOF 
command will automatically set reg- 
ular tabs to the columns with excla- 
mation points, decimal tabs to the 
columns with pound signs and the 
margins to the endpoints of the line. 
This is useful in setting up tabs for 
columnar tables, especially in reports 
which are prepared regularly; the tab 
line can be stored in the file and used 
to set up the format when the report 

is to be prepared again. 

Finally, version 2.26 adds a "para- 
graph tabbing" feature, which tem- 
porarily indents the left margin to the 
next set tab stop until a carriage re- 
turn is entered. This is very handy for 
outlines and other special formatting 
purposes. 

The tP Menu 

Table 8 shows the sequences to put 
a control character into the file. 
While this might be useful for special 
purposes, its main function is to con- 
trol special printer actions. A wide 
variety of special functions can be de- 
coded by the printing portion of 
WordStar. Underscoring (only the 
characters, not the spaces in be- 
tween), boldface, double-strike, sub- 
and superscripts, ribbon color 
changes, overstriking a line (printing 
the same line of paper with two dif- 
ferent lines of text), etc., are possible 
if your printer supports these func- 
tions. The newest version also sup- 
ports strikeout and overprinting of 
single characters. 

Pitch can be changed on daisy- 
wheel printers, printing can be mo- 
mentarily suspended for typewheel 
changes, and the characters on some 
daisywheels which cannot normally 
be printed can be forced to print. A 
"non-break space" code, which pre- 
vents the word wrap routines from 
splitting a phrase at a space, can be 
entered; this is useful to prevent 
"February 22, 1981" from being split 
before the "22." Provisions are also 
made for calling in special user print- 



158 Microcomputing, July 1981 





"I particularly liked the help I 
received in rounding out the 
edges of my program . . . made 
it more marketable." 

Charlie Heath 

Author of the top microcom- 
puter version of Othello, which 
recently beat all other micro- 
computer opponents in the 
Santa Cruz Open. 



*N 



is a European programmer, I 
safely say that Instant 
\ftware. with its vast 

irketing and distribution 
\twork, has proven to me to 

the best organization in the 
)rld to submit my TRS-80 
llity programs to. " 

Jake Commander 
lUthor of over 10 top selling 
|lity programs, and many ar- 
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>gramming techniques. 

















■ wsIr 












W m 
















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I 






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fm 


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"They (Instant Software) have 
the largest marketing organi- 
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gives my program more expo- 
sure. . and more sales." 

Terry Kepner 

Author of ONE "D" MAIL- 
LIST, and numerous articles in 
the Industry's top magazines. 



"One thing I've been im- 
pressed with is the scale of 
your Marketing capabilities. 
So many dealers . . .so many 
advertisements. " 

Mike Wall 

Author of the best selling 
ASTEROIDS and COSMIC PA- 
TROL . Soon to be a Compu- 
ter Science major at M.I.T. 




These four Instant Software authors have all written programs proven successful in the marketplace 
Now it's your turn. 

If you're a programmer and are writing what you feel to be an exceptional software program, it's 
time to think about bringing it to market. 

We believe it takes time, talent, training and experience to write good software. It also takes time, 
talent, training, experience and money to establish an effective marketing system. YOU have the first 
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So, what's in this for you? Excellent royalty percentage, paid monthly. 26 sales reps covering the 
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the same sole objective. Over 450 Instant Software dealers in the US. Hundreds of thousands of 
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list of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 159 







~J PREFIX: help comma 


rids 


H 


■ 


display and set Help level 


M ■ Margins and tabs 


F 


= 


Flags in right screen column 


S ■ Status line 


I 


= 


command Index; entering text 


R ■ Ruler line 


B 


= 


paragraph reform (~B command) 


V = moving text 


D 




Dot commands, print controls 


P = Place markers 
SPACE=cancel prefix 






Table 9. t/ menu 





Command Function 



Comment 



.LH 
.PL 
.MT 
.MB 
.HM 
.FM 
.PC 

.PO 

.PA 
.CP 

.HE 
.FO 
.OP 
.PN 

.CW 
• SR 

.UJ 
.BP 

.IG 



Line Height 
Page Length 
Margin at Top 
Margin at Bottom 
Heading Margin 
Footing Margin 
Page # Column 



Sets 
Sets 
Sets 
Sets 
Sets 
Sets 



line height in 1/48 inch increments 
number of lines on page 

in 

in 

in 

in 



of 
of 
of 
of 



lines 
lines 
lines 
lines 



top margin 
bottom margin 
heading margin 
footing margin 



Page Offset 

new Page 
Conditional 



Page 



Heading 
Footing 
Omit Page #'s 
Page Number 

Character Width 
Subscript Roll 

Microjustify 
Bidirectional 

Printing 
Ignore 



number 
number 
number 
number 
Designates column in which page number 

will appear 
Sets number of columns entire printed output 

will be offset from leftmost column 
Forces start of new page 
Forces start of new page if specified number 

of lines not available on current page 
Defines heading string to appear on each page 
Defines footing string to appear on each page 
Turns page numbering off 
Turns page numbering on starting at 

specified # 
Sets character width in 1/120 inch increments 
Sets height in 1/48 inch increments of 

sub- and super-script offset from main line 
Toggles microjustification on/off 
Toggles bidirectional printing on/off 

Comment 



Table 10. \Dot commands. 



er control routines (for double width 
or double height characters, etc.) the 
user may have patched in. 

The tj Menu 

These sequences (see Table 9) pro- 
vide helpful messages for beginning 
users or to remind more experienced 
users about infrequently used com- 
mands. The flags mentioned are spe- 
cial characters which WordStar dis- 
plays in the far right-hand column of 
the video display and which indicate 



continuation lines (WordStar can eas- 
ily handle line widths longer than 80 
characters), "hard" carriage returns 
that mark the end of paragraphs, 
overstrike lines, abnormal condi- 
tions, etc. 

Up to this point all the formatting 
commands have been reflected im- 
mediately on the video screen. Word- 
Star also uses the embedded com- 
mand system employed by separate 
text output processors. These "dot 
commands" (see Table 10) are en- 
tered with a period in the first col- 



Command 


Function 


Comment 


.DF 


Data File 


Specifies data file to be used 


.RV 


Read Variables 


Gives name and order of variables to be read 
from data file 


.RP 


RePeat 


Repeat processing specified number of times 


.SV 


Set Variable 


Sets variable to specified value 


.AV 


Ask for Variable 


Asks for variable value from operator, with 




Value 


prompt if desired 


.DM 


Display Message 


Displays message on console 


.CS 


Clear Screen 


Clear screen and display optional message 


.FI 


File Insert 


Inserts specified file in printout 


.PF 


Print-time 


Toggles print-time formatting on/off or 




Formatting 


allows discretion 


. RM 


Right Margin 


Sets right margin or allows discretion to 
use margin in original text 


.LM 


Left Margin 


Same as .RM for left margin 


.LS 


Line Spacing 


Sets line spacing or allows discretion to 
use spacing in original text 


.OJ 


Output 


Toggles justification on/off or allows 




Justification 


discretion 


.IJ 


Input Justified 


Forces interpretation of input as 

justified under certain circumstances 




Table 11. 


^Mail-Merge dot commands. 



umn followed by a two-character 
command and any necessary param- 
eters. 

Dot commands control various 
printing options, including setting 
line height (in 1/48 of an inch on 
daisywheel printers), paper length, 
top and bottom margins, heading and 
footing margins, pagination on/off/set 
to a different number, conditional 
paging, page offset (to move the en- 
tire page a specified number of col- 
umns to the right for printer align- 
ment), establishment of heading or 
footing text to appear on each page, 
changing character width (pitch) on 
specialty printers and specifying the 
location of the page number. 

Mail-Merge 

Mail-Merge is an optional module 
which provides enhanced printing 
capabilities, primarily the prepara- 
tion of form letters, insertion of vari- 
able data into a document during 
printing, insertion of external files in- 
to the printout and printing multiple 
copies. 

Mail-Merge has its own special set 
of dot commands which are listed in 
Table 11. The commands which spec- 
ify the data file to be used and the 
named variables to read in order 
from the file operate in a straightfor- 
ward manner and allow disks to be 
changed prior to reading the data file 
so that files too big to fit on one disk 
can be accommodated. 

Other commands allow setting the 
value of variables which will appear 
throughout a document or accepting 
the value from the operator with 
prompting. The interaction with the 
operator can be enhanced with mes- 
sages, screen formatting and other 
techniques. Named files can be in- 
cluded at print time, with up to eight- 
level nesting. 

Variable names are inserted into a 
text file surrounded by ampersands. 
When the data file is read, the value 
of the variable read from the file will 
be substituted in the body of the text. 
Mail-Merge has several commands 
which control the reformatting of the 
printed output to accommodate the 
varying length of the substituted 
string. Most interesting is the fact that 
Mail-Merge can examine the input 
file to determine if it was justified or 
ragged-right or what margins were 
used, and will use the same tech- 
niques and values for the output 
printing if the operator has not refor- 
matted according to a different set of 



160 Microcomputing, July 1981 



assumptions. 

If a data file is read, Mail-Merge 
will continue repeating its printing 
task until the data file is exhausted. 
There are no provisions to selectively 
print records based on variable val- 
ues or other criteria. 

Mail-Merge is not as powerful as 
the similar provisions included with 
Magic Wand and some other word 
processors but performs satisfactori- 
ly in most applications. 

Drawbacks 

WordStar has a few drawbacks. 
First, it is costly. Not only is its selling 
price of $495 among the highest for a 
microcomputer word processor, but 
WordStar is also rather extravagant 
with both RAM memory and disk 
storage. Including CP/M and some 
working text areas, WordStar re- 
quires 45K of RAM, and an additional 
3K is needed if simultaneous printing 
and editing is desired. 2K less is need- 
ed if a memory-mapped video board 
is used. With the "minimal" 45K sys- 
tem, the text buffers will be a bit 
small, necessitating more frequent 
disk accesses and somewhat slower 
operation. 



WordStar's associated message file 
is 24K long in the newest version and 
the overlay file is 28K. With the 14K 
main WordStar file, about 66K of disk 
storage is consumed (add another 8K 
for the Mail-Merge module option). 
Remember also that formatted Word- 
Star files can be very long because of 
all the embedded control characters 
(and the backup files are equally 
long), so the disk storage problem is 
even more severe if long files must be 
edited. 

These problems certainly will af- 
fect some potential users much more 
than others. Users with eight-inch 
disk drives will not experience much 
difficulty, especially if double den- 
sity is available, but mini-disk users 
will have to plan disk storage care- 
fully (of course, WordStar can reside 
on one disk while the files to be ed- 
ited are on another if you have a mul- 
tiple disk system). 

WordStar does not officially sup- 
port true proportional spacing on 
those printers capable of this func- 
tion. There is an unsupported and ex- 
perimental implementation of pro- 
portional spacing which works rea- 
sonably well but is a bit difficult to 



use (insert control-P at the beginning 
of the file; this works only on lines 
which WordStar has formed and 
sometimes will not work on short 
lines). WordStar, like most word pro- 
cessors, also allows only one text file 
to be manipulated at a time. Some 
new programs allow multiple files to 
be open at the same time, facilitating 
movement of text from file to file 
without intermediate disk files. 

Summary 

WordStar is clearly one of the most, 
if not the most, powerful word pro- 
cessors available for microcomputers. 
In fact, I have used many large main- 
frame and dedicated word-processing 
systems costing tens of thousands of 
dollars which do not approach Word- 
Star's power and flexibility. The doc- 
umentation is excellent, although 
somewhat technically oriented in 
spots, and provides some help in 
training clerical staff on this complex 
system. 

If your system can handle its RAM 
and disk storage requirements and 
you can afford its cost, MicroPro's 
impressive WordStar word processor 
is an excellent choice. ■ 



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^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 161 



6502 + two 6522s + four DIP cables = 2716 programmer. 



A Proven Formula 
To Program 2716s 



By George Young 



I had just blown my sixth 2716 
when I couldn't even afford to 
blow the first one. So I decided to 
seek professional help— the JBE 2716 
Programmer (from John Bell Engi- 
neering, PO Box 338, Redwood City, 
CA 94064). 

The JBE 2716 EPROM Program- 
mer was designed to use the JBE 6522 
parallel interface board and four 
16-pin DIP cables to couple to an Ap- 
ple computer to program 2716s. 
Since my homebrew 6502 has two 
6522 versatile interface adapters 
(VIAs) on its I/O board, and I had sev- 
eral DIP headers on hand, I didn't or- 
der the 6522 parallel interface board 
or the DIP cables which JBE offers as 

options. 

Assembly of the board took a 
whole 20 minutes. The only problem 
you might possibly have is how to 
substitute plastic packaged transis- 
tors for metal-can transistors. Actual- 
ly, if you look carefully at the silk- 
screen on the component side of the 
circuit board, it does show both tran- 
sistor configurations. I would suggest 
mounting the 24-pin Textool Zero 
Force Insertion Socket with the lever 
on the 2716 pin-1 end. It will go on 
the board either way (with the lever 
near pin 1 or with the lever toward 
pin 12) and function equally well. 

The reason for mounting it with the 
lever near pin 1 is that the silk-screen 
notched IC indicator completely van- 
ishes beneath the Textool Socket 
once the socket is mounted. At some 
later date, you may not remember 
which way to insert your 2716s for 
programming, and the lever on pin 1 



will serve to aid your memory. 

Programming 2716s 

Details for programming 2716s are 
included in the documentation with 
the 2716 kit. The data to be written to 
the 2716 is placed from 2000 hex to 
27FF hex. The software that actually 
tells the two 6522s what to do is 
placed at 1000 hex. When the soft- 
ware reads the 2716 EPROM, it writes 
the EPROM bytes to 3000-37FF. 

Now, my 6502 doesn't quite have 
all the memory that an Apple has (nor 
the price tag, either), so the first thing 
I had to do was move John Bell's soft- 
ware to address 0200 hex. Then I had 
to tell the 6522s to write the EPROM 
from addresses 1000-17FF and when 
reading the EPROM to store the 
EPROM bytes at 1800-1FFF. This 
was done without great problems 
once I was able to figure out exactly 
what JBE was doing with its software. 

I'm sure that the testing I gave the 
JBE 2716 programmer far exceeds 
anything you or JBE might anticipate. 
I had already blown more 2716s than 
I could afford to blow. I was not 
about to insert another until I had 
thoroughly tested things out and as- 
sured myself that the programmer 
met all the Intel specifications set 
forth in the Memory Data Book for 
the 2716. 

The four DIP cables from the 6522s 
went to the breadboard of the Design 
Console (see Kilobaud Klassroom 
June 1977, p. 78). The outputs of the 
6522s were buffered and used to 
drive LED indicators that monitored 
addresses and data. The built-in logic 



probes of the Design Console moni- 
tored the PD/PGM lines and the + 25 
V line. 

Delay routines were then written 
and patched into the JBE code. Now 
it was possible to run the software 
very slowly and see exactly how the 
JBE 2716 EPROM Programmer func- 
tioned and that it met each and every 
detail of the Intel 2716 programming 
specs. 

JBE Code Modification 

I added the following four bytes of 
code to the JBE code at address 10A4 
in the JBE software: 

C9 FF/F0 24 

and then changed the subroutine call 
at address 1079 from 20 A8 10 to 20 
A4 10. This change causes the bytes 
that are to retain the value FF to be 
skipped. This, in turn, allows the en- 
tire 2716 to be only partially pro- 
grammed, and reduces the time to 
program the 2716 from 102 seconds 
for 2048 bytes to less than 102 sec- 
onds in proportion to the number of 
bytes left unprogrammed. This code 
change is not required, but it does 
serve a logical need and speeds up 
programming if you are not utilizing 
every byte of the 2716 matrix. 

Once I was convinced that things 
were behaving as they were sup- 
posed to, the delay routines were re- 
moved and the code run at full ma- 
chine speed. 102 seconds later the 



George Young is an electronics instructor at Sierra 
High School, Tollhouse, CA 93667. 



162 Microcomputing, July 1981 



JBE 2716 EPROM Programmer LED 
monitor turned off as per the design- 
er' s statements of what is supposed to 
happen. 

Several hours then elapsed while I 
wrote code to be placed in EPROM. 
Once this code was error-free (?), an 
Intel 2716 went into the Textool Zero 
Force Insertion Socket, and about 100 
seconds later (some of the bytes were 
left unprogrammed) I had a pro- 
grammed 2716 for use in my comput- 
er. I then discovered that the 'error 
free' code wasn't, and made the nec- 
essary corrections to the code and 
burned another EPROM. The 
EPROM with the bum code in it went 
into the EPROM Eraser and then 
back into stock. 

Errors 

JBE: Please make the following cor- 
rections to the documentation: 

1) Line from pin 3 to J4 to pin 19 of 
EPROM socket should be A 10 in- 
stead of All. 

2) Reverse arrow on emitter of Q3 
to indicate an NPN transistor instead 
of a PNP transistor. 

Assembly Help 

1) Resistors and diodes mount on 
the board first, then the sockets, fol- 
lowed by the capacitors. The Zero 
Force Insertion Socket goes on last. 

2) The electrolytics are marked 
cz> , or the negative end of the elec- 
trolytics are flagged. The board is 
marked for a positively flagged elec- 
trolytic. Use caution and get the elec- 
trolytic capacitors onto the board 
with the correct polarity. 

3) One of the disk capacitors called 
for is .001 uF. This cap may be 
marked 102. (The indication means 
1000 pF, which is .001 uF.) 

4) The substitution of plastic pack- 
aged transistors for metal-can transis- 
tors was discussed earlier in the arti- 
cle. 

5) Either mount the Textool Zero 
Force Insertion Socket with the 
notched end of the silk-screen indica- 
tion and the Textool lever together, or 
place a piece of tape on the board to 
indicate the notched end of the 2716, 
or both. 

Summary 

It works like a charm. It programs 
Intel 2716s nicely. I also blew a 
5-volt-only National 2716 with the 
programmer, but that's another 
story. Stick with Intel 2716s and 
you'll have no problems. ■ 



ENTREPRENEURS 

■ ml B" W m I I f" I I MORE THAN EVER IN THE MICRO- 

■ W klkl# kl# COMPUTER INDUSTRY. 

The shortage of knowledgeable dealers/distributors is the #1 problem of microcomputer 
manufacturers Over 300 new systems houses will go into business this year, but the number 
falls short of the 1200 needed It is estimated that the nationwide shortage of consultants will be 
over 3000 by 1981 The HOW TO manuals by Essex Publishing are your best guide to start 
participating in the continued microcomputer boom 




HOW TO START YOUR OWN SYSTEMS HOUSE 

6th edition, March 1980 

Written by the founder of a successful systems house, this 
fact-filled 220-page manual covers virtually ati aspects of 
starting and operating a small systems company It is abundant 
with useful, real-life samples contracts, proposals, agreements 
and a complete business plan are included in full, and may be 
used immediately by the reader 

Proven, field-tested solutions to the many problems facing the 
small systems house are presented 

From the contents: 

• New Generation of Systems Houses • The SBC Marketplace 

• Marketing Strategies • Vertical Markets & lAPs •Competitive 
Position/Plans of Major Vendors • Market Segment Selection & 
Evaluation • Selection of Equipment & Manufacturer • Make or 
Buy Decision • Becoming a Distributor • Getting Your 
Advertising Dollar's Worth • Your Salesmen: Where to Find 
Them • Product Pricing • The Selling Cycle • Handling the 12 
Most Frequent Objections Raised by Prospects • Financing for 
the Customer • Leasing • Questions You Will Have to Answer 
Before the Prospect Buys • Producing the System • Installation, 
Acceptance, Collection • Documentation • Solutions to the 

Service Problem • Protecting Your Product • Should You Start Now? • How to Write a Good 
Business Plan • Raising Capital 



No. 10 



HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL COMPUTER 
CONSULTANT 

by Leslie Nelson. 2nd revised edition, Jan 1981 
Independent consultants are becoming a vitally important factor 
in the microcomputer field, filling the gap between the computer 
vendors and commercial/industrial users The rewards of the 
consultant can be high: freedom, more satisfying work and 
doubled or tripled income HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL 
COMPUTER CONSULTANT provides comprehensive back- 
ground information and step-by-step directions for those 
interested to explore this lucrative field: 

• Established consulting markets • How to get started • Itemized 
start-up costs • Are you qualified? • Beginning on a part-time 
basis • The Marketing Kit • Should you advertise? • Five 
marketing tips • Getting free publicity • How much to charge 

• When do you need a contract? • Sample proposals • Which 
$28. No. 16 j ODS should be declined • Future markets • The way to real big 

money • Avoiding the legal pitfalls • How consultants' associations can help you • The National 
Register of Computer Consultants • How others did it: real-life sample cases • and much more. 



HOW TO BECOME 
A SUCCESSFUl 

COMPUTER 
CONSULTANT 

by USME NELSON 



ESSEX PUBLISHING 




FREE-LANCE SOFTWARE MARKETING 3rd edition. June 1980 

Writing and selling computer programs as an independent is a 
business where • you can get started quickly, with little capital 
investment • you can do it full time or part time • the potential 
profits are almost limitless. Since the demand for computer 
software of all kinds is growing at an explosive rate, the 
conditions for the small entrepreneur are outstanding 

This manual will show you how to sell your own computer programs 
using these proven techniques: • direct to industries • through 
consulting firms • through manufacturers of computer hardware 
• in book form • mail order • through computer stores. It will 
show you how to profitably sell and license all types of software 
ranging from sophisticated analytical programs selling for thou- 
sands of dollars, down to simple accounting routines and games 
for personal computers. 

The book will guide you step by step through the process of 
$30. No. 32 marketing, advertising, negotiating a contract, installing software, 

training users and providing maintenance and support. It also contains sample software contracts 
that have been used in actual software transactions Also included are tips on how to negotiate 
with a large corporation, ways of avoiding personal liability, techniques for obtaining free computer 
time and hints on how to run a free-lance software business while holding a full-time job. 



H 




^ ^^^ i 



ESSEX PUBLISHING CO. Dept 1 ^327 
285 Bloomfield Avenue • Caldwell, N.J. 07006 

Order books by number Send check, money order (U S $). VISA or Master Charge n Publisher pays 4th 
class shipping For UPS shipping (USA only) add $1 00 per book For Air Mail shipping add $2 50 per book in 
the USA $6 00 in Mexico and Central America $12 00 per book elsewhere N J residents add 5% sales tax 
DNo 10 DNo 16 DNo 32 □ Check enclosed DCreditcard D4thclass DUPS DAir 

Name 



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Z.p 



Card # 



Exp 



For faster shipment on credit card orders call i201l 783-6940 between 9 and 5 Eastern time 



'See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 163 



Ask for Instant Software at a computer store near you. 



ALABAMA 

ANDERSON COMPUTERS, Huntsville 

COMPUTER CENTER, Tuscaloosa 

COMPUTERLAND, Huntsville 

OLENSKY BROTHERS, INC., Mobile 

ALASKA 

JUNEAU ELECTRONICS Juneau 

ARIZONA 

COMMERCIAL & HOME SYSTEMS, Tucson 

COMPUTER STORE, Phoenix 

M & M ELECTRONICS, Safford 

MESA ELECTRONICS, Mesa 

MILLETS ELECTRONICS. Mesa 

PERSONAL COMPUTER PLACE, Mesa 

PROFESSIONAL JATA SYSTEMS, Phoenix 

RUSALEM ELECTRONICS. Sun City 

SIMUTEK, Tucson 

SOFTWARE STATION, Tempe 

ARKANSAS 

DR. JAMES A CAPPS, JR., Springdale 

CALIFORNIA 

ADVANCE RADIO (R/S Dealer), Grass Valley 

ADVANCED COMPUTER PRODUCTS, Santa Ana 

AMCO ELECTRONIC SUPPLY, Azusa 

BYTE INDUSTRIES, Hayward 

BYTE SHOP, Cerritos 

BYTE SHOP, Citrus Heights 

BYTE SHOP, Mountain View 

BYTE SHOP. Placentia 

BYTE SHOP OF SOUTH SAN JOSE, San Jose 

CAPITOL COMPUTER SYSTEMS, Sacramento 

COAST ELECTRONICS, Morro Bay 

COMPUTER HORIZONS, Camarillo 

COMPUTER MART OF CALIFORNIA, INC , 

Diamond Bar 

COMPUTER MERCHANT, San Diego 

COMPUTER STORE, San Leandro 

COMPUTER WORLD, Lawndale 

COMPUTER WORLD, Westminster 

COMPUTERLAND, El Cerrito 

COMPUTERLAND, San Diego 

COMPUTERLAND SOUTH BAY, Lawndale 

DIMENSIONAL SOFTWARE, San Diego 

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, San Jose 

GRASS VALLEY COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 

Penn Valley 

HOBBI TRONICS, San Jose 

HOBBY WORLD ELECTRONICS, Northridge 

HOUSE OF 80, Artesia 

HUNTINGTON COMPUTING, Corcoran 

MALIBU MICROCOMPUTING, Malibu 

MARFAM, San Jose 

MICROCOMPUTER WAREHOUSE, Sacramento 

MN & T INDUSTRIES, Lompoc 

OPAMP/TECHNICAL BOOKS, Los Angeles 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEARNING, Chatsworth 

PC COMPUTERS, El Cerrito 

Q I COMPUTER, INC., Lawndale 

R&V SOUND (R/S Dealer), Fortuna 

RADIO SHACK, San Diego 

SILVER SPUR ELECTRONICS, Chino 

SOFTWARE PLUS, El Toro 

STRAWFLOWER ELECTRONICS (R/S Dealer), 

Half Moon Bay 

WABASH APPLE, El Toro 

WENNER BUSINESS SYSTEMS, Los Altos 

COLORADO 

APPARAT, INC , Denver 

COLORADO COMPUTER SYSTEMS, Westminster 

COMPUTER SHACK, Pueblo 

COMPUTERLAND-NORTH DENVER, Arvada 

POOR RICHARD S CALCULATORS, Fort Collins 

SOFTWARE GOURMET, Denver 

CONNECTICUT 

AM COMPUTER PRODUCTS, Southington 

AMERICAN BUSINESS COMPUTERS, Groton 

BYTE ME COMPUTER SHOP, New London 

COMPUTER LAB, New London 

COMPUTER STORE, Windsor Locks 

COMPUTERLAND, Fairfield 

COMPUTERLAND, Hamden 

COMPUTERWORKS, INC , Westport 

DIVERSIFIED ELECTRONICS, New Haven 

EAB ENTERPRISES, Old Greenwich 

INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS COMPUTERS, 

Manchester 

TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS, Bethel 

DELAWARE 

MICRO PRODUCTS, Wilmington 

OMNIFAX, Wilmington 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

THE PROGRAM STORE, Washington, DC. 

FLORIDA 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL, Casselberry 

AMF MICROCOMPUTER CENTER, Tampa 

ATLANTIC SALES, Miami 

COMPUTER JUNCTION, Fort Lauderdale 

COMPUTER SHACK, INC., Jacksonville 

COMPUTER STORE, Clearwater 

COMPUTER SYSTEM RESOURCES, Gainesville 

COMPUTER WORLDS, Clearwater 

COMPUTERLAND, Boca Raton 

COMPUTERLAND, Fort Lauderdale 

COMPUTERLAND, Jacksonville 

COMPUTERLAND, Sarasota 

COMPUTERLAND, Tampa 

COMPUTERLAND, West Palm Beach 

HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER, Hialeah 

HIS. COMPUTERMATION, Melbourne 

MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS, INC., Tampa 

SOUND IDEAS. Gainesville 

SOUTH EAST MICRO DATA, Orlando 



WILLIAMS RADIO & TV, Jacksonville 

YOUR BASIC COMPUTER CENTER, Fort Pierce 

GEORGIA 

ATLANTA COMPUTER MART, Atlanta 

BAILEYS COMPUTER SHOP, Augusta 

DELTA DATA DYNAMICS, Atlanta 

FLEMING DRUG CO., Wrens 

MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEMS, Atlanta 

HAWAII 

COMPUTER CENTER, Honolulu 

COMPUTERLAND OF HAWAII, Honolulu 

RADIO SHACK ASSOC STORE, Honolulu 

IDAHO 

DENNIS STONE ENTERPRISES, Fruitland 

ELECTRONIC SPECIALTIES, Boise 

R & L DATA SYSTEMS, Idaho Falls 

ILLINOIS 

ALPINE COMPUTER CENTER, Rockford 

BYTE SHOP, LaGrange 

CHICAGO MAIN NEWSTAND, Evanston 

COMPUTER STATION, Granite City 

COMPUTER STORE, Rockford 

COMPUTERLAND, Mundelein 

COMPUTERLAND, Niles 

COMPUTERLAND, Peoria 

GARCIA AND ASSOCIATES, Chicago 

ICOM, Lombard 

MAIN STREET COMPUTER CO., Decatur 

MIDWEST MICRO COMPUTERS, Lombard 

WALLACE COMPUTERS, Peoria 

INDIANA 

COMPU-TECH MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS, 

Dunkirk 

COMPUTER CENTER, South Bend 

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY, Lafayette 

FALL CREEK ELECTRONICS, Pendleton 

IOWA 

BUSINESS DATA PROCESSING, Des Moines 

CYBERIA, INC., Ames 

MEMORY BANK, INC., Bettendorf 

KANSAS 

CENTRAL KANSAS COMPUTERS, Herington 

LOUISIANA 

ACME BOOK CO., Baton Rouge 

MAINE 

MAINE COMPUTRONICS, Bangor 

MAINE MICRO SYSTEMS INC., Auburn 

MID-MAINE COMPUTER COMPANY, Auburn 

RADIO SHACK, South Portland 

MARYLAND 

CLAYTON ELECTRONICS, Towson 

COMM CENTER, Laurel 

COMPUTER AGE, Silver Springs 

COMPUTERS ETC., Towson 

JACK FIVES ELECTRONICS INC., Pikesville 

PROGRAM STORE, Baltimore 

SOLON SOFTWARE, Rockville 

MASSACHUSETTS 

COMPUTER CITY Charlestown 

COMPUTER PACKAGES UNLIMITED, West 

Boylston 

COMPUTER VILLAGE. W Springfield 

LAND OF ELECTRONICS, Lynn 

LIGHTHOUSE COMPUTER SOFTWARE, Rehoboth 

MARK GORDON COMPUTERS. Cambridge 

SMALL BUSINESS SYSTEMS GROUP. Dunstable 

SOUND COMPANY, Springfield 

TUFTS RADIO ELECTRONICS, Medford 

MICHIGAN 

ALL FOR LEARNING, W. Bloomfield 

ALTERNATE SOURCE, Lansing 

A.M. ELECTRONICS, Ann Arbor 

COMIC KINGDOM, Detroit 

COMPUTER CENTER, Garden City 

COMPUTER CONNECTION, Farmington Hills 

COMPUTER MART, Clawson 

COMPUTER ROOM, Kalamazoo 

COMPUTERLAND, Kentwood 

COMPUTERLAND, Southfield 

COMPUTRONIX, Midland 

EIGHT BIT CORNER, Muskegon 

FERRIS RADIO, Hazel Park 

GOLDEN ANVIL, South Haven 

HOBBY HOUSE, Battle Creek 

LEVEL IV PRODUCTS. INC., Livonia 

LYCEUM, INC., Warren 

MAIN SYSTEMS, INC., Flint 

MID-MICHIGAN MEMORY, Dimondale 

NEWMAN COMPUTER EXCHANGE, Ann Arbor 

TRI-COUNTY ELECTRONICS & SOUND CENTER, 

Fenton 

WIZARD'S ARSENAL. East Lansing 

YE OLDE TEACHERS SHOPPE, Ypsilanti 

MINNESOTA 

CODE ROOM, Eden Prairie 

DIGITAL DEN, Burnsville 

MINNESOTA SOFTWARE, White Bear Lake 

PERSONAL BUSINESS SYSTEMS, Minneapolis 

ZIM COMPUTERS, Brooklyn Center 

MISSISSIPPI 

C-COM, Jackson 

DYERS, INC., West Point 

SOFTWAREHOUSE, Jackson 

MISSOURI 

CENTURY NEXT COMPUTERS, Columbia 

COMP-U-TRS SOFTWARE CENTER, Florissant 

COMPUTER CENTER, Joplin 

COMPUTERMART, Springfield 

CRC COMPUTERS, Joplin 

PERSONAL COMPUTER, Carl Junction 

RADIO SHACK, Warsaw 

SOFTWARE SHACK, Belton 

UNITED COMPUTER STORES. St. Charles 



Instant Software 

Peterborough, N.H. 03458 



MONTANA 

COMPUTER STORE, Billings 

INTERMOUNTAIN COMPUTER, Livingston 

NEBRASKA 

APPLETREE SOFTWARE, Battle Creek 

COMPUTERLAND, Omaha 

COMPUTERS WEST, Omaha 

MIDWEST COMPUTER CO , INC., Omaha 

SCOTTSBLUFF TYPEWRITER & OFFICE 

PRODUCTS, Scottsbluff 

NEVADA 

BYTE SHOP, Reno 

CENTURY 23, Las Vegas 

HOME COMPUTERS, Las Vegas 

HURLEY ELECTRONICS, Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

BITSNBYTES COMPUTER CENTER, Concord 

COMPUTER TOWN, Salem 

COMPUTERLAND, Nashua 

PAULS TV, Fremont 

PORTSMOUTH COMPUTER CENTER, Portsmouth 

RADIO SHACK ASSOC. STORE, Keene 

STURDIVANT AND DUNN, Conway 

NEW JERSEY 

ABES TV SALES & SERVICE, Glassboro 

BARGAIN BROTHERS, West Trenton 

COMPUTER CORNER OF NJ, Pompton Plains 

COMPUTER ENCOUNTER, Princeton 

COMPUTER FORUM, Redbank 

COMPUTER MADNESS, Englishtown 

COMPUTER MART OF NJ, INC., Iselin 

COMPUTERLAND, Cherry Hill 

COMPUTERLAND, Paramus 

CROWLEY'S, Whitehouse Station 

DAVE S ELECTRONICS, INC . Pennsville 

ELECTRONIC WORLD. Mantua 

G.S.8. ELECTRONICS. INC., Maple Shade 

J & J ELECTRONICS, INC (R/S Dealer), 

Hackettstown 

LASHEN ELECTRONICS, INC., Denville 

MIDAS DATA SYSTEMS INC., Marlton 

OMNIFAX, Cherry Hill 

RADIO SHACK ASSOC STORE, Moorestown 

SILENT PARTNER, Fort Lee 

NEW MEXICO 

AUTEL ELECTRONICS CO., Albuquerque 

J&W ENTERPRISES, Clovis 

MITCHELL MUSIC, Carlsbad 

THOMAS E. CARR JEWELER, Alamogordo 

WARGAMES WEST. Albuquerque 

NEW YORK 

A WORLD OF COMPUTERS, Port Chester 

ARISTO CRAFT DISTINCTIVE MINIATURES. 

New York 

ASD HOME COMPUTER CENTER, Poughkeepsie 

BERLINER COMPUTER CENTER, New Hyde Park 

C HABILD OF NEW DORP, Staten Island 

COMPUTER CORNER, White Plains 

COMPUTER ERA, New York 

COMPUTER FACTORY, New York 

COMPUTER RESOURCES. Williamsville 

COMPUTER SHOP, Kingston 

COMPUTER STORE. Rochester 

COMPUTER TREE. INC , Endwell 

COMPUTERLAND, Carle Place 

COMPUTERLAND, White Plains 

COMPUTERLAND OF NYC, New York 

DIGIBYTE SYSTEMS, New York 

80-MICROCOMPUTER SERVICES, Cohoes 

FUTURE VISIONS COMPUTER STORE, Melville 

HOME COMPUTER CENTER, Rochester 

LONG ISLAND COMPUTER GENERAL STORE, 

Lynbrook 

MR. COMPUTER, Wappingers Falls 

OMNIFAX, DeWitt 

SOFTRON SYSTEMS, Rensselaer 

UPSTATE COMPUTER SHOP, New Hartford 

NORTH CAROLINA 

BYTE SHOP, Greensboro 

SOUND MILL, Havelock 

TD'S RECORD SHOP, Sylva 

OHIO 

ABACUS II, Toledo 

ALTAIR SYSTEMS, INC., Dayton 

ASTRO VIDEO ELECTRONICS, INC., Lancaster 

BUS COMPUTER, Mentor 

CINCINNATI COMPUTER STORE, Cincinnati 

COMPUTER STORE, Toledo 

COMPUTERLAND, Columbus 

COMPUTERLAND, Mayfield Heights 

COMPUTERLAND, North Olmsted 

COMPUTERLAND, Warren 

CUSTOM SOFT, INC., Louisville 

H. GABRIEL & CO.. Madison 

JOBAR ENTERPRISES, Middlefield 

MICROAGE, Columbus 

MICRO COMPUTER CENTER, Centerville 

MICRO ELECTRONICS INC., Columbus 

MICRO-MINI COMPUTER WORLD, Columbus 

TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SHOP, Cincinnati 

UNIVERSAL AMATEUR RADIO INC , Reynoldsburg 

WANNA PLAY, Cincinnati 

OKLAHOMA 

COMPUTER STORE, INC., Tulsa 

COMPUTER WORLD, Tulsa 

RADIO SHACK ASSOC STORE, Guymon 

SOUNDS, ETC., Watonga 

VERN STREET PRODUCTS. Sapulpa 

OREGON 

COMPUTER PATHWAYS. Salem 

TRS-80 PRODUCTS LTD , Portland 

PENNSYLVANIA 

ALLIED HOBBIES, Philadelphia 

ARTCO ELECTRONICS, Kingston 

BELL ELECTRONICS, Girard 

COMPUTER WORKSHOPPE. Monroeville 

COMPUTERLAND, Gibsonia 

COMPUTERLAND, Whitehall 

COMPUTERLAND OF HARRISBURG. 

Mechamcsburg 

ERIE COMPUTER, Erie 

J & E COMMUNICATIONS. Duncansville 

MIGHTY BYTE COMPUTER CENTER, Horsham 

OMNIFAX. Feasterville 

OMNIFAX. Philadelphia 

PITTSBURGH COMPUTER STORE. Pittsburgh 



STEVENS RADIO SHACK DEALER, Phoenixville 

ROUTE 30 ELECTRONICS, Latrobe 

TELEVISION PARTS COMPANY INC , New 

Brighton 

WAYNESBURG RADIO, Waynesburg 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

OMNI ELECTRONICS, Charleston 

TENNESSEE 

ACE MINI SYSTEMS. Clarksville 

CHATTANOOGA COMPUTER CENTER. 

Chattanooga 

COMPUTER WORLD, Nashville 

COMPUTERLAB, Memphis 

H & H ELECTRONICS, Tullahoma 

WEBB S PHARMACY & ELECTRONICS, Harriman 

TEXAS 

CODEDATA, INC , Arlington 

COMPUSHOP, Bellaire 

COMPUSHOP/FM1960W, Houston 

COMPUSHOP/N Fwy, Houston 

COMPUSHOP, Richardson 

COMPUTER N THINGS, Austin 

COMPUTER CONCEPTS, Beaumont 

COMPUTER HOBBY CENTER, Austin 

COMPUTER PORT, Arlington 

COMPUTER SALES AND SERVICE, Fort Worth 

COMPUTER SOLUTIONS, San Antonio 

COMPUTER TECH ASSOCIATES, El Paso 

COMPUTERLAND OF SW HOUSTON, Houston 

COMPUTERS BY O'NEILL, Lake Jackson 

COMPUTEX, Webster 

GATEWAY ELECTRONICS, Houston 

KA ELECTRONICS, Dallas 

MARYMAC INDUSTRIES (R/S Dealer), Houston 

PAN AMERICAN ELECTRONICS (R/S Dealer), 

Mission 

R.L. COLE'S ELECTRONICS, San Antonio 

WAGHALTER BOOKS, INC . Houston 

UTAH 

COMPUTERLAND, Salt Lake City 

CTI, Provo 

QUALITY TECHNOLOGY, Salt Lake City 

VIRGINIA 

COMPUTER SOLUTIONS, Leesburg 

COMPUTER WORKS, INC., Harrisonburg 

HOME COMPUTER CENTER INC , Virginia Beach 

LITTLE SOLDIER, Alexandria 

WASHINGTON 

AMERICAN MERCANTILE COMPANY, Seattle 

BYTE SHOP, Bellevue 

COMPUTER CONNECTION, Silverdale 

COMPUTERLAND. Bellevue 

COMPUTERLAND. Federal Way 

EMPIRE ELECTRONICS, Seattle 

LORDS, Port Angeles 

MAGNOLIA MICRO SYSTEMS, Seattle 

PERSONAL COMPUTERS, INC., Spokane 

UNIVERSITY VILLAGE MUSIC, Seattle 

WESTERN MICROCOMPUTER CENTER, 

Bellingham 

WEST VIRGINIA 

COMPUTER CORNER, Morgantown 

COMPUTER STORE, Huntington 

SOUND & ELECTRONIC SPECIALTIES. 

Morgantown 

WISCONSIN 

BYTE SHOP, Milwaukee 

COLORTRON COMPUTER DIVISION, Racine 

COMPUTER WORLD, Appleton 

COMPUTERLAND, Madison 

COMPUTERLAND, Milwaukee 

COMPUTERLAND OF FOX RIVER VALLEY, 

Oshkosh 

MAGIC LANTERN COMPUTER, Madison 

PETTED MICROSYSTEMS, Milwaukee 

RADIO SHACK, Mauston 

S & O TV SALES. Monroe 

SOFTWARE CASSETTES, Madison 

WYOMING 

COMPUTER CONCEPTS. Cheyenne 

PUERTO RICO 

MICRO COMPUTER STORE, Caparra Terrace 

AUSTRALIA 

•DeFOREST SOFTWARE, Nunawading, Vic. 

CANADA 

•MICRON DISTRIBUTING, Toronto, Ont 

Compumart, Ottawa, Ont 

Micromatic Systems Inc., Vancouver, B.C 

Micro Shack of W Canada, Regina, Sask 

Orthon Holdings Ltd., Edmonton, Alb. 

Total Computer Systems, Ajax, Ont. 

CARIBBEAN ISLANDS, CENTRAL AND SOUTH 

AMERICA 

•WEST INDIES SALES CO LTD , Hialeah, FL, USA 

FRANCE 

•DANIEL P. LUCET, Alfortville 

GREECE 

•CARITATO TECHNICAL, Athens 

HONG KONG 

•ASSOCIATED INDUSTRIAL SUPPLIES, Hong 

Kong 

ITALY 

•BITS & BYTES. Milan 

KOREA 

•SIN HAN TRADING CORP . Seoul 

NETHERLANDS * BELGIUM 

•SOFTWARE IMPORT BRABANT, Eindhoven. 

Neth 

NEW ZEALAND 

•VISCOUNT ELECTRONICS, Palmerston North 

NORWAY 

• A»S SORLUND. Vedavagen 

REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE 

•OG BUSINESS COMPUTER. Singapore 

SOUTH AFRICA 

'BRIAN VICKERS. Sandton 

SWEDEN 

'SENTEC AB, Jarfalla 

UNITED KINGDOM 

"CALISTO COMPUTERS. Birmingham. Eng 

WEST GERMANY 

•MICROSTUFF. Frankfurt 

•REINHARD NEDELA. Markdorf 

'Instant Software Distributor 



164 Microcomputing, July 1981 





Where No TRS-80* Program Has Gone Before! 






^y 




SANGER IN ORBIT 

lTE: 28.02.2047 

>CATION: 270 million miles from 

Terra 
SION: Maintaining Terra's Space 

Lanes 



iefing will follow: 

Your mission is to destroy any 

[eroids in your sector and to prevent 

m spacecraft from infiltrating the Ter- 

Defense Network. 

Your ship is armed with an anti-matter 

inon. You can shoot large asteroids, 

this turns them into many smaller 

leroids, each capable of destroying your 

Ip- 

In addition, alien ships can make in- 



stantaneous hyperspace jumps into your 
area and start firing on your ship. 
1.4 You'll need lightning reflexes and 
nerves of steel to survive Danger In Orbit. 
We have no use for non-survivors! 

Danger In Orbit, a real-time, machine- 
language game, features variable levels of 
difficulty, superb high-speed graphics, 
sound effects and automatic score keep- 
ing. (Tl or T2) 

Order No. 0237R 
$14.95 Tape. 
Order No. 0247RD 
$19.95 Disk. 



BALL TURRET 
GUNNER 

For years the Petro Resource Con- 
glomerate has attacked our photon collec- 
tion stations and strangled our deep-space 
trade routes. The PRC Exxonerator Class 
light fighters (code name: Gnat) have 
been their main weapon. Now you can 
strike back, by joining the Ball Turret 
Gunner Service. 

Imagine yourself at the control console 
of an LW-1417 Stratoblazer (Type B 
Strategic Laser Weapon). Your Hindsight 
Director informs you that a Gnat fighter 
is coming in for an attack. You pivot your 
gjgawatt laser turret until you can see the 
target on your monitor. The Range Indi- 
cator shows him coming in fast. The 
Targeting Computer studies his course 
and speed as your finger tenses over the 
firing key. You know you'll have only a 
fraction of a second in which to react. The 
Gnat fighter's evasive maneuvers cause 
him to dance in your sights. Suddenly, 




you see the FIRE Command and you 
react instinctively. Your laser beam lashes 
out and reduces the Gnat to an expanding 
ball of ionized gas. Mission accom- 
plished! 

Ball Turret Gunner, with your choice 
of multiple levels of difficulty, optional 
sound effects and superb graphics, is 
more than just a game. It's an adventure. 
Experience it! (Tl) 

Order No. 0051R $9.95. 




^ffl 



^ 




COSMIC PATROL 

WARNING: PLAYERS OF THIS 

GAME SHOULD BE PREPARED FOR 

A STATE OF REALISM HITHERTO 

UNAVAILABLE ON THE TRS-80 

Skilled players soon master many diffi- 
cu\t computer games, but COSMIC 
PATROL is in a world all its own. The 
challenge intensifies! Supporting graphics 
and sound (optional) make each en- 
counter an exciting new experience. It all 
adds up to a Super 3-S package. . .skill, 
sight and sound. 

Scenario: The Cosmic Patrol program 
puts you in the command chair of a small 
interstellar patrol craft. Your mission is to 
defend Terran space and prey on the Que- 
lon supply ships which carry essential 
parts and lubricants for that implacably 
hostile robotic force. The drone freighters 



are fairly easy pickings for the accom- 
plished starship pilot, but beware of the 
I-Fighter escorts. They're armed, fast and 
piloted by intelligent robots linked to bat- 
tle computers. They never miss. 

The Cosmic Patrol program is not just 
another search and destroy game. With its 
fast, real-time action, impressive sound 
option and superb graphics, this machine- 
language program is the best of its genre. 

Don't keep putting quarter after quar- 
ter into arcade games or spending big 
bucks for video game cartridges. Get 
Cosmic Patrol from Instant Software — 
and get the best for less! (Tl or T2) 

Order No. 0223R 
$14.95 Tape. 
Order No. 0224RD 
$19.95 Disk. 



ALIEN ATTACK 
FORCE 

The INVADERS are coming! Earth's 
defenses are dead except for your Laser 
base. Your assignment is to destroy the 
approaching INVADERS before they de- 
stroy Earth. Before Earth's sensors failed, 
they detected 550 armed invaders in 
space, speeding toward us in 10 attack 
formations of 55 in each group. The sen- 
sors detected four different types of at- 
tack craft: Large, Medium, Small, and 
short profile craft which is the most dif- 
ficult to destroy. If you cannot stop these 

space attackers they will stop Earth 

for good. (Tl) 

Order No. 0240R $9.95. 



Instant Software 



PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 



^400 



M (Tl) = TRS-80 Model 1, 
Level II, 16K RAM. 

(T2) = TRS-80 Model I, 
Level II 16k, expansion 
interface 16K + 1 disk 
drive. 



TO ORDER 

See Your Local Instant 
Software Dealer or Call 
Toll-Free 1-800-258-5473 

(Orders Only) 

In NH dial 1-603-924-72% 



Microcomputing, July 1981 165 



Most people just sell disks. 

I sell you a complete system, and then 
I help you make it work. 



It's called support, and it's a rare commodity 
in the microcomputer world. 

It's also one big reason why they call my programs 
"the standard of the industry." 

I'm Irwin Taranto, the one who changed the 
TRS-80* into a serious business computer. When you 
buy my TRS-80 systems (or, for that matter, one of 
my own computers that says "Taranto" on it), you 
buy me. 

You buy my experience in making TRS-80 systems 
work in thousands of businesses around the world. 

You buy the corrections, modifications and 
upgrades I constantly make on my TRS-80 systems. 

And you buy my telephone number. You see, most 
of those thousand businesses needed a little help 
getting their systems up and going, and they called. 
We answered all their questions, and talked them 
through their problems. Every time the questions 
got really tough or really unusual, I'd answer them 
myself, on the phone, right then and there. I still do. 

That pays off in two ways. It makes sure you get 
your systems working. It also alerts me to any little 
operating inefficiencies I might have designed into 
my systems. If there are any general business pro- 
grams anywhere in the world, of any kind, that are 
checked out any better than my TRS-80 systems, 
I'd like to know about them. 




I turned the TRS-80 into a serious computer. 



The Model I, II and III business systems. 

So far, I have six systems for the Model I, 
at $99 each: 

Accounts Payable General Ledger 

Accounts Receivable Payroll 

Invoicing Inventory Control 

For the Cash Journal option on the General Ledger, add $50. 

I also have six systems for the Model II: 

General Ledger/Cash Journal $ 299 

Accounts Payable /Purchase Order 349 

Open Accounts Receivable /Invoicing 349 

Additional for Sales Analysis 100 

Balance Forward Accounts Receivable 399 

Payroll, without Job Costing 299 

Additional for Job Costing 100 

Inventory Control 399 

For the Model III, we offer expanded versions 
of the six Model I systems, at $199 each. 

Just call the number below and I'll send you any 
or all of the Model I or Model III systems by return 
mail. If you call about the Model II, I send you 
a questionnaire before I'll send you any systems. 
That lets me individualize the programs to your 
specific applications. 



*A trademark of the Tandy Corporation 



166 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Why I call them "systems," not "programs! 9 

There's a one-word answer : interaction. Each 
of the three sets of programs links to the General 
Ledger, and wherever it's useful, they cross-link 
to each other. For instance, "Sales Analysis" figures 
in a salesman's commission rate, so it links to 
"Payroll." Since it computes profitability within 
product categories, it links to "Invoicing." 

That's what a system is. And that's one big 
difference between the Taranto TRS-80 business 
systems and somebody else's collection of business 
program disks. 

If you like, I'll sell you the hardware, too. 

I offer the TRS-80, Model II , along with selected 
peripherals. If you buy the computer from me, 
you get some extra advantages — hardware that's 
absolutely tailored to the programs, plus even 
more hand-holding from Taranto & Associates. 
The equipment won't cost you any more. 

I can sell you a truly serious, completely supported, 
thoroughly proven business computer system for 
as little as $8000, hardware and software both. 

There's nothing else like it in the market. Believe 
me, it's a far cry from that collection of program 
disks they're selling down the street. 

Taranto 

& ASSOCIATES, INC 

The Total System Store 

121 Paul Drive, San Rafael CA 94903. 

Outside California, toll free (800) 227-2868. In California, (415) 472-2670. 

Authorized dealers throughout America. 



Here's an easy machine-language implementation of the IEEE 488 (GPIB) bus via SRQ line interrupts. 



Get on the PET 

Instrument Bus 



By Kepa Zubeldia 



I followed the series on the IEEE 488 
bus of the PET by Gregory Yob 
(July-September 1980 Kilobaud Mi- 
crocomputing), and I think this will 
become a key reference text to PET 
users, especially those involved with 
instrumentation. My own experience 
with the GPIB and the PET should be 
useful. In my application, I had to in- 
terface the PET with an A/D convert- 
er to analyze data (simple weighted 
average) and display the results on 
the screen. It looked simple. 

I chose the smallest PET, 8K RAM 
with built-in recorder and the 
HP47310A (same as HP59313A but 
painted white for hospital use) four- 
channel A/D converter with internal 
pacer. 

After a few tries with the bus, I 
mastered the protocol sufficiently to 
select the channel on the converter 
and take readings. Since the A/D con- 
verter does not send a return at the 
end of the message, the program had 
to take the readings with a GET in- 
struction inside a loop that checks for 
the status word. 

Next I sent the command to turn on 
the converter's internal pacer, which 
was adjusted to take ten samples per 
second, while my loop kept waiting 
for the reading. It was so simple. 

I also needed to switch channels 
and adjust the pacer rate in the con- 
verter between samples, so it would 
sample channel 1 every 200 ms and 



channel 2 every 600 ms. This was 
done with a table of sequential com- 
mands sent to the GPIB. 

However, when I tried to add the 
algorithm to process all the informa- 
tion that the converter was sending, 
the program became too slow and be- 
gan dropping samples. I improved 
the algorithm but nothing changed. 
The improved version of the algo- 
rithm was taking more than my 200 
ms limit, and even if it was executed 
only once per second, it was too long. 

As a temporary solution, I defined 
a 4K buffer which would store about 
12 minutes of samples and then stop 
sampling and analyze that data. This 
proved unsatisfactory because of the 
discontinuous sampling and the time 
delay in the presentation of the re- 
sults. 

A solution emerged when I read 
The PET Revealed, published by Com- 
putabits Ltd., PO Box 13, Yeovil, 
Somerset, England. This is by far the 
best description available of the (old) 
PET and its inside magic. 

Servicing the SRQ 

The GPIB has an SRQ line that is 
made true (0) when an instrument in 
the bus needs service. The software 
needed to acknowledge this SRQ is 
not part of the PET ROMs, so this line 
is listed as unimplemented. How- 
ever, the line is connected to the 
handshake line (CB1) of the PIA 2 



and thus can generate interrupts to 
the microprocessor. 

Whenever an interrupt is gener- 
ated in the PET, it will jump to the ad- 
dress pointed to by locations 537 and 
538. These locations point to the rou- 
tine that flashes the cursor, updates 
the TI clock and scans the keyboard. 

If you interfere with this vector in 
537 and 538 and make it point to your 
own machine-language subroutine, it 
will jump there 60 times per second, 
because the PET is being interrupted 
at 60 Hz by the retrace line of the vid- 
eo display. All this is done in the 
background and is invisible to the us- 
er and to BASIC. 

Therefore, you can make the SRQ 
line of the GPIB generate interrupts 
in the PET. But first there must be a 
machine-language routine to decide 
whether the interrupt was generated 
by the retrace line of the PET or the 
SRQ of the GPIB, and to service the 
corresponding source. This would al- 
so be invisible, and would run as a 
background job. Of course, it would 
slow down the foreground job (BA- 
SIC program or other machine-lan- 
guage program), but it would have 
the advantage of allowing indepen- 



Kepa Zubeldia, 1820 E. Lindsey, Norman, OK 
73071, is a medical doctor currently working on a 
PhD in Engineering. 



Microcomputing, July 1981 167 






BASF "FLEXYDISK"... ^ 

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dent work of the GPIB. 

There is a drawback— the interrupts 
are also used during cassette opera- 
tions, so your background GPIB job 
will not run simultaneously with the 
PET cassette. The pointer must be re- 
stored to its original routine in ROM 
before cassette operations can be exe- 
cuted. 

An example of implementation ap- 
pears in the machine-language pro- 
gram shown in Listing 1 . It is hand as- 
sembled and fits in the second cas- 
sette buffer with some room left 
over. The program checks for the 
SRQ line 60 times per second. If the 
SRQ is false (1), it will jump to the 
PET ROM interrupt-handling rou- 
tine; if it is true (0), it will jump to the 
servicing routine for the A/D convert- 
er, which takes the data from the con- 
verter and saves it in a buffer, then 
sends some commands to the con- 
verter and finally jumps to the PET 
ROM interrupt-handling routine that 
originated the interrupt. While all 
this is done in the background, the 
BASIC program in the foreground is 
analyzing the data of the buffer that is 
being continuously updated by the 
background process. 



In the program presented here, the 
interrupts are generated by the re- 
trace line because it is the most fre- 
quent event (retrace at 60 Hz vs GPIB 
at 6 Hz). If your GPIB is requesting 
service more frequently than the re- 
trace line, the interrupts should be 
generated by the SRQ. But if you in- 
hibit the retrace interrupts, chances 
are that your PET will not like it; if 
the GPIB stops requesting service, 
the PET will not respond to the key- 
board. 

I suggest that you try this from a 
program (not from the keyboard): 
Use POKE 59411, PEEK(59411) AND 
252 to inhibit retrace interrupts; the 
PET will not respond to the key- 
board, not even the STOP key, and 
the cassette motor will be dead. Use 
POKE 59411, PEEK(59411) AND 252 
OR 1 to enable the retrace interrupts 
and the PET will come to life again. 
If, instead of using 59411, you use 
59427, you will be referring to the in- 
terrupts generated by the SRQ of the 
GPIB. 

Example Program 

The comments on the listing of the 
machine-language program (Listing 



Listing 1. Machine-language implementation. 



826 



033A 


78 






SEI 




033B 


A9 


03 




LDA 


#$03 


033D 


8D 


1A 


02 


STA 


$021A 


0340 


A9 


54 




LDA 


#$54 


0342 


8D 


19 


02 


STA 


$0219 


0345 


58 






CLI 




0346 


60 






RTS 





839 



0347 


78 






SEI 




0348 


A9 


E6 




LDA 


#$E6 


034A 


8D 


1A 


02 


STA 


$021A 


034D 


A9 


85 




LDA 


#$85 


034F 


8D 


19 


02 


STA 


$0219 


0352 


58 






CLI 




0353 


60 






RTS 





IRQNEW 


0354 
0355 


08 
48 






PHP 
PHA 






0356 


AD 


23 


E8 


LDA 


$E823 




0359 


30 


13 




BNI 


SRQTRU 


GOTOLD 


035B 
035C 


68 
28 






PLA 
PLP 






035D 


4C 


85 


E6 


JMP 


$E685 



SETATN 


0360 


A9 00 




LDA #$00 




0362 


8D ID 


02 


STA $021D 




0365 


AD 40 


E8 


LDA $E840 




0368 


29 FB 




AND #$FB 




036A 


8D 40 


E8 


STA $E840 




036D 


60 




RTS 



Disable interrupts. 
New high byte for interrupt 
processing routine address. 
Low byte of the address. 

Enable interrupts. 

Return to BASIC. 

This has changed the pointer 

of the interrupt servicing 

routine to point to our new 

routine in the second cassette 

buffer . 

Disable interrupts. 

Original high byte (OLD ROM) 

for interrupt proc. routine. 

Original low byte of address 

in OLD ROM. 

Enable interrupts. 

Return to BASIC. 

This has set the pointer to 

the original interrupt routine 

in the ROM of high memory. 

Now the regular cassette 

operation is restored and the 

background servicing of the 

GPIB is suspended. 

Save processor status and 

save accumulator in stack. 

Get SRQ line in bit 7 of ace. 

If SRQ true, go and service it. 

Recover accumulator from stack. 

Recover status word from stack. 

Continue the interrupt 

processing with the original 

interrupt routine of the 

OLD PET ROM. 

This branches to the SRQ 

service routine if the GPIB is 

requesting service, otherwise 

executes the original routine 

in the ROM. 

Clear the ace. (See text). 

Set the flag (See text). 

These three lines set the 

ATN line true in the GPIB 

without changing anything else 

Return to calling program. 




168 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Listing 1 continued. 



SRQTRU 036E 98 

036F 48 

0370 A9 

0372 8D 

t>:STS 20 

0378 A9 

037A 20 

037D 20 

;This byte is disc 

;byte if you need 

0380 20 

0383 AC 

0386 91 

0388 AD 

038B 20 

038E A9 

0390 20 

0393 AC 

0396 B9 

0399 20 

039C 88 

039D B9 

03A0 20 

03A3 88 

03A4 10 

03A6 A0 

UPDBUF 03A8 8C 

03AB AC 

03AE C8 

03AF 8C 

3B2 DO 

03B4 E6 

03B6 A9 

03B8 C5 

03BA DO 

03BC A9 

03BE 85 

GETOUT 03C0 68 

03C1 A8 

03C2 A9 

03C4 8D 

03C7 4C 



3C 

13 E8 

60 03 

46 

80 Fl 

27 F2 
arded in my 
it. 

27 F2 

E3 03 

01 

22 E8 

60 03 

26 

80 Fl 

E2 03 

D2 03 

2C Fl 

D2 03 
2C Fl 

02 
07 

E2 03 
E3 03 

E3 03 

OC 

02 

20 

02 

04 

18 

02 



3D 

13 E8 
5B 03 



TYA 
PHA 
LDA 
STA 
JSR 
LDA 
JSR 
JSR 



#$3C 

$E813 

SETATN 

#$46 

$F180 

$F227 



application. Add 



JSR 
LDY 
STA 
LDA 
JSR 
LDA 
JSR 
LDY 
LDA 
JSR 
DEY 
LDA 
JSR 
DEY 
BPL 
LDY 
STY 
LDY 
INY 
STY 
BNE 
INC 
LDA 
CMP 
BNE 
LDA 
STA 
PLA 
TAY 
LDA 
STA 
J MP 



$F227 

BUFPNT 

($01), Y 

$E822 

SETATN 

#$26 

$F180 

CMDPNT 

CMDSEQ,Y 

$F12C 

CMDSEQ,Y 
$F12C 

UPDBUF 
#$07 
CMDPNT 
BUFPNT 

BUFPNT 

GETOUT 

$02 

#$20 

$02 

GETOUT 

#$18 

$02 



#$3D 

$E813 

GOTOLD 



CMDSEQ 



03D2 
03D4 
03D6 
03D8 



47 31 
46 31 

46 32 

47 31 



.TXT 'Gl' 

•TXT 'Fl' 

.TXT ' F2' 

.TXT 'Gl 1 



CMDPNT 03E2 07 
BUFPNT 03E3 00 



.BYT $07 
.BYT $00 



This sets the ATN line true 
before sending any address to 
the GPIB. ATN will be set 
false by the routine in ROM 
that sends the address. 

Copy the Y index to accum. 
Save it in the stack. 
Disable IRQ from PIA and then 
no interrups from retrace. 
Set ATN true. 
This is the TALK address. 
Send the TALK addr. (OLD ROM). 
Get a byte from GPIB. 
here your code to process this 



Get another byte from GPIB. 
Load my memory buffer pointer. 
Save the byte in the buffer. 
Enable further SRQ from PIA#2. 
Set ATN true. 

This is the LISTEN address. 
Send the LISTEN add. (OLD ROM). 
Load the command pointer. 
Get next comm. to send to GPIB, 
Send ace. to GPIB (OLD ROM). 
Update command pointer. 
Get next command to send. 
Send it to GPIB (OLD ROM). 
Update command pointer. 
If comm. seq. not finished. 
Restore command pointer. 
Save updated command pointer. 
Get the memory buffer pointer. 
Update it for next time. 
Save updated buffer pointer. 
If no page crossing. 
Increment buffer page pointer. 
This is the highest page. 
Compare to buffer page pointer, 
If not above highest page. 
This is the lowest page. 
Restore buffer page pointer. 
Get Y index from stack to ace. 
Restore original Y index. 
Enable IRQ from PIA and then 
Enable interrupts from retrace 
Continue with the PET ROM to 
give service to the IRQ that 
originated this execution. 

This is the command sequence 
that is sent to the GPIB, two 
bytes each time the SRQ is 
given service. At the end of 
the sequence, the pointer is 
restored to the beginning. 



;This is the pointer for the 
; command sequence above. 
;This is the pointer for the 
;memory buffer. 



J 



1) are self-explanatory. 

The section labeled 826 causes the 
interrupt vector at locations 537 and 
538 to point to the interrupt control- 
ler (IRQNEW) that services the GPIB 
if SRQ is true, and services the re- 
trace if SRQ is false. 

The section labeled 839 restores the 
original interrupt vector to the inter- 
rupt-processing routine in ROM in 
Xne PET. This is the reverse function 
of the previous section. 

These two sections are called from 
BASIC (see Listing 2) using the SYS 
function. An interrupt from the re- 
trace line could occur in the middle of 
these calls, and then the vector of 537 
and 538 would be undefined, so they 
should be executed with the interrupt 
disabled as shown in those sections. 

The section labeled IRQNEW is the 
new interrupt-dispatching routine. 
When an interrupt is generated by 
the retrace line, the processor gets the 



vector from 537 and 538, and, as it 
has the address of IRQNEW, it be- 
gins executing this code. After saving 
needed information in the stack, it 
checks the SRQ line. If this line is 
true, it will give service to the GPIB 
and then to the PET retrace interrupt; 
otherwise, it will service only the 
PET retrace. 

Here the stack is used as a safe 
place to store needed information 
that the GPIB routine would destroy. 
The information is recovered from 
the stack before going to the ROM 
routine. Make sure you do this if you 
want to preserve the process of your 
foreground program. 

The section labeled SETATN is a 
subroutine to set the ATN line true (0) 
prior to sending addresses to the 
GPIB. It also sets the flag to zero. If 
the flag is zero or $FF, the EOI line 
will not be made true during the 
transmission of that byte. This is a re- 




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Microcomputing, July 1981 169 



quirement of the routine in the PET 
ROM. 

The main GPIB service program is 
labeled SRQTRU. It begins saving the 
Y register in the stack, as this pro- 
gram will use it, and then inhibits fur- 
ther interrupts from the retrace, in 
case the GPIB protocol takes too long 
to complete. It then sends the talk ad- 
dress of the A/D converter that is re- 
questing service. 

The converter talks back and sends 
two bytes. I do not need the first byte, 



so I discard it. The second byte is 
saved in the buffer in high memory, 
using an indirect address stored in 1 
and 2 (these locations are commonly 
used for the USR function), and an 
offset pointer. 

The next step is to read register B of 
PI A 2, even if it is defined as output. 
This resets the logic inside PIA 2 so it 
will process the next SRQ; this can be 
done any time before exiting, but it 
must be done. 

You will notice that the entry point 



10 POKE 132,0 
20 POKE 134,0 



POKE 13 3,24 
POKE 135,24 



REM set top of string space 
REM set top of memory 



REM set base of buffer address 



30 POKE 1,0 : POKE 2,24 

40 FOR 1% = 826 TO 995 

50 READ BYTE 

60 POKE I%,BYTE 

70 NEXT 

80 OPEN 1,6 

90 PRINT#1,"H1LEJ"; 

100 SYS(826) 



Here goes the foreground program, v/hile 

the GPIB is being serviced in the background 

Use SYS (839) to suspend the background process 
Use SYS (826) to resume the background process 

The buffer pointer is found from the foreground with: 
PO=PEEK(2)*256+PEEK(995) 



Listing 2. BASIC program. 



I used to get a byte from the bus is dif- 
ferent from the one listed by Yob. 
This is because my entry point 
checks first for the status word, and if 
it is different from zero it will not go 
to the GPIB handshaking protocol. Of 
course, this is optional, and his entry 
point ($F187) works perfectly too. 

In his table Yob does not indicate 
how to send the talk and listen ad- 
dress to the instruments. The entry 
point is $F180 (61824) for ihe o\d PET 
and $F185 (61829) for the new PET. 
This will send the contents of the ac- 
cumulator as a talk/listen address— a 
talk address in the range $40 to $5F 
and a listen address in the range of 
$20 to $3F. You can address all in- 
struments in the GPIB, even in the 
range to 3 where the PET has the 
keyboard, video display and cassette 
recorders. 

Having set the ATN true with the 
subroutine, I now send the listen ad- 
dress to my GPIB device number 6, 
and then send the character from my 
command sequence to the bus. Here 
again I use a different entry point. My 
entry point will complement the ac- 
cumulator, store it in the $0222 buf- 







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170 Microcomputing, July 1981 



fer and then jump to $F0F1 to send it. 
This is very easy to use, but as you do 
not have access to the accumulator 
from BASIC, you can only use this 
entry point from machine language. 
If you want to do it from BASIC, use 
the procedure that Yob explained in 
the text. 

After sending a couple of charac- 
ters from the command sequence, I 
update the pointers and check for 
page boundaries and buffer full, and 
finally recover the original Y index 
from the stack, reenable interrupts 
from retrace and then jump to contin- 
ue the processing of the retrace inter- 
rupt. 

This process fills the memory buf- 
fer in the background, and the pro- 
gram in Listing 2 uses this buffer for 
the calculations done in the fore- 
ground. If the device is very slow, 
you will notice some delay in the 
foreground program, but with the 
HP47310A you will not notice much 
difference and the timer function will 
work correctly. 

The listing of the BASIC program 
(Listing 2) is self-explanatory. It re- 
serves some memory for the buffer 
and then loads the machine-language 



program from data statements (not 
included) into the second cassette 
buffer. The file is open to the A/D 
converter and the first instruction 
string is sent to reset the converter, 
select the channel and pacing rate 
and enable the pacer and the SRQ of 
the converter. 

A semicolon is used to inhibit the 
unlisten at the end, because unlisten 
would inhibit the SRQ of the convert- 
er. The PET has the CMD command 
to inhibit the unlisten at the end and 
thus leave the device connected to 
the bus. However, the CMD would 
redirect all output to the GPIB, and 
this is not what the A/D converter 
wants, so I use the semicolon. 

Conclusion 

This gives you an idea of how easy 
it is to use the GPIB from machine 
language in the PET, and a way to im- 
plement the SRQ function of the 
GPIB. Now I would like to see some- 
one combine this with Yob's descrip- 
tion of how to implement new func- 
tions in the PET, and implement an 
LPRINT function using spooling so 
the printer would work in parallel 
(not serial) with the BASIC program. ■ 



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Minimize use of capital letters to save space. No special layouts allowed. Payment is 
required in advance with ad copy. We cannot bill or accept credit. 

Advertising text and payment must reach us 60 days in advance of publication 
(i.e., copy for March issue, mailed in February, must be here by Jan. 1). The publisher 
reserves the right to refuse questionable or inapplicable advertisements. Mail copy 
with payment to: Classifieds, Kilobaud Microcomputing, Peterborough NH 03458. 
Do not include any other material with your ad as it may be delayed. 



Hardly-used Hayes Micromodem for Apple. 
Like new! Only $285. Still has unused warran- 
ty card! Also Centronics 737, like new, only 
$700. For $85 more you can have the Apple in- 
terface & cable. Howard Roth man, 218 Hunt- 
ington Road, Bridgeport, CT 06608. 203-333- 
6436. 

TRS-80 Model I, 32K, E/I, disk, MicroDOS, 
data separator, also I.NW expansion 80% 
complete. $1150. 10% down, bal. UPS COD. 
D. Bassetti, 730 Ave. Z, Brooklyn, NY 1 1223. 

Digital Group computer. Factory wired, less 
than 5 hrs. running time. Z-80A processor, 
32K static RAM, keyboard, dual Phideck (ear- 
ly board). Complete documentation, show- 
room condition. $700 obo, F.O.B. Los 
Angeles. J. Zubrecky, 328- A Russell Ave., 
Monterey Park, CA 91754. 213-571-1554. 

For Sale: Memory, Godbout Econoram II for 
S-100 3-8K boards. Sacrifice, $75 each. Docu- 
mentation on Radio Shack expansion inter- 
face (26-2001) and Model I (26-2103); both for 
$10. T-Bug, $9. Call Mike 901-795-5122. 

SD sales Z-80 starter assembled; tested by SD, 
PIO chip added, extra IK memory. One amp 
power supply, hardly used. Will ship UPS col- 
lect $200. T. Ramsey, 143 Devon Rd., Albert- 
son, NY 11507. 

IBM/ESCON Selectric typewriter (correcting, 
w/legal keyboard) both 8 months old. Factory 
installed RS232C interface w/backspace and 
tab. In new condition, just too slow for my 
purpose. $1600. J. Turner, 309 Mac Corkle 
Ave., Saint Albans, WV 25177. 304-776-3675. 



For Sale: 32K Exidy Sorcerer, BASIC and as- 
sembler ROMPACs & extended cassette BA- 
SIC, RS-232, parallel, dual cassette control. 
All documentation plus internal H/W and 
S/W manuals. Over $450 worth of S/W 
(graphics, games, word processing, database, 
utilities, etc.) All in exc. cond. for $1250 or 
best offer. With Comprint printer add $500. 
With 12" monitor add $75. R. L. Henne, 5870 
Wood Rower, Burke, VA 22015. 703-250- 
5323. 

9" Conrac video monitor, 10 MHz with new 
P39 green phosphor CRT, OEM style without 
enclosure with schematics & doc's. Minor 
mod's needed, instructions provided— $65. 
Heathkit H-8, 16K static memory bd 
#WH-8-16— $195, B.O. Also Fairchild "F8" 
microprocessor evaluation board, IK mem- 
ory, IK ROM monitor, serial I/O port, 
assm— $75. Five-slot motherboard & (2) 4K 
static memory bds less 2102-1 memory — $100 
or $150 for all F8 CPU, mother & memory bds 
& complete doc's. Paul Ramos, 617-935-3758 
aft 6 PM & wkends. 

For Sale: Telesis Labs Microport 8. The Mi- 
croport 8 is an 8 digit, self-contained display 
(displays 0-0- Excellent condition. New price 
is $109. The first money order for $90 takes it. 
For spec sheet, send SASE to: John Schork, 
Box 67, Ridge Road, Lebanon, NJ 08833. 

Wanted: Copies of Jan. '78 Kilobaud, issue 
#13 and Dec. '78 Kilobaud, issue #24. Must be 
in good condition. Send particulars and prices 
to: Phil Meria, c/o Johnson Controls, Inc., 
3007 Malmo Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 
60005. 



Axiom printer. Model EX801P (parallel). 
Great, trouble-free printers; new, in original 
boxes, my project cancelled. $425 each, or all 
four (4) $1600. J. Turner, 309 Mac Corkle 
Ave., St. Albans, WV 25177. 304-776-3675. 

New original package, LOBOS 8" dual-drive 
cabinet & P.P. Technico, TI9900, 16-bit CPU 
system, perf. oper. cond. 64K RAM, disk con- 
troller bd. DOS, 3.0 Super BASIC + EAL, full 
document., & schematics. All $3500/best of- 
fer. Sam White, 643 Indiana Ave., Venice, CA 
90291. 213-549-2500/396-0936. 

For Sale: Complete LSI- 11 computer system 
including DEC VT-103AA terminal, LSI- 1 1/3 
96Kb memory, 2 serial ports, 1 megabyte flop- 
py-disk dual-drive DEC RX02, 100 hours use, 
fully functioning system, software included. 
List price $20,178, now yours for only $8600. 
H.Cooper 801-766-1071. 

For Sale: Kilobaud #1 thru August 1978, 20 is- 
sues, $50 or best offer. Extra Kilobauds #1 
thru #5 best offer. Byte #1 thru August 1979, 
48 issues, $100 or best offer. Extra Bytes #1 
thru #4, best offer. HP-524D counter, 525C 
100-500 MHz, 525 A 10-100 MHz, 526A video 
amplifier, 526C period multiplier plug-ins, 
manuals, used as lab standard. Best reason- 
able offer. Clive Frazier, 5325 Curry Ford 
#A203, Orlando, FL 32806. 

IBM 3275 Model II display terminal with key- 
board, documentation. Excellent condition. 
$1200. B. Pelkey 305-862-0875. 



For Sale: 8 Godbout 8K Econoram II $43 each 
postpaid. Hazcltine 2000 CRT $500 FOB. 
Compucolor 8001, 19" CRT, 8 colors, 
192 x 160 resolution, large keyboard with nu- 
meric pad, cursor control, BASIC, $1200 
FOB. Make offer. D. G. Kissinger, School of 
Health, Loma Linda Univ., Loma Linda, CA 
92350. 714-796-7272. 

Wanted: Daily stock prices on PET cassettes. 
One cassette per issue. Hi, lo, close, vol, date. 
1960 to present. Don Nyre, 305 La Jolla Drive, 
Newport Beach, CA 92663. 

Elf II. 8K, giant board, bare 4K board, 
kludge, ps, ASCII keyboard, Tiny BASIC, elf 
bug, all Questdata, courses, games, etc. Clean- 
ing house. $175. Lapham, 74\ K2C0, Seau\e, 
WA 98133. 

Kilobaud: 1st 3 years, complete, like new. By 
vol. only; '77-$35, '78-$35, '79-$40; $100 or 
best offer takes all. R. Rose, 2205 Grayson 
PI., Falls Church, VA 22043. 

For Sale: Netronics Elf II, 4K giant board, 
video board. Tiny BASIC, all manuals. All for 
$290. F. E. Ferris, 120 Williams Terrace, 
Warner Robins, GA 31093. 912-923-4492. 

For Sale: Complete system. IMSAI 8080 com- 
puter with 64K memory, Lear Siegler ADM-3 
terminal, and Altair disk drive. Good condi- 
tion. Best offer. Jim Fritz, 1413 Harmony 
Lane, Annapolis, MD 21401. 301-757-7019. 



MICRO QUIZ 



(from page 26) 

Answer: 10 

1 Z 

— -1 

2 -3*1/-1=3 

3 -5*3/3= -5 

4 -7*5/-5 = 7 



10 -19»17/-17=19 
Sum of Z's is (3 - 1 ) + (7 - 5) + 



. +(19-17). 



r 

A 

P 



L 
E 



T 
R 
S 

8 


I 

B 

M 



W 
A 
N 
G 



A 

L 
T 
A 

I 
R 



Maxell o« WDysan 



Some computerists pay less - but may not 
receive Shuggart or IBM° approved disks. 



1 

D 
A 



8 SINGLE SIDE 

DOUBLE DENSITY Box of 10 for $60 

8 DOUBLE SIDE 

DOUBLE DENSITY Box of 10 for S 70 

3 V MINI Box of 10 for S 50 

DYSAN* DISKS 

5 V MINI Box of 5 for $25 

( Spec if y - 8" Soft or Hard Sector/5" Soft or Hard Sector) 




COD- $1.00 Additional 



@odt(Hȣitect>i0*u& 



f ki. 



L- 



238 EXCHANGE STREET 
CHICOPEE, MA. 01013 

413-592-4761 

established 1960 • closed mondays 

ATARI BBMBBIBl TI/99-4 



i^141 



C 
R 

E 
M 
E 
N 
C 
O 



PET 



J 



illllllHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIilH 

OSI 48 PIN BUSS COMPATIBLE 

96 PROTOTYPE BOARD S33 Holds 96 14 or 16 pin IC's Also ac 

commodates 18. 24 or 40 pin IC's 

BP 580 BACKPLANE $43 Assembled 8 slot backplane with 

Molex connectors and resistors 

MEMCM9 24K memory card with (loppy disk controller and 

OSI type real time clock Memory uses 21 14 type chips Flop 

py controller supports b\k" or 8" drives with separated clock 

and data outputs 
BMEM-CM9 $50 Bare card. Manual & Molex connectors 
8MEM CM9 $210 8K 2114 300ns low power chips Assembled 
and Tested, socketed for 24K ot memory 
16MEM-CM9 $300 16K 21 14300ns. A&T. sockets 24K 
24MEMCM9 $380 24K Assembled and tested 
MEM $55 16 (8K) 21 14 300 ns low power chips 
FL 470 $180 Assembled and tested (loppy disk controller & OSI 
type Real Time Clock Expandable to 24K of memory 
MEM 8 $21 8K Bare card. Manual, uses 2102 chips 
IO 16O0 Super I/O Card Supports 8K of 21 14 memory. 2 16 Bit 

Parallel Ports. 5 RS 232 Serial Ports with CTS & RTS hand 

shaking & proto area 
BIO 1600 $50 Bare card. Manual & Molex connectors 
IO-CA-6A $125 ACIA Serial Printer Port 
IO-CA-9D $175 Diablo Parallel Printer Port 
IO CA10X $125 14 RS232 Serial Ports 

IO Level 3 $425 4K Memory. 4 RS 232 Multi terminal Ports. 1 
Serial Printer. 1 Centronics Printer & 1 Diablo Printer Port 
PW-5-6 $29 POWER ONE Brand Supply 5V at 6 amps with over 
voltage protection Reg $49 95 



^293 



D&N 



*«* 



VOC*' 



MICRO PRODUCTS, 

INC. *. 



V * 



*ic 



3684 N. Wells Street 

Ft. Wayne, Indiana 46808 

219/485-6414 

TERMS: Check or money order Add $2 shipping and 

handling Indiana residents add 4% sales tax 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 




DIGITALKER 

QUALITY VOICE with INFLECTION 

FUN TO USE EASY TO PROGRAM 

INTERFACE TO H8 BUSS OR PARALLEL B0AKD 
APPLICATIONS: TELECOMMUNICATION, 
TEACHING AIDS, TALKING CLOCK, LANGUAGE 
TRANSLATION, GAMES, AND MORE. 
INCLUDES DEMONSTRATION "Basic" PROGRAM 

$149.95 

add $2.50 shipping and insurance 

M I - 8 ^190 

822 E. County Rd. 30 
Ft. Collins, Colo. 80525 

For complete Digitalker description, 

see "Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar" 

in the June issue of "Byte" magazine. 

TO ORDER BY PHONE (303) 669-4116 




172 Microcomputing, July 1981 



IT bEflLER blRECTOKY^I 



El Monte, CA 

Ohio Scientific specialist in the San 
Gabriel Valley serving greater Los 
Angeles. Full product line on dis- 
play. Specializing in business com- 
puters. In-house service. Custom 
programming. Terminals. Printers. 
Open Mon-Sat, 9 AM-7 PM. Com- 
puter & Video, 3380 Flair Dr., 
Suite 207, El Monte, CA 91731, 
572-7292. 

San Jose, CA 

New and used computer products — 
specializing in S-100 boards, print- 
ers, drives, chassis and complete 
systems, as well as supplies and parts 
— Imsai, Tandon, Diablo— 5000 sq. 
ft. WAV Component Supply, 
Inc., 1771 Junction Ave., San 
Jose, CA 95112. 

Sarasota, FL 

Your personal and business comput- 
er store for Dynabyte, Vector, 
HP-85, Atari and Epson. Structured 
Systems and Micro-Pro software. 
Computer furniture and books by 
Osborne or Hayden. Sales, service 
and supplies. Computer Cross- 
roads, 3800 S. Tamiami Trail, 
Sarasota, FL 33579, 349-0200. 

Tampa, FL 

Apple Computer sales and service. 
S-100 boards from SSM, Godbout, 
Thinker Toys, California Computer 
Systems. Computer books and maga- 
zines. AMF Microcomputer Cen- 
ter, Inc., 11158 N. 30th Street, 
Tampa, FL 33612, 971-4072, 
977-0708. 



Aurora, IL 

Microcomputer systems for home or 
business; peripherals, software, 
books & magazines. Apple, Hewlett- 
Packard Series 80 Systems, HP Cal- 
culators, IDS, Qume, Starwriter 
printers. Farnsworth Computer 
Center, 1891 N. Farnsworth 
Ave., Aurora, IL 60505, 851- 
3888. 

Chicago, IL 

Computer Hardware/Specialists for 
home and business. Largest selection 
of computer books, magazines and 
copyrighted software in Illinois. Ex- 
perienced factory-trained service 
department. Feature Apple, Alpha 
Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard 
calculators and accessories. Data 
Domain of Schaumburg, 1 6 1 2 E. 
Algonquin Rd., Schaumburg, IL 
60195, 397-8700. 

Chicago, IL 

Brand new lowest prices, never 
undersold, postpaid in USA — Tele- 
type 43 keyboard printers, Okidata 
<St Integral Data printers, SS-50 bus 
computers, peripherals &. business 
software. Data Mart, 914 East 
Waverly Street, Arlington 
Heights, IL 60004, 398-8525. 



Herington, KS 

Hardware support. Maintenance 
and service for all microcomputers 
and peripherals. Kits assembled or 
debugged. Radio Shack (mods OK) 
repaired. Quality work, fast turn- 
around and reasonable cost. Prairie 
Micro Clinic, Box 325, Hering- 
ton, KS 67449, 258-2179. 

Garden City, MI 

Books, magazines, hardware and 
software for Apple, North Star, 
TRS-80 and PET. Computer Cen- 
ter, 28251 Ford Rd., Garden 
City, Ml 48135, 425-2470. 

Hannibal, MO 

Ohio Scientific products, modifica- 
tions, service, software. 8" disk for 
C1P, C4P. Process control specialist. 
E&I Technical Service, 5300 
Paris Gravel Road, Hannibal, 
MO 63401, 248-0084. 

River Edge, NJ 

Discount software — up to 25% off 
business, utility, recreational, educa- 
tional and home programs. Apple, 
Atari, TRS-80 and PET. Atari com- 
puters always on sale. Software 
City, 111 Grand Ave., River 
Edge, NJ 07661. 



Dealers: Listings are $15 per month in prepaid quarterly payments, or one 
yearly payment of $150, also prepaid. Ads include 25 words describing your 
products and services plus your company name, address and phone. (No area 
codes or merchandise prices, please.) Call Marcia at 603-924-7138 or write 
Kilobaud Microcomputing, Ad Department, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



Chautauqua, NY 

Retail book store featuring the Disas- 
sembled Handbook for TRS-80 Vol- 
umes 1, 2, 3. English, German &. 
French language editions. 9 AM-5 
PM weekdays. Come and visit us. 
Richcraft Computer Book 
Store, 1 Wahmeda Ave., 
Chautauqua, NY 14722, 
753-2654. 

Portland, OR 

Ohio Scientific specialists for 
business and personal computers. 
Local service. Terminals, printers, 
custom programming. Full OSI prod- 
uct line on display! 10 AM to 6 PM 
M-F. Fial Computer, 11266 SE 
21st Ave., Milwaukie, OR 
97222, 654-9574. 

Spokane, WA 

SS-50 Users: Expand present system 
to maximum or build from ground 
up. We provide PCBs for mother- 
boards, interfaces, etc. Write for 
specs and information. Quality Re- 
search Company, PO Box 7207, 
Spokane, WA 99207. 

Milwaukee, WI 

Specializing in the CBM-PET busi- 
ness, personal, educational, industri- 
al, telecomputing systems. Consult- 
ing, modems, printers, books, acces- 
sories, magazines, supplies, peripher- 
als. Factory authorized service. Con- 
venient freeway access. PETTED 
Micro Systems, 4265 W. Loomis 
Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53221, 
282-4181. 



H^/^PMf^M^PM^PMPl 



i 



TAR HEEL SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

"Affordable Software for Small Business" 
PROUD I. Y ANNOUNCES 

REAL ESTATE BOOKKEEPING SYSTEM 

a disk-based fully-integrated system including 
cash journal, general journal, tenant ledger, 
landlord ledger, monthly landlord statements, 
balance sheet, P & L statement by profit 
citwVexs, av\d \wo\e, all for SI 50 postpaid. 
(North Carolina orders add 4% sales tax.) 
Free continuing update service included. 
Minimum hardware: TRS-80 Model I, 32K, 
2 disk drives, line printer. Versions for 
TRS-80 Model li and III, Apple II and 
Commodore 2001 Series coming soon. Watch 
for announcement of other small business 
applications software in the months to come. 




^233 



TAR HEEL SOFTWARE 
SYSTEMS, INC. 

536 S LEXING TON AVE PO BOX 340 
BURLINGTON. NORTH CAROLINA 27215 



IMIUM^M^MMPHMIM 




NOTICE 

To all resellers, dealer, OEMs and software ven- 
dors. We market Siemens Disk Drives and offer a 
line of single, double and four drive enclosures for 
5" and 8" drives. Our four drive case will ac- 
comodate two drives and a card cage or mother 
board. We also have an "all in one" video with 
drives for your boards or ours. 



CORSAIR COMPUTER 



»^346 



5812 Curzon Ave. 
Fort Worth, TX 76107 

817-731-3792 








This handy, slim, 44 page reference 

contains a synopsis of each instruction 

eveifebJe tm fcW tm*** *i*V CPU 

Mntmontcs and machine codes in he«e 

decimal format «ir piovided tot each 

addressing mode Appendices list 

the instruction set alphabetically by 

assembler mnemonics as well as 

numerically by machine code A 

hciadecimeJ to decimal conversion 

chart is included Additional 

•nformation of value to pro 

grammers and designers is 

provided, including a chip 

pin out diagram, banc timing 

information and diagrams of 

the basic chip architecture 

The 6502 INSTRUCTION 

HANDBOOK fits comfor 

tably in a shirt or hip pocket 

It serves as a convenient reference for programmers, 

technicians and engineers The guide may be obtained by mail for just 

S3 00 postpaid in the United States Order from 

SCELBI PUBLICATIONS. 20 Hurlbut Street. Elmwood. CT 06110 



NAME (please print all information) 



CITV 



STREET A00RESS 
tTATI 



ZIP 



^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 173 



kb microcomputing book nook 



PROGRAMMING & COOKBOOKS 




• INSIDE LEVEL II — BK1 183 — For machine language 
programmers! This is a comprehensive reference 
guide to the Level II ROMs, allowing easy utilization of 
the sophisticated routines they contain. It concisely 
explains set-ups, calling sequences, variable passage 
and I/O routines. Part II presents an entirely new com- 
posite program structure which unloads under the 
SYSTEM command and executes in both BASIC and 
machine code with the speed and efficiency of a com- 
piler. Special consideration is given to disk systems. 
$15.95.* 

• PROGRAMMING THE Z-80-BK1 122-by Rodnay 
Zaks. Here is assembly language programming for the 
Z-80 presented as a progressive, step-by-step course. 
This book is both an educational text and a self- 
contained reference book, useful to both the beginning 
and the experienced programmer who wish to learn 
about the Z-80. Exercises to test the reader are includ- 
ed. $14.95.* 

• Z-80 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOK- 
BOOK— BK1045— by Nat Wadsworth. Scelbis newest 
cookbook! This book contains a complete description 
of the powerful Z-80 instruction set and a wide variety 
of programming information. Use the author's ingre- 
dients including routines, subroutines and short pro- 
grams, choose a time-tested recipe and start cooking! 
$16.99.* 

• Z 80 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING — 
BK1177— by Lance A. Leventhal. This book thoroughly 
covers the Z-80 instruction set, abounding in simple 
programming examples which illustrate software de- 
velopment concepts and actual assembly language 
usage. Features include Z-80 I/O devices and interfac- 
ing methods, assembler conventions, and compari- 
sons with 8080A/8085 instruction sets and interrupt 
structure. $16.99.* 

TEST 

EQUIPMENT 

— LIBRARY— 



• VOL. I COMPONENT TESTERS— LB7359- 



how 



to build transistor testers (8), diode testers (3), IC test- 
ers (3), voltmeters and VTVMs (9), ohmmeters (8 differ- 
ent kinds), inductance (3), capacity (9), Q measure- 
ment, crystal checking (6), temperature (2), aural 
meters for the blind (3) and all sorts of miscellaneous 
data on meters. . .using them, making them more ver- 
satile, making standards. Invaluable book. $4.95.* 

• VOL II AUDIO FREQUENCY TESTERS— LB7360— 
. . .jam packed with all kinds of audio frequency test 
equipment. If you're into SSB, RTTY, SSTV, etc., this 
book is a must for you. . .a good book for hi-fi addicts 
and experimenters, too! $4.95.* 

• VOL. Ill RADIO FREQUENCY TESTERS— LB7361 — 
Radio frequency waves, the common denominator of 
Amateur Radio. Such items as SWR, antenna im- 
pedance, line impedance, rf output and field strength; 
detailed instructions on testing these items includes 
sections on signal generators, crystal calibrators, grid 
dip oscillators, noise generators, dummy loads and 
much more. $4.95.* 

• VOL. IV IC TEST EQUIPMENT— LB7362— Become a 
troubleshooting wizard! In this fourth volume of the 73 
TEST EQUIPMENT LIBRARY are 42 home construction 

Krojects for building test equipment to work with your 
am station and in servicing digital equipment. Plus a 
cumulative index for all four volumes for the 73 TEST 
EQUIPMENT LIBRARY. $4.95.* 



ANEW 

PROGRAMMING 

— SERIES — 



The Microprocessor Software Engineering Series by 

John Zarrella provides common sense descriptions of 
advanced computer system topics for engineers, pro- 
grammers and development managers. Each volume is 
a self-contained review of a software engineering 
topic, explaining fundamental concepts in easy-to-un- 
derstand language and describing sophisticated soft- 
ware tools and techniques. Detailed glossary of tech- 
nical jargon is included in each volume. This series will 
help you find the solutions to your software problems. 

• OPERATING SYSTEMS: CONCEPTS AND PRINCI- 
PLES— BK1 193— Presents an overview of the basic op- 
erating system types, their components and capabil- 
ities. $7.95.* 

• WORD PROCESSING AND TEXT EDITING— BK1 194 

— Provides a firm basis for understanding word pro- 
cessing terminology and for comparing systems. 
$7.95.* 

• SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE— BK1 195 —Presents a 
detailed overview of advanced computer system 
design including object architecture and capability- 
based addressing. $9.95.* 



6502 



• PROGRAMMING THE 6502 (Third Edition)— BK1 005 
—Rodnay Zaks has designed a self-contained text to 
learn programming, using the 6502. It can be used by a 
person who has never programmed before, and should 
be of value to anyone using the 6502. The many exer- 
cises will allow you to test yourself and practice the 
concepts presented. $12.95.* 

• 6502 APPLICATIONS BOOK— BK1006— Rodnay Zaks 
presents practical-application techniques for the 6502 
microprocessor, assuming an elementary knowledge of 
microprocessor programming. You will build and design 
your own domestic-use systems and peripherals. Self- 
test exercises included. $12.95.* 

• 6502 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING— 

BK1176— by Lance A. Leventhal. This book provides 
comprehensive coverage of the 6502 microprocessor 
assembly language. Leventhal covers over 80 program- 
ming examples from simple memory load loops to 
complete design projects. Features include 6502 as- 
sembler conventions, input/output devices and inter- 
facing methods, and programming the 6502 interrupt 
system. $16.99.* 

• 6502 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOK- 
BOOK— BK1055— by Robert Findley. This book intro- 
duces the BASIC language programmer into the realm 
of machine-language programming. The description of 
the 6502 structure and instruction set, various 
routines, subroutines and programs are the ingredi- 
ents in this cookbook. "Recipes" are included to help 
you put together exactly the programs to suit your 
taste. $12.95.* 



• MICROCOMPUTING CODING SHEETS Microcom- 
puting's dozen or so programmers wouldn't try to work 
without these handy scratch pads, which help prevent 
the little errors that can cost hours and hours of pro- 
gramming time. Available for programming is Assem- 
bly/Machine Language (PD1001), which has columns 
for address, instruction (3 bytes), source code (label, 
op code, operand) and comments; and for BASIC 
(PD1002) which is 72 columns wide. 50 sheets to a pad. 
$2.39.* 



8080/8080A-6800- 

• 8080A/8085 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM- 
MING— by Lance Leventhal— BK1004— Assembly lan- 
guage programming for the 8080A/8085 is explained 
with a description of the functions of assemblers and 
assembly instructions, and a discussion of basic soft- 
ware development concepts. Many fully debugged, 
practical programs are included as is a special section 
on structured programming. $15.99.* 

• 8080 PROGRAMMING FOR LOGIC DESIGN — 

BK1078— Ideal reference for an in-depth understand- 
ing of the 8080 processor. Application-oriented and the 
8080 is discussed in light of replacing conventional, 
hard-wired logic. Practical design considerations are 
provided for the implementation of an 8080-based con- 
trol system. $9.50.* 

• 8080 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOK- 
BOOK— BK1 102— If you have been spending too much 
time developing simple routines for your 8080, try this 
new book by Scelbi Computing and Robert Findley. De- 
scribes sorting, searching, and many other routines for 
the 8080 user. $12.95.* 

• 6800 PROGRAMMING FOR LOGIC DESIGN — 

BK1077— Oriented toward the industrial user, this 
book describes the process by which conventional 
logic can be replaced by a 6800 microprocessor. Pro- 
vides practical information that allows an experi- 
menter to design a complete micro control system 
from the "ground up." $9.50.* 

• 6800 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOK- 
BOOK— BK1075— Like its culinary cousin, The 8080 
Gourmet Guide, this book by Scelbi Computing and 
Robert Findley describes sorting, searching and other 
routines— this time for the 6800 user. $12.95.* 



COOKBOOKS 



• CMOS COOKBOOK — BK 1011 — by Don Lancaster. 
Details the application of CMOS, the low power logic 
family suitable for most applications presently 
dominated by TTL. Required reading for every serious 
digital experimenter! $10.50.* 

• TVT COOKBOOK — BK1064— by Don Lancaster. De- 
scribes the use of a standard television receiver as a 
microprocessor CRT terminal. Explains and describes 
character generation, cursor control and interface in- 
formation in typical, easy-to-understand Lancaster 
style. $9.95.* 

• TTL COOKBOOK— BK1063— by Don Lancaster. Ex- 
plains what TTL is, how it works, and how to use it. Dis- 
cusses practical applications, such as a digital coun- 
ter and display system, events counter, electronic 
stopwatch, digital voltmeter and a digital tachometer. 
$9.50.* 



*Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate 
piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book Department • Peterborough 
NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 



No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1.00 handling. Please allow 4-6 weeks for 
delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the 
above address. 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



BASIC & PASCAL 



BUSINESS 




<\ 



&** 



• 50 BASIC EXERCISES— BK1 192— by J. P. Lamoitier. 
This book is structured around the idea that the best 
way to learn a language is through actual practice. It 
contains 50 completely explained exercises: state- 
ment and analysis of the problem, flowcharts, pro- 
grams and actual runs. Program subjects include 
mathematics, business, games, and operations re- 
search, and are presented in varying levels of diffi- 
culty. This format enables anyone to learn BASIC rap- 
idly, checking their progress at each step. $12.95* 

• THE BASIC HANDBOOK— BK1 174— by David Lien. 
This book is unique. It is a virtual ENCYCLOPEDIA of 
BASIC. While not favoring one computer over another, 
it explains over 250 BASIC words, how to use them and 
alternate strategies. If a computer does not possess 
the capabilities of a needed or specified word, there 
are often ways to accomplish the same function by us- 
ing another word or combination of words. That's 
where the HANDBOOK comes in. It helps you get the 
most from your computer, be it a "bottom-of-the-line" 
micro or an oversized monster. $14.95.* 

• LEARNING LEVEL II— BK1 175— by David Lien. Writ- 
ten especially for the TRS-80, this book concentrates 
on Level II BASIC, exploring every important BASIC 
language capability. Updates are included for those 
who have studied the Level I User's Manual. Sections 
include: how to use the Editor, dual cassette opera- 
tion, pnn\ers and peripheral devices, and the conver- 
sion of Level I programs to Level II. $15.95.* 

• BASIC BASIC (2ND EDITION)— BK1026— by James 
S. Coan. This is a textbook which incorporates the 
learning of computer programming using the BASIC 
language with the teaching of mathematics. Over 100 
sample programs illustrate the techniques of the BA- 
SIC language and every section is followed by practi- 
cal problems. This second edition covers character 
string handling and the use of data files. $10.50.* 

• ADVANCED BASIC— BK1000— Applications, includ- 
ing strings and files, coordinate geometry, area, se- 
quences and series, simulation, graphing and games. 
$10.75*. 

• SIXTY CHALLENGING PROBLEMS WITH BASIC 
SOLUTIONS (2nd Edition)— BK1073 — by Donald 
Spencer, provides the serious student of BASIC pro- 
gramming with interesting problems and solutions. No 
knowledge of math above algebra required. Includes a 
number of game programs, as well as programs for 
financial interest, conversions and numeric manipula- 
tions. $6.95.* 

• PROGRAMMING IN PASCAL— BK1 140— by Peter 
Grogono. The computer programming language 
PASCAL was the first language to embody in a coher- 
ent way the concepts of structured programming, 
which has been defined by Edsger Dijkstra and C.A.R. 
Hoare. As such, it is a landmark in the development of 
programming languages. PASCAL was developed by 
Niklaus Wirth in Zurich; it is derived from the language 
ALGOL 60 but is more powerful and easier to use. 
PASCAL is now widely accepted as a useful language 
that can be efficiently implemented, and as an ex- 
cellent teaching tool. It does not assume knowledge of 
any other programming language; it is therefore suit- 
able for an introductory course. $12.95.* 



PASCAL— BK1 188— by Paul M. Chirlian. Professor 
Chirlian's textbook combines a simple approach to the 
PASCAL language with comprehensive coverage on 
how a computer works, how to use a flowchart, work- 
ing from a terminal as well as batch operation and 
debugging. Special attention is paid to idiosyncrasies 
of the language and syntax flowcharts abound for the 
convenience of the experienced programmer. Well in- 
dexed. $12.95* 

• INTRODUCTION TO PASCAL— BK1 189— by Rodnay 
Zaks. A step-by-step introduction for anyone wanting 
to learn the language quickly and completely. Each 
concept is explained simply and in a logical order. All 
features of the language are presented in a clear, easy- 
to-understand format with exercises to test the reader 
at the end of each chapter. It describes both standard 
PASCAL and UCSD PASCAL, the most widely used 
dialect for small computers. No computer or program- 
ming experience is necessary. $14.95.* 



GAMES 




• PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUNTING— IN BASIC— 

BK1001— by L. Poole & M. Borchers, includes program 
listings with remarks, descriptions, discussions of the 
principle behind each program, file layouts, and a com- 
plete user's manual with step-by-step instructions, 
flowcharts, and simple reports and CRT displays. Pay- 
roll and cost accounting features include separate 
payrolls for up to 10 companies, time-tested interac- 
tive data entry, easy correction of data entry errors, job 
costing (labor of distribution), check printing with full 
deduction and pay detail, and 16 different printed re- 
ports, including W-2 and 941 (in CBASIC). $20.00.* 

• SOME COMMON BASIC PROGRAMS— BK1053— 
published by Adam Osborne & Associates, Inc. Perfect 
for non-technical computerists requiring ready-to-use 
programs. Business programs, plus miscellaneous 
programs. Invaluable for the user who is not an ex- 
perienced programmer. All will operate in the stand- 
alone mode. $14.99 paperback. 

• PIMS: PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEM— BK1 009— Learn how to unleash the power 
of a personal computer for your own benefit in this 
ready-to-use data-base management program. 
$11 ."o. 

-MONEYMAKING— 



*0*\ 



f&J&$#23! L 



** 






& /<* 



?"*** 



• 40 COMPUTER GAMES— BK7381 —Forty games in all 
in nine different categories. Games for large and small 
systems, and even a section on calculator games. Many 
versions of BASIC used and a wide variety of systems 
represented. A must for the serious computer games- 
man. $7.95* 

• BASIC COMPUTER GAMES— BK1074— Okay, so 
once you get your computer and are running in BASIC, 
then what? Then you need some programs in BASIC, 
that's what. This book has 101 games for you from very 
simple to real buggers. You get the games, a descrip- 
tion of the games, the listing to put in your computer 
and a sample run to show you how they work. Fun. Any 
one game will be worth more than the price of the book 
for the fun you and your family will have with it. $7.50.* 

• MORE BASIC COMPUTER GAMES- BK1 182 — 
edited by David H. Ahl. More fun in BASIC! 84 new 
games from the people who brought you BASIC Com- 
puter Games. Includes such favorites as Minotaur(bat- 
tle the mythical beast) and Eliza (unload your troubles 
on the doctor at bargain rates). Complete with game 
description, listing and sample run. $7.50.* 




***** 



• HOW TO MAKE MONEY WITH COMPUTERS— 

BK1003— In 10 information-packed chapters, Jerry 
Felsen describes more than 30 computer-related, 
money-making, high profit, low capital investment op- 
portunities. $15.00.* 

• HOW TO SELL ANYTHING TO ANYBODY— BK7306— 

According to The Guinness Book of World Records, the 
author, Joe Girard, is "the world's greatest salesman." 
This book reveals how he made a fortune — and how you 
can, too. $2.25.* 

• THE INCREDIBLE SECRET MONEY MACHINE- 

BK1178— by Don Lancaster. A different kind of "cook- 
book" from Don Lancaster. Want to slash taxes? Get 
free vacations? Win at investments? Make money from 
something that you like to do? You'll find this book 
essential to give you the key insider details of what is 
really involved in starting up your own money machine. 
$5.95.* 



*Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate 
piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book Department • Peterborough 
NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1.00 handling. Please allow 4-6 weeks for 
delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the 
above address. 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



INTRODUCTORY 




• UNDERSTANDING AND PROGRAMMING MICRO- 
COMPUTERS— BK7382— A valuable addition to your 
computing library. This two-part text includes the best 
articles that have appeared in 73 and Kilobaud 
Microcomputing magazines on the hardware and soft- 
ware aspects of microcomputing. Well-known authors 
and well-structured text helps the reader get involved. 
$10.95* 

• SOME OF THE BEST FROM KILOBAUD MICROCOM- 
PUTING— BK731 1 —A collection of the best articles that 
have appeared in Kilobaud MICROCOMPUTING. Includ- 
ed is material on the TRS-80 and PET systems, CP/M, the 
808078085/Z-80 chips, the ASR-33 terminal. Data base 
management, word processing, text editors and file 
structures are covered too. Programming techniques 
and hard-core hardware construction projects for 
modems, high speed cassette interfaces and TVTs are 
also included in this large format, 200 plus page edition. 
$10.95.* 



\ •YOUR FIRST COMPUTER— BK1 191— by Rodnay 
Zaks. Whether you are using a computer, thinking 
about using one or considering purchasing one, this 
book is indispensable. It explains what a computer 
system is, what it can do, how it works and how to 
select various components and peripheral units. It is 
written in everyday language and contains invaluable 
information for the novice and the experienced pro- 
grammer. (The first edition of this book was published 
under the title "An Introduction to Personal and 
Business Computing".) $7.95* 



• HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE HERE!— BK7322— If you 

want to come up to speed on how computers work. . . 
hardware and software. . .this is an excellent book. It 
starts with fundamentals and explains the circuits, and 
the basics of programming, along with a couple of TVT 
construction projects, ASCII-Baudot, etc. This book has 
the highest recommendations as a teaching aid. $4.95.* 

• THE NEW HOBBY COMPUTERS— BK7340— This 

book takes it from where "HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE 
HERE!" leaves off, with chapters on Large Scale Integra- 
tion, how to choose a microprocessor chip, an introduc- 
tion to programming, low cost I/O for a computer, com- 
puter arithmetic, checking memory boards... and 
much, much more! Don't miss this tremendous value! 
Only $4.95.* 



SPECIAL INTERESTS 




THE CP/M HANDBOOK (with MP/M)— BK1187— by 
Rodnay Zaks. A complete guide and reference hand- 
book for CP/M— the industry standard in operating 
systems. Step-by-step instruction for everything from 
turning on the system and inserting the diskette to cor- 
rect user discipline and remedial action for problem 
situations. This also includes a complete discussion 
of all versions of CP/M up to and including 2.2, MP/M 
and CDOS. $14.95*. 



• MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED AND OTHER 

MYSTERIES— BK1 186— by James Farvour. From the 
company that brought you TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER 
MYSTERIES*. Contains more than 6500 lines of com- 
ments for the disassembled Level II ROMs, six addi- 
tional chapters describing every BASIC subroutine, 
with assembly language routines showing how to use 
them. Flowcharts for all major routines give the reader 
a real insight into how the interpreter works. $29.50. 



• INTRODUCTION TO TRS-80 GRAPHICS— BK1 180— 
by Don Inman. Dissatisfied with your Level I or Level II 
manual's coverage of graphics capabilities? This well- 
structured book (suitable for classroom use) is ideal 
for those who want to use all the graphics capabilities 
built into the TRS-80. A tutorial method is used with 
many demonstrations. It is based on the Level I, but all 
material is suitable for Level II use. $8.95.* 

• TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES— BK1 181 — 

by Harvard C. Pennington. This is the definitive work 
on the TRS-80 disk system. It is full of detailed "How 
to" information with examples, samples and in-depth 
explanations suitable for beginners and professionals 
alike. The recovery of one lost file is worth the price 
alone. $22.50.* 

• MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACING TECHNIQUES 

— BK1037— by Austin Lesea & Rodnay Zaks— will 
teach you how to interconnect a complete system and 
interface it to all the usual peripherals. It covers hard- 
ware and software skills and techniques, including the 
use and design of model buses such as the IEEE 488 or 
S-100. $15.95.* 



INTRODUCTION 

TO 
MICROCOMPUTERS - 

(VOL. 0— III) 

• AN INTRODUCTION TO MICROCOMPUTERS, VOL. 

— BK1 130— The Beginner's Book— Written for readers 
who know nothing about computers— for those who 
have an interest in how to use computers— and for 
everyone else who must live with computers and 
should know a little about them. The first in a series of 
4 volumes, this book will explain how computers work 
and what they can do. Computers have become an in- 
tegral part of life and society. During any given day you 
are affected by computers, so start learning more 
about them with Volume 0. $7.95.* 

• VOL. I— BK1030— 2nd Edition completely revised. 

Dedicated to the basic concepts of microcomputers 
and hardware theory. The purpose of Volume I is to 
give you a thorough understanding of what microcom- 
puters are. From basic concepts (which are covered in 
detail), Volume I builds the necessary components of a 
microcomputer system. This book highlights the dif- 
ference between minicomputers and microcomputers. 
$12.99.* 

• VOL. II— BK1040 (with binder)— Contains descrip- 
tions of individual microprocessors and support 
devices used only with the parent microprocessor. 
Volume II describes all available chips. $31.99* 

• VOL. Ill— BK1133 (with binder)— Contains descrip- 
tions of all support devices that can be used with any 
microprocessor. $21.99* 



FOR THE 
ELECTRONICS 



HOBBYIST 




• TOOLS & TECHNIQUES FOR ELECTRONICS— 

BK7348— by A. A. Wicks is an easy-to-understand book 
written for the beginning kit builder as well as the ex- 
perienced hobbyist. It has numerous pictures and 
descriptions of the safe and correct ways to use basic 
and specialized tools for electronic projects as well as 
specialized metal working tools and the chemical aids 
which are used in repair shops. $4.95.* 

• HOW TO BUILD A MICROCOMPUTER— AND REALLY 
UNDERSTAND IT— BK7325— by Sam Creason. The elec- 
tronics hobbyist who wants to build his own microcom- 
puter system now has a practical "How-To" guidebook. 
This book is a combination technical manual and pro- 
gramming guide that takes the hobbyist step-by-step 
through the design, construction, testing and debugging 
of a complete microcomputer system. Must reading for 
anyone desiring a true understanding of small computer 
systems. $9.95.* 



'Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate 
piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book Department • Peterborough 
NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1.00 handling. Please allow 4-6 weeks for 
delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the 
above address. 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



»^44 




INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 



P.O. Box 4430S 
Santa Clara, CA 95054 

Will calls: 2322 Walsh Ave. 
(408) 988-1640 TWX 910-338-2139 

Same day shipment. First line parts only. Factory tested. 
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7485N 

'4MN 

7490N 

7492N 

7493N 

7495N 

74100N 

74107N 

7412IN 

741 23N 

74125N 

74145N 

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74151N 
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74192N 
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74LS28N 

74LS30N 

74LS33N 

74LS38N 

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74LS90N 

74LS93N 

74LS95N 

74LS107N 

74LS112N 

74LSH3N 

74LS132N 

74LS136N 

74LS15IN 

74LS155N 

74LS157N 

74LS162N 

74LS163N 

74LS174N 

74LS190N 

74LS221N 

74LS258N 

741S367N 

LINEAR 
CA3045 
CA3044 

CA3M1 

CA3082 

CA3089 

LM301AN AH 

LM305H 

LM307N 

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LM309K 

LV311H N 

LM317T 

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LM320K 12 
LM320K 15 
LM320T5 
LM3201 8 
LM320M2 
LM320T lb 
LM323K-b 
LM324N 
LM339N 
LM340K 5 
LM340K 8 
LM340K 12 
LM340K lb 
LM340K 24 
LM340T 5 
LM340T8 
LM340T 12 
LM340T lb 
LM340T 18 
LM340T24 
LM3b0 
LM377 
LM379 
LM380N 
LM381 
LM382 
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LM723HN 
LV733N 
LM741CH 
LM741N 
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LM748N 
IM1303N 
IM1304 
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LM1310 
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LM2111 
LM2902 
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LM390b 
LM3909N 
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NE555V 
NESSM 
NL565A 
NEb66V 
NE567V 
N£570B 
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78MOb 

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7b492CN 

7b494CN 



1 3b 

1 3b 

1 3b 

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1 3b 

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CD40b1 

CD 4060 

CD4066 

CD4068 

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CD4070 

CO4071 

CD4072 

CD4073 

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C04076 

CD4078 

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CD4490 

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CD4b10 

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MCM667b1A 

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10 95 
9 95 
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290 
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5 75 
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18 MH/ 


390 


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KEYBOARD ENCOOERS 


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1802DPp(as 17 95 

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CDP1802D 35 00 

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2104A4 4 

2107B-4 3 

2111 1 3 

21122 3 

2114 3 
2114L 300ns 4 



UART FIFO 

65 AY5-1013 

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65 3341 
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50 2708 

10 2716T1 

50 2716 b Volt 

20 8 2716 b Volt 

69 273? 

75 27b8 

69 8741 A 

69 8748 

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2b 



b bO 
7b0 
6 9b 



b8b 
6 10 
1200 
10 bO 
64 00 
19 9b 
1400 
bbOO 
bbOO 
bb 00 
55 00 

2 95 
4 95 
4 75 
4 95 
4 95 
8 75 
8 75 
290 

3 50 



D Connectors RS232 

DB25P 3 62 

DB25S 5 20 

Cover 1 67 

0E9S 1 95 

DA15P 2 10 

DA15S 3 10 

Complete Set 9 50 



Hickok3V,OigitLEOmvl 
hmeler 89 95 

Stopwatch Kit 26 95 

Auto Clock Kit 17 95 

Digital Clock Kit 14 95 

IK 16K [prom Kit 

Hess PROMS) $89 00 
Mothtrboard $39 00 

Eitendtr Board $15 00 

RESISTORS < watl 5°o 
10 per type 03 
25 per type 025 
100 per type 015 
1000 per lype 012 
350 piece pack 
5 per lype 6 75 

'.• watt 5"o pei lype 05 

Televideo Terminal 
Model 912 $785 00 
Model 920 $885 00 



KEYBOARDS 

b6 key ASCII keyboard kit $67 bO 

Fully assembled 77 50 

53 key ASCII keyboard kit 60 00 

Fully assembled 70 00 

Enclosure Plastic 14 95 

Metal Enclosure 29 95 

LEDS 

Red T018 15 

Green Yellow T0 18 20 

Jumbo Red 20 

Green Orange Yellow Jumbo 25 

Cliplite LED Mounting Clip* 8 $1 25 
f specify red amber green yellow clean 

CONTINENTAL SPECIALTIES in stock 

Complete line of breadboard test equip 
MAX 100 8 digit Freq Clr $149 95 

OK WIRE WRAP TOOLS in stock 
Portable Multimeter $18 00 

Complete line ot AP Products in stock 

SPECIAL PRODUCTS 

MMS865 Stopwatch Timer 

with 10 pg spec 9 00 

PC board 7 50 

Switches Mom Pushbutton 27 

3 pos slide 25 

Encoder HD0165-5 6 95 

Paratromcs 
Model 10 Trigger 

Expander Kit $229 00 

Model 150 Bus 

Grabber Kit $369 00 

Clock Calendar Kit $23 95 

2 5 MHz Frequency 

Counter Kit $37 50 

30 MHi Frequency 

Counter Kit $47 75 

TRANSFORMERS 

6V 300 ma 3 25 

12 Voll 300 ma transformer 1 25 

12 6V CT 600 ma 3 75 

12V 250 ma wall plug 2 95 

12V CT 250 ma wall plug 3 75 

24V CT 100 ma 3 95 

10V 1 ? amp wall plug 4 85 

12V 6 amp 12 95 

12V 500 ma wall plug 4 7b 

12V 1 amp wall plug 6 bO 
10 lb VAC 8 16 VA wall plug 9 7b 

DISPLAY LEDS 

MAN1 CA 270 2 90 

MAN3 CC 12b 39 

MAN72 74 CA CA 300 

DL704 CC 300 

DL707DL707R CA 300 

OL 72 7 728 CA CC bOO 

DL747 7b0 CA CC 600 

FND3b9 CC 357 

FND500 507 CC CA 500 

FND503510 CC CA 500 

FND800 807 CC CA 800 

3 digit Bubble 
10 digit display 
7b?0 Clairen photocells 
TIL34 1 Hen 



MAN3640 CC 

MAN4610 CA 

MAN4640 CC 

MAN4710 CA 

MAN4740 CC 

MAN6640 CC 

MAN6710 CA 

MAN6740 CC 

MA1002A C. E 

MA1012A 

I02P3 transformer 

MA1012A Transformer 



1 00 
1 2b 
1 00 
1 90 
1 9b 
70 

1 3b 
90 

2 20 
60 

l 2b 
39 
9 bO 
i 10 
1 20 
1 20 
9b 

1 20 

2 9b 
1 3b 
1 3b 



DIP Switches 

4 position $ 9b 

5 position 1 00 
6-position 1 00 



7 position 1 00 

8 position 1 05 



4116 200ns Dynamic RAM 

8S18.40 



PROM Eraser 

assembled 25 PROM capacity $37.50 
(with timer $69.50) 6 PROM capacity 0SHA7 
UL version $69.50 (with timer $94.50) 

180 Microcomputer 

16 bit I/O, 2 MHz clock. 2K RAM. ROM Bread- 
board space Excellent for control. Bare Board 
$28.50. Full Kit $99.00. Monitor $20.00. Power 
Supply Kit $35.00. Tiny Basic $30.00 

S-100 Computer Boards 

8K Static Godbout Econo HA Kit 149.00 
16K Static Godbout Econo XIV Kit 269.00 
24K Static Godbout Econo XX-24 Kit 414.00 
32K Static Godbout Econo XX- 32 Kit 537.00 
16K Dynamic RAM Kit 289.00 

32K Dynamic RAM Kit 328.00 

64K Dynamic RAM Kit 399.00 

Video Interface Kit $161.00 

Color Video Kit 129.95 

81 IC Update Master Manual $79.95 

Com p. IC data selector. 2 vol master reference 
guide Over 51 ,000 cross references Free update 
service through 1981 Domestic postage $4.75 

Modem Kit $60.00 

State of the art, orig., answer No tuning neces- 
sary. 103 compatible 300 baud Inexpensive 
acoustic coupler plans included Bd only $17.00. 
Article in May Radio Electronics 

LRC 7000 I Printer $389.00 

64/40/32/20 column dot matrix impact, std. 
paper Interface all personal computers 

LRC 7000 printer interlace cable for Super Elf 
with software $35.00 



NiCad Battery Fixer/Charger Kit 

Opens shorted cells that won't hold a charge 
and then charges them up, all in one kit w/full 
parts and instructions. $9.95 

Rockwell AIM 65 Computer 

6502 based single board with full ASCII keyboard 
and 20 column thermal printer. 20 char, alphanu- 
meric display, ROM monitor, fully expandable. 
$405.00. 4K version $450.00. 4K Assembler 
$85.00, 8K Basic Interpreter $100.00 

Special small power supply for AIM65 assem. in 
frame $54.00. Complete AIM65 in thin briefcase 
with power supply $499.00. Molded plastic 
enclosure to fit both AIM65 and power supply 
$47.50. Special Package Pnce: 4K AIM, 8K Basic, 
power supply, cabinet $625.00. 

AIM65/KIM/VIM/Super Elf 44 pin expansion 
board; 3 female and 1 male bus. Board plus 3 
connectors $22.95. 

60 Hz Crystal Time Base Kit $4.40 

Converts digital clocks from AC line frequency 
to crystal time base Outstanding accuracy. 

Video Modulator Kit $9.95 

Convert TV set into a high quality monitor w/o 
affecting usage. Comp. kit w/full mstruc. 

Multi-volt Computer Power Supply 

8v 5 amp, ±18v .5 amp, 5v 1.5 amp, -5v 
.5 amp, 12v .5 amp, -12v option. ±5v, ±12v 
are regulated. Basic Kit $35.95. Kit with chassis 
and all hardware $51.95. Add $5.00 shipping. Kit 
of hardware $16.00. Woodgrain case $10.00. 
$1.50 shipping. 




RCA Cosmac 1802 Super Elf Computer $106.95 



Compare features before you decide to buy any 
other computer. There is no other computer on 
the market today that has all the desirable bene- 
fits of the Super Elf for so little money. The Super 
Elf is a small single board computer that does 
many big things. It is an excellent computer for 
training and for learning programming with its 
machine language and yet it is easily expanded 
with additional memory, Full Basic, ASCII 
Keyboards, video character generation, etc. 

Before you buy another small computer, see if it 
includes the following features: ROM monitor; 
State and Mode displays; Single step; Optional 
address displays; Power Supply; Audio Amplifier 
and Speaker; Fully socketed for all IC's; Real cost 
of in warranty repairs; Full documentation. 

The Super Elf includes a ROM monitor for pro- 
gram loading, editing and execution with SINGLE 
STEP for program debugging which is not in- 
cluded in others at the same price. With SINGLE 
STEP you can see the microprocessor chip opera- 
ting with the unique Quest address and data bus 
displays before, during and after executing in- 
structions. Also, CPU mode and instruction cycle 
are decoded and displayed on 8 LED indicators. 

An RCA 1861 video graphics chip allows you to 
connect to your own TV with an inexpensive video 
modulator to do graphics and games. There is a 
speaker system included for writing your own 
music or using many music programs already 
written. The speaker amplifier may also be used 
to drive relays for control purposes. 



plus load, reset, run, wait, input, memory pro- 
tect, monitor select and single step. Large, on 
board displays provide output and optional high 
and low address There is a 44 pin standard 
connector slot for PC cards and a 50 pin connec- 
tor slot for the Quest Super Expansion Board. 
Power supply and sockets for all IC's are in- 
cluded in the price plus a detailed 1 27 pg . instruc- 
tion manual which now includes over 40 pgs. of 
software info, including a series of lessons to 
help get you started and a music program and 
graphics target game. Many schools and univer- 
sities are using the Super Elf as a course of study. 
OEM's use it for training and R&D. 

Remember, other computers only offer Super Elf 
features at additional cost or not at all. Compare 
before you buy. Super Elf Kit $106.95, High 
address option $8.95, Low address option 
$9.95. Custom Cabinet with drilled and labelled 
plexiglass front panel $24.95. All metal Expan- 
sion Cabinet, painted and silk screened, with 
room for 5 S-100 boards and power supply 
$57.00. NiCad Battery Memory Saver Kit $6.95. 
All kits and options also completely assembled 
and tested. 

Questdata a software publication for 1802 com- 
puter users is available by subscription for 
$12.00 per 12 issues. Single issues $1.50. Is- 
sues 1-12 bound $16.50. 

Free 14 page brochure. 

Moews Video Graphics $3.50. Games and Music 
$3.00, Chip 8 Interpreter $5.50. 



A 24 key HEX keyboard includes 16 HEX keys 

Super Expansion Board with Cassette Interface $89.95 



This is truly an astounding value! This board has 
been designed to allow you to decide how you 
want it optioned. The Super Expansion Board 
comes with 4K of low power RAM fully address- 
able anywhere in 64K with built-in memory pro- 
tect and a cassette interface. Provisions have 
been made for all other options on the same 
board and it fits neatly into the hardwood cabinet 
alongside the Super Elf. The board includes slots 
for up to 6K of EPROM (2708, 2758, 2716 or Tl 
2716) and is fully socketed. EPROM can be used 
for the monitor and Tiny Basic or other purposes. 
A IK Super ROM Monitor $19.95 is available as 
an on board option in 2708 EPROM which has 
been preprogrammed with a program loader/ 
editor and error checking multi file cassette 
read/write software, (relocatable cassette file) 
another exclusive from Quest. It includes register 
save and readout, block move capability and 
video graphics driver with blinking cursor Break 



Quest Super Basic V5.0 

A new enhanced version of Super Basic now 
available. Quest was the first company 
worldwide to ship a full size Basic for 1802 
Systems. A complete function Super Basic by 
Ron Cenker including floating point capability 
with scientific notation (number range 
+ .17E 38 ), 32 bit integer ±2 billion; multi dim 
arrays, string arrays; string manipulation; cas- 



points can be used with the register save feature 
to isolate program bugs quickly, then follow with 
single step. If you have the Super Expansion 
Board and Super Monitor the monitor is up and 
running at the push of a button. 
Other on board options include Parallel Input 
and Output Ports with full handshake They 
allow easy connection of an ASCII keyboard to the 
input port RS 232 and 20 ma Current Loop for 
teletype or other device are on board and if you 
need more memory there are two S-100 slots for 
static RAM or video boards. Also a 1K Super 
Monitor version 2 with video driver for full capa- 
bility display with Tiny Basic and a video interface 
board Parallel I/O Ports $9.85, RS 232 $4.50, 
TTY 20 ma l/F $1.95, S-100 $4.50. A 50 pin 
connector set with ribbon cable is available at 
$15.25 for easy connection between the Super 
Elf and the Super Expansion Board. 
Power Supply Kit for the complete system (see 
Multi-volt Power Supply ). 



Ohio Scientific Computers 

CIP Series 2 $447.00. Like an Apple at less than 
half the price! CIPMF Series 2 $1199.00. 
Minifloppy version with additional RAM/ROM. 
Complete software and peripherals available. 
Send for free brochure. 



sette I/O; save and load, basic, data and ma- 
chine language programs; and over 7b state- 
ments, functions and operations. 
New improved faster version including re- 
number and essentially unlimited variables. 
Also, an exclusive user expandable command 
library. 

Serial and Parallel I/O included. 
Super Basic on Cassette $55.00. 



Gremlin Color Video Kit $69.95 

32 x 16 alpha/numerics and graphics, up to 8 
colors with 6847 chip; 1K RAM at EO00. Plugs 
into Super Elf 44 pin bus. No high res. graphics. 
On board RF Modulator Kit $4.95 



1802 16K Dynamic RAM Kit $149.00 

Expandable to 32K. Hidden refresh w/clocks up to 4 
MHz w/no wait states. Addl. 16K RAM $25.00 
Tiny Basic Extended on Cassette $15.00 

(added commands include Stringy, Array, Cas- 
sette I/O etc.) S-100 4-Slot Expansion $ 9.95 
Super Monitor VI. I Source Listing $15.00 



Elf II Adapter Kit $24.95 

Plugs into Elf II providing Super Elf 44 and 50 pin 
plus S-100 bus expansion. (With Super Ex- 
pansion). High and low address displays, state 
and mode LED s optional $18.00. 



Super Color S-100 Video Kit $129.95 

Expandable to 256 x 192 high resolution color 
graphics 6847 with all display modes computer 
controlled. Memory mapped 1K RAM expanda- 
ble to 6K . S- 1 00 bu s 1 802 . 8080 . 8085 . Z80 etc . 

Dealers: Send for excellent pricing/margin 
program. 

Editor Assembler $25.00 

(Requires minimum of 4K for E/A plus user 

source) 

1802 Tiny Basic Source listing $19.00 

Super Monitor V2.0/2.1 Source Listing $20.00 



TERMS: $5.00 min. order U.S. Funds. Calif residents add 6% tax. 

$10.00 min. BankAmencard and Master Charge accepted. $1.00 insurance optional. 
Postage: Add 5%. COD. $10.00 min. order. 



FREE: Send for your copy of our NEW 1981 
QUEST CATALOG. Include 48c stamp. 



-See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 177 



TRS-80 
SERIAL I/O 

• Can input into basic 

• Can use LLIST and 
LPRINT to output, or 
output continuously • 
RS-232 compatible • 
Can be used with or 
without the expansion 
bus • On board switch 
selectable baud rates 
of 1 1 0, 1 50. 300. 600. 
1 200. 2400. parity or 
no parity odd or even. 
5 to 8 data bits, and 1 
or 2 stop bits. D.T.R. 
line • Requires +5. 
-12 VDC • Board only 
$19.95 Part No. 8010. 
with parts $76.69 Part 
No. 801 OA. assembled 
$98.25 Part No. 8010 
C. No connectors pro- 
vided, see below. 




GAME PADDLES 

& SOUND 
FOR TRS-80 




Includes: 2 game pad- 
dles, interface, soft- 
ware, speaker, power 
supply, full documen- 
tation including: sche- 
matics, theory of 
operation, and user 
guide; plus 2 games on 
cassette, Pong and 
Starship War $157.29 
Complete Part No. 
7922C 



EIA/ RS-232 connec- 
tor Part No DB25P 
$6 00 with 9. 8 con- 
ductor cable S19 65 
Part No DB25P9 





3 ribbon cable with at 
tached connectors to fit 
TRS-80 and our serial 
board $3710 Part No 
3CAB40 



SERIAL/ 
PARALLEL 
INTERFACE 




VIDEO TERMINAL 




16 lines. 64 columns • 
Upper and lower case 

• 5x7 dot matrix • Se- 
rial RS-232 in and out 
with TTL parallel 
keyboard input • On 
board baud rate 
generator 75. 110. 
150, 300. 600. & 
1200 jumper select- 
able • Memory 1024 
characters (7-21 L02) 

• Video processor chip 
SFF96364 by Necu- 
lonic • Control char- 
acters (CR, LF. -*, «-, 
f , i. non destructive 
cursor. CS. home. CL 

• White characters on 
black background or 
vice-versa • With the 
addition of a key- 
board, video monitor 
or TV set with TV 
interface (part no. 
107A) and power 
supply this is a com- 
plete stand alone 
terminal -also S-100 
compatible • requires 
+ 16. & -16 VDC at 
100mA. and 8VDC at 
1A Part No. 1000A 

$296.45 kit. 



• Converts serial to 
parallel and parallel to 
serial • Low cost on 
board baud rate gener- 
ator* 110to19.2K • 
Low power drain +5 
volts and -12 volts 
required • TTL com- 
patible • All characters 
contain a start bit. 5 
to 8 data bits. 1 or 2 
stop bits, and either 
odd or even parity. • All 
connections go to a 44 
pin gold plated edge 
connector • Board only 
$11.95 Part No. 101. 
with parts $42. 89 Part 
No. 101 A. 44 pin edge 
connector $4.00 Part 
No. 44P 



MODEM 




• Type 103 •Full or half 
duplex • Works up to 
300 baud • Originate 
or Answer • Serial TTL 
input and output • con- 
nect 8 11 speaker and 
crystal mic. directly to 
board • Requires +5 
volts • Board only $7.60 
Part No. 1 09, with parts 
$29.95 Part No. 109 A. 



OPTO ISOLATED PARALLEL INPUT 

BOARD FOR APPLE II 

There are 8 inputs that 
can be driven from 
TTL logic or any 5 volt 
source. The circuit 
board can be plugged 
into any of the 8 sockets 
of your Apple II. It has 
a 16 pin socket for 
standard dip ribbon 
cable connection. 
Board only $15.65 
1 20, with parts $69.95. Part No. 1 20A. 




SUPER MODEM 

Originate, RS-232 and 
20 mA compatable. Full 
duplex, and half duplex, 
direct connect or a- 
coustic coupled, on 
board power supply.car- 
ner detect light. DB25 plug. 300 BAUD. Type 
103 compatable frequencies. Bare board Part 
No. 2000 $21 .89. Kit Part No. 2000A $1 33.80 




8K EPROM SAVER 



O • • • • 



• Programs 2708's address relocation of each 
4K of memory to any 4K boundary • Power on 
jump and reset jump option for "turnkey" 
systems and computers without a front panel 

• Program saver software in 1 2708 EPROM 
$25. Bare board $45.59 including custom coil, 
board with parts but no EPROMS $1 64.69. 




APPLE II 
SERIAL I/O 
INTERFACE 



Baud rate is continuously adjustable from 
to 30.000 • Plugs into any peripheral 
connector • Low current drain. RS-232 input 
and output • On board switch selectable 5 to 
8 data bits, 1 or 2 stop bits, and parity or no 
parity either odd or even • Jumper selectable 
address • SOFTWARE • Input and Output 
routine from monitor or BASIC to teletype or 
other serial printer • Program for using an 
Apple II for a video or an intelligent terminal. 
Also can output in correspondence code to 
interface with some selectrics. • Also 
watches DTR • Board only $14.95 Part No. 
2. with parts $51 .25 Part No. 2A, assembled 
$62.95 Part No. 2C 




PARALLEL 

TRIAC OUTPUT 

BOARD FOR 

APPLE II 

This board has 8 tnacs capable of switching 
110 volt 6 amp loads (660 watts per channel) or a 
total of 5280 watts. Board only $1 5 .65 Part No. 
210, with parts $1 1 9.95 Part No. 21 OA 



APPLE II 
PROTOTYPING 
HOBBY/CARD 

Part No. 7907 
$21.95 

RS-232/20mA 
INTERFACE 

This board has two 
passive, opto-isola- 
ted circuits. One con- 
verts RS-232 to 
20mA, the other con- 
verts 20mA to RS- 
232. All connections 
go to a 10 pin edge 
connector. Requires 
+12 and -12 volts. 
Board only $9.95. 
part no. 7901, with 
parts $14.95 Part 
No. 7901A. 



TAPE 
INTERFACE 







TV. INTERFACE 




• Converts a low cost 
tape recorder to a 
digital recorder • Works 
up to 1200 baud •Dig- 
ital in and out are TTL- 
serial • Output of 
board connects to mic. 
in of recorder • Ear- 
phone of recorder con- 
nects to input on board 

• No coils • Requires 
+ 5 volts, low power 
drain • Board only 
$7.60 Part No. 111. 
with parts $29. 95Part 
No. 111A 



• Converts video to 
AM modulated RF. 
Channels 2 or 3. So 
powerful almost no 
tuning is required. On 
board regulated power 
supply makes this ex- 
tremely stable. Rated 
very highly in Doctor 
Dobbs' Journal. Recom- 
mended by Apple • 
Power required is 1 2 
volts AC C.T.. or +5 
volts DC • Board only 
$8.19 part No. 107. 
with parts $18.85 Part 
No. 107A 



RS-232/TTL 
INTERFACE 




• Converts TTL to RS- 
232. and converts RS- 
232 to TTL • Two se- 
parate circuits • Re- 
quires -12 and +12 
volts • All connections 
go to a 10 pin edge 
connector, kit $9.95 Part 
No.232A 1 0Pin edge con- 
nector $3.00 part No. 
10P. 



S-100 BUS ACTIVE TERMINATOR 




Board only $18.1 5 Part No. 900, with parts 
$29.89 Part No. 900A. 



SERIAL I/O 




Four Serial I/O RS-232 
ports. S-100 Bus. Soft- 
ware or jumper selectable 
baud rate (1 10. 300, 600. 
1 200, 2400, 4800. 9600, 
1 9.2K), on board Xtal baud 
rate generator. Address- 
ing, switch selectable, 
Parity or no panty (odd or 
even) switch selectable, 1 
or 2 stop bits. 5 to 8 
bits/character. Board only 
$35.19 Part No. 7908. 
With parts (kit) $199.95, 
Part No. 7908A. 



RS-232/TTY 
INTERFACE 




«i»r *>e too 

This board has two 
active circuits, one con- 
verts RS-232 to 20 m A 
the other converts 20 
mA to RS-232. Re- 
quires +12 and -12 
volts. $9.95 Part No. 
600A Kit. 



Send for FREE catalog ... a big self-addressed envelope with 86$ postage gets it fastest 1 



To Order: 





Mention part no., description, and price. In USA shipping paid by us for orders accompanied by check or money 
order. We accept C.O.D. orders (U.S. only) or a VISA or Master Charge no., expiration date, signature and phone 
no., shipping charges will be added. CA residents add 6.5°/o for tax. Outside USA add 1 5°/o for air mail postage 
and handling. Payment must be in U.S. dollars. Dealer inquiries invited. Prices subject to change without notice. 



ORDER LINE: (408) 226-4064 



ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Dept Ka R0 Box 1822 °- San Jose - CA USA 95158 



^47 



178 Microcomputing, July 1981 



Why use their flexible discs, 

Ampex, Athana, BASF, Caelus, Control Data, Dysan, 

IBM, Inmac, K-Line, Maxell, Nashua, Scotch, 

Shugart, Syncom, 3M, Verbatim or Wabash 

when you could be using 




for as low as $1.99 each? 

Find the flexible disc you're now using on our cross reference list... 

then write down the equivalent Memorex part number you should be ordering. 



Product Family 


■ - - 

Product Description 


Part Number 
(3*01 » 


CE quant. 

10O pric. 
p.rdlic{$) 


Ampe* 


athana 


Net* 


Ceetua 


Dysan 


IBM 


K Line 


Maiea 


Neehoa 


Scotch 
3M 


Shugan 


Syncom 


verbetlm 


Wabaeh 




Control 
Date 




IBM Compatible 1 1 78 B S ?8 sectoral 


3060 


2 19 


SF0 111110 


473071 


53428 


CM- HI 


80O5O6 


2305830 


40013 


F01 178 


FO-l 


740-0 


S'A 100 


15002 


FD341000 


Fl 11 1 1 IX 


7870 K 


471802 


Flenble OIK 1 • 


IBM Compatible ' ' 78 B'S ?6 aectorsl * ¥V P N 


3067 


224 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 


. 


740-0 
















IBM Compatible 1 1 28 B S 28 sectors) w/ w P N t Hub ring 


3064 


2.55 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


























Single HearMd Dr. vet 


IBM Compatible <I28 B S 26 secloisl REVERSIBLE 


1728 


3.35 


SF0 113110 


473072 


54431 


- 


_ 




40015 


_ 


F0 7 


740/7 




15150 


FF 34 2000 


F1711IIX 


7860 K 




Single Density Media 


IBM System 8 Compatible 


3068 


2.19 


- 


473077 


S4S81 




800509 


1669959 


40014 


- 


— 


740-0 036 




15003 


F06O-10O0 


Fl 161 1 IX 








IBM Compatible <?56 8 S ' 5 aectorsl 


3109 


2.19 


SFD-n 1210 


473073 


- 


- 


800584 


7305845 


40040 


- 


- 


740 3600 


_ 


15005 


F 036 1000 


FI121 1 IX 


7861 K 






IBM Compatible 1517 B-S 8 sectors) 


3110 


2 19 


- 


473074 


- 


- 


800565 


1669954 


40044 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


15004 


F060-1000 


F113I1IX 


7689 K 






Snuga't Compatible 3? hard sector 


3015 


2 19 


SFO-211010 


470901 


53602 


CM F21 


101 '1 


- 


40016 


FH1 3? 


F0 137 


740-32 


S/A 101 


15025 


F 032 1000 




7890-K 


42137? 




Snugert Compatible 37 hard sector REVERSIBLE 


3075 


335 


5FO-213O10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


40017 


- 


_ 


740'2 32 


_ 


15151 


FF32 2000 




7B80K 






Wang Compatible 3? hard sectoi w Hub nig 


3087 


250 


- 


- 


54491 


- 


- 


- 




_ 


_ 


740-32RM 








F37A41IX 








CPT 8000 Compatible 


3045 


279 


- 


- 


- 






- 






- 


- 


- 


15226 


_ 








FieiaM. Oik K 


IBM Cumpatible 1178 B'S 76 sectors) 


3000 


2.95 


SF0-121010 


474071 


54568 




3740 ID 


- 


4004 7 


FD1-178/M210O 


FD-1D 


741 






F0348000 


FI3I 1 1 IX 


7857 K 


423002 




Soil Sector 1128 B S 28 sectors) REVERSIBLE 


3093 


399 


- 


- 


_ 




- 


_ 






















Single-Headed Di.ves 


Shugan Compatible 37 hard sector 


3091 


295 


5FD2710I0 


470801 


54596 


- 


101/10 




40074 


f HI 370 




741 J2 


S A 103 


15075 


FD32 8O00 


F33A4I0X 


7887 K 


423322 


Double Density Media 


Snugait Compatible 37 hard sectoi REVERSIBLE 


3094 


3.99 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 
























vVang Compatible 32 hard sector w/H u b ring 


3088 


3.20 




- 


- 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


F22A411X 




_ 


Fie. tola Disc 2s 


Sell Sector lUntoimatted) 

Soil Sector 1128 B S 26 sectors) 


3101 
3113 


3.84 
3 84 


— 


- 


54478 




800814 


l 768870 


- 








S A IK) 


11111 


FO 10 4026 


FIJIIIIX 






Double Headed Dimes 


Soil Sector 1756 BS IS sectors) 


3106 


3.84 


- 


47347? 


54226 




aooeis 


7736700 


40043 


F02 7560 


_ 


742-0 




15154 


F0I0-401S 


FI27111X 


7856 K 


424612 


Single Density Media 


1? Ha'd Sector 


3108 


3.84 







- 


- 


- 








FH? 3? 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 






Fle.rble Disc 2d 


Soft Sector (Unformatted) 


3107 


3.49 


" 


473485 




- 


DY150 




40078 


FD7X0M 


FD70 


743-0 




ISI03 


0034 4001 






425002 




Soil Sector 1 128 B'S 26 sectoral 


3MS 


3.49 




- 


- 






- 


_ 


_ 


_ 




S A ,50 












Double -Headed Drives 


Soil Sector I 256 B S 26 sectors) 


3103 


349 


- 


473471 


54325 


- 


80081 7 


176687? 


4O0I9 


FO? 2560 


_ 


743-0'?56 




15101 


0034 4026 


F 1 44 1 1 1 X 


78S8 K 


425602 


Double Density Media 


Soft Sector ' 111 B'S IS sectorsl 


31 14 


3 49 




473472 


544 79 


- 


600818 


1669044 


40039 


- 


- 


743 0/S12 


_ 


15100 


0034 4015 


F145I 1 IX 




42561? 




Soil Sector H074 B/S. 8 sectoral 


3104 


349 


- 


473473 


54485 


- 


800819 


1669045 


40070 


- 


_ 


743-0/1024 


_ 


15102 


0034 4008 


F147I 1 IX 


7859-K 


425672 




32 Hard Sector 


3105 


3.49 


SF0 321010 


4 7005 1 




- 


101/20 


- 


40071 


FH? 370 


_ 


743-32 


S/A-151 


15125 


0032-4000 


F34A411X 


788f«. 


425322 




Burroughs B-80 Compatible 3? Hard Sector 


309? 


3.49 


























































— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


F34A61 IX 


— 


_ 




Soil Sector 11074 B'S 8 sectoral * Hub Ring 


3116 


375 






- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


Flealbte Disc FO 
Memorei 651 or Equiv 

Drive Compatible 


FO VI (Vinyl Jacket) 


30717003 


2 95 


- 


470851 


- 


CM-F31 


FDIV 


- 


4000? 


- 


F0 165 


511-0 


- 


15026 


F 065 '000 


F61A1IIX 


7910 


- 


MM Fleilkte Olac 1* 


Soft Sector lUnlormattedl 


3401 


1 99 


- 


475001 


54256 


- 


104/1 


_ 


40500 


M01 


M0 1 


744-0 


S'A 104 


15300 


M0S2S-01 


Ml IA211X 


7897 




5 . Single HearMd 
Drives 


to Hard Sac lor 


3403 


1 99 


- 


475010 


54757 


- 


107/1 


- 


40501 


- 


M0 110 


744-10 


S/A- 107 


15325 


M0525-10 


M4IA21IX 


7898 


441102 


Single Density Media 


18 Hard Sector 


3405 


1 99 


- 


475016 


54258 


- 


105/1 


- 


4050? 


MH1 


MO 116 


74418 


S/A 105 


15326 


M0525 16 


M5IA71 IX 


7899 


441 162 




Sott Sector (Unformatted) vV Hob Ring 


3431 


2 19 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




M057S-01 










10 Hard Sector w/Mub Ring 


3433 


2 19 


-' 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


MO52S-10 










16 Herd Sector. w/Hub Ring 


3435 


2.19 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 




- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


M0S25-16 








MM FieaMe. Mac 1 e 


Soil Sector 


3417 


2.24 


- 


- 


54646 


- 


104/10 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 








MD540-01 








S. Single Headed 


10 Hard Sector 


3418 


224 


- 


- 


54649 


- 


107M0 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 






M0540-10 








Double Density Media 


< 6 Hard Sector 


3419 


2.24 


- 


- 


54652 


- 


105/10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


M0540 16 


- 


- 


- 


MM FlesWle Dlac la 


Soft Sector 


3421 


2.74 


- 


- 


54624 


- 


104/20 


_ 


_ 


MO2-0 




748-0 


S/A- 1S4 




MOSSO-01 








5 . Double-Headed 


10 Ha'd Sector 


3473 


2.74 


- 


- 


54627 


- 


107/20 


- 


- 


- 


• 


748-10 


S'A-157 




MD550 10 








Double Density Media 


16 Hard Sector 


3475 


274 






54630 




105'7D 


— 




MH2-0 




745-16 


S'A 165 


- 


MOSSO 16 


- 


- 


- 



Memorex Flexible Discs.. .The Ultimate in Memory Excellence 



■EMM 



Quality 

Memorex means quality products that you can depend on. 
Quality control at Memorex means starting with the best 
materials available. Continual surveillance throughout the 
entire manufacturing process. The benefit of Memorex's years 
of experience in magnetic media production, resulting, for 
instance, in proprietary coating formulations. The most sophis- 
ticated testing procedures you'll find anywhere in the business. 

100 Percent Error Free 

Each and every Memorex Flexible Disc is certified to be 100 
percent error free. Each track of each flexible disc is tested, 
individually, to Memorex's stringent standards of excellence. 
They test signal amplitude, resolution, low-pass modulation, 
overwrite, missing pulse error and extra pulse error. They are 
torque-tested, and competitively tested on drives available 
from almost every major drive manufacturer in the industry 
including drives that Memorex manufacturers. Rigid quality 
audits are built into every step of the manufacturing process 
and stringent testing result in a standard of excellence that 
assures you, our customer, of a quality product designed for 
increased data reliability and consistent top performance. 

Customer-Oriented Packaging 

Memorex's commitment to excellence does not stop with a 
quality product. They are proud of their flexible discs and they 
package them with pride. Both their packaging and their 
labeling have been designed with your ease of identification 
and use in mind. The desk-top box containing ten discs is 
convenient for filing and storage. Both box labels and jacket 
labels provide full information on compatibility, density, sec- 
toring, and record length. Envelopes with multi-language care 
and handling instructions and color-coded removable labels 
are included. A write-protect feature is available to provide 
data security. 

Full One Year Warranty — Your Assurance of Quality 
Memorex Flexible Discs will be replaced free of charge by 
Memorex if they are found to be defective in materials or 
workmanship within one year of the date of purchase. Other 
than replacement, Memorex will not be responsible for any 
damages or losses (including consequential damages) caused 
by the use of Memorex Flexible Discs. 



Quantity Discounts Available 

Memorex Flexible Discs are packed 10 discs to a carton and 
10 cartons to a case. Please order only in increments of 100 
units for quantity 100 pricing. We are also willing to accom- 
modate your smaller orders. Quantities less than 1 00 units are 
available in increments of 10 units at a 10% surcharge. 
Quantity discounts are also available. Order 500 or more 
discs at the same time and deduct 1%; 1 ,000 or more saves 
you 2%; 2,000 or more saves you 3%; 5,000 or more saves you 
5%; 1 0,000 or more saves you 7%; 25,000 or more saves you 
8%; 50,000 or more saves you 9% and 1 00,000 or more discs 
earns you a 1 0% discount off our super low quantity 1 00 price. 
Almost all Memorex Flexible Discs are immediately available 
from CE. Our warehouse facilities are equipped to help us get 
you the quality product you need, when you need it. If you need 
further assistance to find the flexible disc that's right for you, 
call the Memorex compatibility hotline. Dial 800-538-8080 
and ask for the flexible disc hotline extension 0997. In California 
dial 800-672-3525 extension 0997. 

Buy with Confidence 

To get the fastest delivery from CE of your Memorex Flexible Discs, 
send or phone your order directly to our Computer Products 
Division. Be sure to calculate your price using the CE prices in this 
ad. Michigan residents please add 4% sales tax. Written purchase 
orders are accepted from approved government agencies and 
most well rated firms at a 1 0% surcharge for net 1 billing. All sales 
are subject to availability. All sales are final. Prices, terms and 
specifications are subject to change without notice. Out of stock 
items will be placed on backorder automatically unless CE is 
instructed differently. International orders are invited with a $20.00 
surcharge for special handling in addition to shipping charges. All 
shipments are FOB. Ann Arbor, Michigan. No COD's please. Non- 
certified and foreign checks require bank clearance. 

Mail orders to: Communications Electronics, Box 1002, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 48 1 06 U.S. A. Add $8.00 per case or partial-case of 
100 8-inch discs or $6.00 per case of 100 5 '/.-inch mini-discs for 
UPS. ground shipping and handling in the continental U.S.A. If you 
have a Master Charge or Visa card, you may call anytime and place 
a credit card order. Order toll-free in the United States. Call 
anytime 800-521-4414. If you are outside the U.S. or in Michigan, 
dial 313-994-4444. Dealer inquiries invited All order lines at 
Communications Electronics are staffed 24 hours. 

Copyright 1981 Communications Electronics'" 




MKiwa ■ejeti.xitlet.ies 




VISA 



master charge 



Order Toll-Free! 
(800)521-4414 




For Data Reliability— Memorex Flexible Discs 




TM 



COMMUNICATIONS 
ELECTRONICS" 



#^376 



Computer Products Division 

854 Phoenix □ Box 1 002 D Ann Arbor, Michigan 48 1 06 U.S.A. 
Cell TOLL-FREE (BOO) 521 441 4 or outside U.S.A. (31 3) 994-4444 



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DIGITAL RESEARCH COMPUTERS 

(214) 271-3538 



32K S-100 EPROM CARD 
NEW! 




$79.95 



SPECIAL: 2716 EPROM s (450 N 

KIT FEATURES: 
1 Uses +5V only 2716 (2Kx8) EPROMs 
2. Allows up to 32K of software on line! 
3 IEEE S-100 Compatible 
4. Addressable as two independent 16K 
blocks 

5 Cromemco extended or Northstar bank 
select 

6 On board wait state circuitry if needed 



USES 2716s 

Blank PC Board - $34 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 
ADD $30 



S) Are $9.95 Ea. With Above Kit. 

7. Any or all EPROM locations can be 

disabled. 
8 Double sided PC board, solder-masked, 

silk-screened 
9. Gold plated contact fingers 

10. Unselected EPROMs automatically 
powered down for low power. 

11. Fully buffered and bypassed. 

12. Easy and quick to assemble. 



32K SS-50 RAM 



$ 329 



For 2MHZ 
Add $10 



Blank PC Board 
$50 



^ 



For SWTPC 
6800 - 6809 Buss 



Support IC's 

and Caps 

$19.95 

Complete Socket Set 

$21.00 



16K STATIC RAM KIT-S 100 BUSS 



PRICE CUT! 



- s ' rp, 




3lii II ii li I H 1 1" 
lllillllliliiilli 



Fully Assembled, 

Tested, Burned In 

Add $30 



At Last! An affordable 32K Static RAM with full 
6809 Capability. 

FEATURES: 

1. Uses proven low power 2114 Static RAMS. 

2. Supports SS50C - EXTENDED ADDRESSING. 

3. All parts and sockets included. 

4. Dip Switch address select as a 32K block. 

5. Extended addressing can be disabled. 

6. Works with all existing 6800 SS50 systems. 

7. Fully bypassed. PC Board is double sided, 
plated thru, with silk screen. 



16K STATIC RAM SS-50 BUSS 



PRICE CUT! 






KIT FEATURES 

1 Addressable as four separate 4K Blocks. 

2 ON BOARD BANK SELECT circuitry (Cro- 
memco Standard 1 ) Allows up to 512K on line! 

3 Uses 2114 (450NS) 4K Static Rams 

4 ON BOARD SELECTABLE WAIT STATES 

5 Double sided PC Board, with solder mask and 
silk screened layout Gold plated contact fingers 

6 All address and data lines fully buffered 
7. Kit includes ALL parts and sockets 

8 PHANTOM is jumpered to PIN 67 

9 LOW POWER under 1.5 amps TYPICAL from 
the +8 Volt Buss 

10. Blank PC Board can be populated as any 
multiple of 4K. 



BLANK PC BOARD W/DATA-$33 
LOW PROFILE SOCKET SET-$12 

SUPPORT IC'S & CAPS-$19.95 
ASSEMBLED & TESTED-ADD $35 




m 1 
IIIElillllllll 



■ 






lllllllllllll 



FULLY STATIC! 



FOR 2MHZ 
ADD $10 



f^fJT^Jf^' 



OUR #1 SELLING 
RAM BOARD! 



^c>n\ STEREO! A^, 

S-100 SOUND COMPUTER BOARD 



COMPLETE KIT! 

$3495 

(WITH DATA MANUAL) 



At last, an S-100 Board that unleashes the full power of two 
unbelievable General Instruments AY3-8910NMOS computer 
sound IC's Allows you under total computer control to 
generate an infinite number of special sound effects for 
games or any other program Sounds can be called in BASIC, 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE, etc 
KIT FEATURES: 

TWO Gl SOUND COMPUTER IC'S 

FOUR PARALLEL I/O PORTS ON BOARD 

USES ON BOARD AUDIO AMPS OR YOUR STEREO. 

ON BOARD PROTO TYPING AREA 

ALL SOCKETS, PARTS AND HARDWARE ARE INCLUDED 

* PC BOARD IS SOLDERMASKED, SILK SCREENED, WITH GOLD CONTACTS. 

* EASY, QUICK, AND FUN TO BUILD WITH FULL INSTRUCTIONS 

* USES PROGRAMMED I/O FOR MAXIMUM SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY 
Both Basic and Assembly Language Programming examples are included. 

SOFTWARE: 

SCL™ is now available! Our Sound Command Language makes writing Sound Effects programs 
a SNAP! SCL™ also includes routines for Register-Examine-Modify, Memory-Examine-Modify, 
and Play-Memory. SCL" is available on CP/M* compatible diskette or 2708 or 2716. Diskette 
$24.95 2708 - $19.95 2716 - $29.95. Diskette includes the source. EPROMS are ORG at 
E000H 



FOR SWTPC 
6800 BUSS! 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED - $35 



KIT FEATURES 

1 Addressable on 16K Boundaries 

2 Uses 2114 Static Ram 

3 Fully Bypassed 

4 Double sided PC Board Solder ma 
and silk screened layout 

5 All Parts and Sockets included 

6 Low Power Under 15 Amps Typical 



BLANK PC BOARD— $35 COMPLETE SOCKET SET— $12 

SUPPORT IC'S AND CAPS— $19.95 



* 
* 



BLANK PC 

BOARD W/DATA 

$31 



SPECIAL PURCHASE! 

U ART SALE! 

TR1 602B — SAME AS TMS601 1 , 
AY5-1 01 3, ETC. 40 PIN DIP 



TR1602B 



EACH 



4For $ 10 ( 



4K STATIC RAM 

National Semi. MM5257. Arranged 4K x 1. +5V, 18 PIN DIP. A 
Lower Power, Plug in Replacement for TMS 4044. 450 NS. 
Several Boards on the Market Will Accept These Rams. SUPER 
SURPLUS PURCHASE! PRIME NEW UNITS! 

8 for $16 32 for $59.95 



CRT CONTROLLER CHIP 
SMC #CRT 5037. PROGRAMMABLE FOR 80 x 24, ETC. VERY RARE 
SURPLUS FIND. WITH PIN OUT. $12.95 EACH. 



Digital Research Computers 

^ (OF TEXAS) ■ 

P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-3538 



NEW! G.I. COMPUTER SOUND CHIP 

AY3-8910 As featured in July. 1979 BYTE! A fantastically powerful Sound & Music 
Generator Perfect for use with any 8 Bit Microprocessor Contains 3 Tone Channels. 
Noise Generator, 3 Channels of Amplitude Control 16 bit Envelope Period Control, 2-8 
Bit Parallel I/O. 3 D to A Converters, plus much more 1 All in one 40 Pin DIP Super easy 
interface to the S-100 or other busses $11.95 PRICE CUT! 

SPECIAL OFFER: $ 1 4 . 95 each Add $3 for 60 page Data Manual. 



TERMS: Add $2.00 postage. We pay balance Orders under $15 add 75C 
handling. No COD. We accept Visa and MasterCharge. Tex. Res. add 5% 
Tax. Foreign orders (except Canada) add 20% P & H. Orders over $50, add 
85$ for insurance. 



'TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH. 



WE ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA, THE SUPPLfERS OF CPM SOFTWARE. 



"THE BIG BOARD" 

OEM - INDUSTRIAL - BUSINESS - SCIENTIFIC 

SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER KIT! 

Z-80 CPU! 64K RAM! 




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*„* * » * * 
*^»^* * * » 



THE FERGUSON PROJECT: Three years in the works, and maybe too good to be true. A tribute to hard headed, 
no compromise, high performance, American engineering! The Big Board gives you all the most needed 
computing features on one board at a very reasonable cost. The Big Board was designed from scratch to run the 
latest version of CP/M*. Just imagine all the off-the-shelf software that can be run on the Big Board without any 
modifications needed! Take a Big Board, add a couple of 8 inch disc drives, power supply, an enclosure, C.R.T., 
and you have a total Business System for about 1/3 the cost you might expect to pay. 

fully socketed! FEATURES: (Remember, all this on one board!) 



$649 



(64K KIT 
BASIC I/O) 



SIZE: 8% x 13 3 /4 IN. 
SAME AS AN 8 IN. DRIVE. 
REQUIRES: 5V @ 3 AMPS 
♦ - 12V @ .5 AMPS. 



64K RAM 



Uses industry standard 4116 RAM'S. All 64K is available to the user, our VIDEO 
and EPROM sections do not make holes in system RAM. Also, very special care 
was taken in the RAM array PC layout to eliminate potential noise and glitches. 



Z-80 CPU 



24 x 80 CHARACTER VIDEO 



With a crisp, flicker-free display that looks extremely sharp e»en on small 
monitors. Hardware scroll and full cursor control. Composite video or split video 
and sync. Character set is supplied on a 2716 style ROM. making customized 
fonts easy. Sync pulses can be any desired length or polarity. Video may be 
inverted or true. 5x7 Matrix - Upper & Lower Case 



Running at 2.5 MHZ. Handles all 4116 RAM refresh and supports Mode 2 
INTERUPTS. Fully buffered and runs 8080 software. 



FLOPPY DISC CONTROLLER 



SERIAL I/O (OPTIONAL) 



Full 2 channels using the Z80 SIO and the SMC 81 16 Baud Rate Generator. FULL 
RS232. For synchronous or asynchronous communication. In synchronous 
mode, the clocks can be transmitted or received by a modem. Both channels can 
be set up for either data-communication or data-terminals. Supports mode 2 Int. 
Price tor tj parts and connectors: $85. 



Uses WD1771 controller chip with a TTL Data Separator for enhanced 
reliability. IBM 3740 compatible. Supports up to four 8 inch disc drives Directly 
compatible with standard Shugart drives such as the S A800 or SA801 . Drives can 
be configured for remote AC off-on. Runs CP/M* 2.2. 



TWO PORT PARALLEL I/O (OPTIONAL) 



Uses Z-80 PIO. Full 16 bits, fully buffered, bi-directional. User selectable hand 
shake polarity. Set of all parts and connectors for parallel I/O: $29.95 



BASIC I/O 



Consists of a separate parallel port (Z80 PIO) for use with an ASCII encoded 
keyboard for input. Output would be on the 80 x 24 Video Display. 



REAL TIME CLOCK (OPTIONAL) 



Uses Z-80 CTC. Can be configured as a Counter on Real Time Clock. Set of all 
parts: $14.95 



64K RAM KIT $370 00 

80 x 24 Video Kit 365.00 

Floppy Disk Controller Kit 235.00 

Z-80 CPU Kit 185 95 

SER & PAR. I/O 129 95 

S-100 Mother Board 45 00 

SUB TOTAL $1330.90 



SYSTEM COMPARISON 



Talk about bangs per buck! The prices shown for 
S100 kits were taken from the July 1980 BYTE. 
This will give some basis for comparison between 
the Big Board and a similar system implementa- 
tion on the S100 Buss. 



CP/M* 2.2 FOR BIG BOARD 



The popular CP/M* DOS. modified by MICRONIX 
SYSTEMS to run on Big Board is available for $150.00. 



PC BOARD 



Blank PC Board with Rom Set and Full Documentation. 

$199.00 



PFM 3.0 2K SYSTEM MONITOR 



The real power of the Big Board lies in its PFM 3.0 on board monitor. PFM commands include: Dump Memory, Boot CP/M*, Copy, Examine. Fill Memory. Test Memory Go To 
Read and Write I/O Ports, Disc Read (Drive, Track, Sector), and Search. PFM occupies one of the four 2716 EPROM locations provided. 
Z-80 is a Trademark of Zilog. 



Digital Research Computers 

^^ tr%c TPY AC\ 



(OF TEXAS) 



P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-3538 



TERMS: Shipments will be made approximately 3 to 6 weeks after we 
receive your order. VISA, MC, cash accepted. We will accept COD's (for the 
Big Board only) with a $75 deposit. Balance UPS COD. Add$3.00shipping. 



'TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH. 



NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA, THE ORIGINATORS OF CPM SOFTWARE 
"1 TO 4 PIECE DOMESTIC USA PRICE. 




Logic Probe Kit. 

L $1795 



APPLE CARDSfAPPLE 1 1 PIUS 



» 



Complata aa»»-te- 

tallaw iritruclioni 
halp mall* thi» a 
ana-night praiect 



124 



•s 



FOR $ 1615each 



■j/IH 



IS" Super 

*SALE* 



74LS00 


26 


74LS155 


115 


74LS02 


26 


74LS156 


75 


74LS03 


26 


74LS160 


95 


74LS04 


26 


74LS161 


66 


74LS08 


28 


74LS162 


95 


74LS09 


26 


74LS163 


160 


74LS10 


.26 


74LS164 


65 


74LS20 


26 


74LS165 


65 


74LS21 


26 


74LS170 


175 


74LS22 


26 


74LS174 


.75 1 


74LS26 


.49 


74LS175 


.75 


74LS27 


26 


74LS190 


75 


74LS30 


26 


74LS193 




74LS32 


32 


74LS195 




74LS38 


32 


74LS196 




74LS42 


65 


74LS221 


i4q 


74LS48 


.78 


74LS240 


165 


MLS 51 


.25 


74LS241 


1.63 



74LS54 




74LS243 


145 1 


74LS74 


.36 


74LS244 


145 


74LS75 


.60 


74LS245 


225 


74LS83 


.44 


74LS253 


96 


74LS85 


96 


74LS257 


96 


74LS86 


.96 


74LS2S8 


96 


74LS90 
74LS93 


.69 
.69 


74LS259 

74LS279 


285 
.44 


74LS107 


.45 


74LS283 


100 


74LS112 


.36 


74LS293 


1.85 


74LS113 


.48 


74LS298 


1 20 


74LS122 


.46 


74LS366 


.95 


74LS123 


.95 


74LS367 


.55 


74LS126 


69 


74LS366 


.55 


74LS138 


69 


74LS373 


139 


74LS151 


44 


74LS374 


1.39 


74LS153 


.44 


74LS366 


.65 I 



PARALLEL _^ f(NII 
CAN mm 

INTEGER ii 

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25.1 




ISM5832 MICROPROCESSOR REAL-TIME 

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It** M&M5SJJ « a "*o«oii 



\EPSON MX- 

*560Po "> 



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to. Mtn MM * c ovtaaO »■' IO 
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S 0»» 0» Wit. 0»'» MONTH ana »« »» DM ac 
<• conl'OMd D» • e»« ■—■Ml clt* IMti 'MO •'••• aoo 
.npula OT twnchona >ncKid» IJH ?an to*ma' aolOCI*)" 
jH iao~l ' r tl n- a~TT ~a-nB - 10 aacond tfl"«W 
•w »SWtV ««x«<t I— im ••<»<• a 4 wll »* I M 'l 

Mjck ua iwaai am aw to 7 ? .ona Ho w com.n M oaor 
aaa"t ««w "a." po—l' . o. Om toat <nput 'at " 
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video 
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4S/f-{l1'. 

cS4/c-*13! 

W/PURCHASE OF 
APPLE RECEIVE 
SPECIAL PRICING: 

IASE II PRIOTER — *.1J." 

DISKIIi/Ciit.-^j595.M 
DISK II «/• Ciit.— -MS5-** 
SUP'RIW0ll-^ $ 23Pi 
MIIITir.UW ^ 

12- 12MHz. — <I25PM 
IITEGER BASIC 

CARO — — ticyi 




'.<"- 





Logic Probes 



la Corp' 

LOW COST VIDEO 

■JilOH 



12 inch. 

1 15500 




IQ12 



•OX tM.ll >S< >*■* <j 

M S./I S a»»»^a«a»^py*. | 

-VM* «. 8W yaV" ••«•»•» *■»*> najaj i A0S 



No"(.lrtc4»«".Surir» <>r InleHermc* 

Marma« I MM) I I I »«»*»» an .-r**mai > laulBPt 
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■wakff allKrihaitai 



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.(•ir is p., *.#■ * at * * 

'••»! 'o- 4M#v ^ |, • mm, S*pr*l* m.^ 
•«« *(>• "♦,#l''tjjn%» ,r- C.«m4> I'UfSXM 
••"*>• OWWiKv- P -,# ,1 •>• • *> .,r 
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• ' « •> r L # r « • 

•Bl »»#"ls tat' * s»f ^ « , 



2716 8.50ea 

5V450NS 

1 2708 

450NS 4.75m 



8 for 7.50ea 



8 for 4.50m 



LP3 




2732 



25.50m 4 for 21.50m 



*79.50 



■-#• be. Mm, ■■ 



- * • a- » s# 



«»«•» sa»- 



»•*•*•• I"* (>-.*•» 



ACT MUMTinl 
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a I MO C#»aW»C»aX buffer 

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ENCLOSURES 



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140 



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144 



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PRICE 

$2 85 



(C SOCKETS 


8 PI 


N 10/1.20 


14 


10/1.40 


is 


10/1.60 


18 


tO/1.90 


20 


10/2.80 


22 


10/2.80 


24 


10/2.80 


28 


10/3.80 


40 


10/4.75 



|4116 300NS 3.00m 8 for 19.50 
200NS 3.75m 8 for 24.50 

|2114L 300NS 3j65m 4 for 13.95 
200NS 4.00m 4 for 14.95 



r Jai 



MICROSOF 

16KRAM 
* CARD 

♦159.95 



a%>S& 



I'lair sratfC oatfaaraoai 
aaaVMa* aooMSSaaif 
IMtiMOtO mmo*r mom i 
mtt'i 'in ai*oaoa<0 
S me UOHM fiawoaajoa 
« an/ oajwon 



MHaHUI 
4TISTI0 



^269. 



ii 



Apple Expansion Kit 
16K Memory Add -On 
Includes Instructions 
>25.4 



CPUs 




2-80 


8.95 


Z-80ACTC 


12.50 


Z 80ACPU 


12.50 


Z 80 002 16-64K 


129.00 


8085A 


TI.50 


2901 A 


12.50 


MC6800 





ATARI® 800™ 
COMPUTER SYSTEM 

400 ClBfutu 8K — $ 4 19.00 

BOO ClBafutir 18K — l //S-00 

TOO COMPUTER 

Best Buy ' 

ATARI PERIPHERALS: 

Priitirfad him Pfiilir("S2r) ^379 00 



VISICALC 



« 



1981 



» 



MISC 



APPLE. 




ATARI 



129l|/.C. Master 
$ 



^8264-20 ^t^ 

EAROi^l 



P8155 



"ALLOW 2WKS. DEL'T IF 
PERSSUL CHECK IS SEIT. 



2102 

450NS 
8038 
NE555 
AY5 1013A 
1488 
1489 
8T26 
8T28 
8212 
8216 
IS410SCR 
IT410TRIAC 



TRS80 
16K Add-On 
Instruct ions A 
|Dip Switches 
$25.95 



1.20 



5712 




kV 



ftntyt 



5721 



^297 



licili 1(5.00 
li.irfKi(850)*W5.00 
PieiM _0H.|J 

Stir limit U9 00 
Utci linen 11/ 00 
Clitt $ 32SS 
Kinei $12.00 
HMfM h2H 
OlacljKk 112 00 



Disk Orifi $ 56500 

itei iiss.oo 

UlttiCkt $ J7 00 



Astnllii Elitir 

Music CiBfiur 

■id iM List 

TV Sutck Oil 

1SK RAI 
OK RAI 



•48-00 
*4S00 

hm 

$ S95 

$ I55.00 
1110.00 



1971 SO. STATE COLLEGE 
ANAHEIM. CALIF. 92806 



[•I«Ma1 



CHECK — M/O 

NO COD 

*10.MIN ORDER/CA RES ADD 6 
FRT 



7906 


.85 


7915 


.85 


7918 


.85 


7805 


.85 


7806 


.85 


7808 


.85 


7812 


.85 


MC1330A1P 


1.60 


MC1350P 


1.15 


MC1358P 


1.50 


LM380 


1.20 


LM565N 


.95 


LM741 


.25 


MC1458P 


55 


LM720 


30 



V ,0, 



("onoaclor Layout 



145P° *155°° 



Th«flt-232CC« 

Sarrldi >s designed lo switch modems 
between Iron) end (XOCassors An 24 pins of 
the connector are switched with Pin t wired 
to ground 



Tbar 



O*«PO«ATE0 




WAMECO 

THE COMPLETE PC BOARD HOUSE 
EVERYTHING FOR THE S-100 BUSS 



■* CPU-2 Z80 PROCESSOR BOARD ON BOARD ROM 
AND HARDWARE POWER ON JUMP 
PCBD $35.95 KIT $135.95 

* MEM-3 24 ADDRESS LINES EXPANDABLE IN 1K 
INCR. ADDRESSABLE IN 8K BLOCKS. BIDIREC- 
TIONAL BUSSING. 



PCBD $ 42.95 

KIT WITH 2114L-4 $475.95 
A&T WITH 2114L-4 $505.95 



KIT LESS RAM $119.95 

KIT WITH 2114L-2 $549.95 
A&T WITH 2114L-2 $579.95 



•* FPB-1A FRONT PANEL BOARD FOR 8080A AND Z80 
SYSTEMS IMSAI COMPATIBLE. 
PCBD $56.95 KIT $1 75.00 

* MEM-2 16K RAM 2114's. ADDRESSABLE IN 4K 
BOUNDARIES. 
PCBD .... $33.95 KIT (LESS RAMS) .... $80.95 

#■ EPM-2 16/32K ROM USES 2716 OR 2708. ADDRESS- 
ABLE IN 4K BOUNDARIES. 
PCBD .... $33.95 KIT (LESS ROMS) .... $74.95 



* CPU-1 8080A PROCESSOR BOARD WITH VECTOR 
INTERRUPT. 
PCBD $33.95 KIT $124.95 

•X- QMB-12 13 SLOT MOTHER BOARD. 

PCBD $42.95 KIT $1 25.95 

*• QMB-9 9 SLOT MOTHER BOARD. 

PCBD $35.95 KIT $1 09.95 

#• PTB-1 POWER SUPPLY AND TERMINATOR BOARD. 
PCBD $29.95 KIT $49.95 

#■ RTC-1 REAL TIME CLOCK BOARD WITH TWO 
INTERRUPTS. 
PCBD $29.95 KIT $79.95 

■* MEM-1A 8K RAM, USES 2102's 

PCBD .... $33.95 KIT (LESS RAM) .... $71.95 

■* IOB-1 I/O BOARD. ONE SERIAL, TWO PARALLEL 
WITH CASSETTE. PCBD $33.95 

•* FDC-1 A FLOPPY DISC CONTROLLER BOARD USES 
1771. PCBD $45.95 



FUTURE PRODUCTS: 80 CHARACTER VIDEO BOARD. 

8 PARALLEL PORT I/O BOARD. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED, UNIVERSITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

AT YOUR LOCAL DEALER 



Wmc 



tnc. 



WAMECO, INC., P.O. BOX 877 • EL GRANADA, CA 94018 • (415) 728-9114 



m 



CALIFORNIA COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

32K RAM BOARD A&T. 

450 NSEC $579.95, 200 NSEC $629.95 

16K RAM A&T. 

450 NSEC $255.95, 200 NSEC $285.95 

64K DYNAMIC A&T. 

200 NSEC $548.95 

Z80 PROCESSOR A&T $259.00 

DISC CONTROLLER $339.95 

APPLE IEEE INSTRUMENTATION INTERFACE 
KIT 7490. A & T $275.00 

ARITHMETIC PROCESSOR FOR APPLE 7811 A. 
A&T $342.80 

APPLE ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL INTERFACE 
7710A. A & T $137.10 



wmc 



inc. WAMECO INC. 



APPLE SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL 
7712A. A&T 



ALL OTHER CCS 



NTERFACE 
$153.95 

PRODUCTS AVAILABLE 



SSiT? 



PB-1 2708 & 2716 Programming Board with pro- 
visions for 4K or 8K EPROM. No external supplies 
required. Textool sockets. Kit $143.00 

CB-1A 8080 Processor Board. 2K of PROM 256 
BYTE RAM power on/ rest Vector Jump Parallel 
port with status. Kit $14600 PCBD $31 95 

VB-3 80x24 VIDEO BOARD Graphics included 
4MHZ. Kit $379.95 

IO-4 Two serial I/O ports with full handshaking 
20/60 ma current loop: Two parallel I/O ports 
Kit $168.00 PCBD $31.95 

VB-IC 64 x 16 video board, upper lower case Greek 
composite and parallel video with software, S-100. 
Kit $143.00 

CB-2 Z80 CPU BOARD. Kit $199.95 

AIO APPLE SERIAL/PARALLEL Kit $144.95 

ALL OTHER SSM PRODUCTS AVAILABLE 



MEM-3 32K STATIC RAM 2114 24 bit 

addressing $36.95 

FDC-1 FLOPPY CONTROLLER BOARD will drive 
shugart, pertek, remic 5" & 8" drives up to 8 drives, 
on board PROM with power boot up, will operate 

with CPM™ (not included). PCBD $43.95 

FPB-1 Front Panel. IMSAI size, hex displays. Byte, 
or instruction single step. PCBD $48 50 

QM-12 MOTHER BOARD, 13 slot, terminated, S-100 
board only $39.95 

CPU-1 8080A Processor board S-100 with 8 level 

vector interrupt. PCBD $28 95 

CPU-2 Z80 Processor S-100, on board ROM, 
power on jump. PCBD $31.95 

EPM-2 2708/2716 16K/32K EPROM CARD. 
PCBD $2895 

QM-9 MOTHER BOARD. Short Version of QM-12. 
9 Slots. PCBD $33 95 

MEM-1 8Kx8 RAM 2102. 

Buffered PCBD $31.95 

PTB-1 POWER SUPPLY AND TERMINATOR BOARD. 

PCBD $28.95 

IOB-1 SERIAL AND PARALLEL INTERFACE. 

2 parallel, one serial and cassette. 

PCBD $28 95 

2708 $7.50 2114L 450 NSEC $4.99 

2716 $25.95 2114L 200 NSEC $5.99 



\M 




MONDAY - FRIDAY 8 00 TO 12:00 1 00 TO 5 30 
THURSDAYS 8 00 TO 9 00 P M 

(415) 728-9121 
P.O. Box 955 • El Granada, CA 94018 

Please send for iC, Xistor and Computer parts list 



JULY SPECIAL SALE 
ON PREPAID ORDERS 

(Charge cards not included on this offer) 



SSM I02, PCBD $28 00 

I02, KIT $51 .oo 

WAMECO MEM-1 WITH 250 NSEC LOW 

POWER RAM (NEC OR AMD). 

A & T $99.99 

MIKOS PARTS ASSORTMENT 
WITH WAMECO AND CYBERCOM PCBDS 

MEM-3 less RAM $ 95.95 

CPU-1 with MIKOS *2 8080A CPU $99.95 

QM-12 with MIKOS c 4 13 slot mother 

board $11095 

CPU-2 with MIKOS #19 

Z80 Processor $119.95 

EPM-2 with MIKOS »1 1 16-32K EPROMS 

less EPROMS . $65 95 

QM-9 with MIKOS »12 9 slot mother 

board $99 95 

FPB-1 with MIKOS »14 all parts 

for front panel $144.95 

MIKOS PARTS ASSORTMENTS ARE ALL FACTORY MARKED 
PARTS. KITS INCLUDE ALL PARTS LISTED AS REQUIRED 
FOR THE COMPLETE KIT LESS PARTS LISTED ALL SOCK- 
ETS INCLUDED 

LARGE SELECTION OF LS TTL AVAILABLE 

PURCHASE S50.00 WORTH OF LS TTL AND GET 

10°o CREDIT TOWARD ADDITIONAL PURCHASES 
PREPAID ORDERS ONLY 



VISA or MASTERCHARGE. Send account number, interbank num- 
ber, expiration date and sign your order Approx postage will 
be added. Cnprk or money order will be sent post paid in U.S. 
If you are not a regular customer, please use charge, cashier's 
check or postal money order. Otherwise there will be a two- 
week delay for checks to clear. Calif, residents add 6% tax. 
Money back 30-day guarantee. We cannot accept returned IC's 
that have been soldered to. Prices subject to change without 
notice. $10 minimum ordtr. $1.50 service charge on orders 
loss than $10.00. 



j 



Microcomputing, July 1981 183 



/a 



National 
Semiconductor 



Clock Modules 

12V DC 

AUTOMOTIVE/ 

INSTRUMENT 

CLOCK 

APPLICATIONS: 

• In dash autoclocki 

• After-market auto/ 
RV clock* 

• Aircraft-marine elks. 

• 12VDC oper. instru. 

• Portable/battery 
powered instrumnts. 

Features:Bright 0.3" green display. Internal crystal time- 
base. + 0.5 sec. /day accur. Auto. display brightness control 
logic. Display color filterable to blue, blue-green, green & 
yellow. Complete-just add switches and lens. 

MA1003 Module $16.95 




MA1023 .7' 
MA1026 .7' 
MA5036 3' 
MA1002 5 

102 P20 
102 P22 
102 P20 



CLOCK MODULES 

Low Cost Digital LED Clock Module 8.95 
Dig. LED Alarm Clock/Thermometer 18.95 
Low Cost Digital LED Clock/Timer 
' LED Display Dig. Clock & Xformer 
TRANSFORMERS 
Xformer for MA1023 Clock Modules 
Xformer for MA1026 Clock Modules 
Xformer for MA5036 Clock Modules 



MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS 



Transistor Checker 



The) ASI Tnnuuof Checker it c*p 
able ol checking ■ wide rang* of Iran 
iiltor lypav ailhar "in circuit" Of out 
ot circuit It has baan ipacially rJowejn 
ad to taka advantaga ot tha nawatt 
concept ot dynamic tailing undar 
currant amplitiar conditiont. To op 
arata. simply plug tha transistor to ba 
checked into tha front panal sockat. 
or connact it with tha alligator clip 
last laads providad No praliminary 
sat up is naaded Tha unit sataly and 
automatically Ktantifras low. medium 
and high power PNP and NPN trans 
mors. Tha ASI Transistor Checker 
alto permits matching similar tram 
mors in actual operating circuits, 
and provides a reliable GO/NO GO 
test at practical collector currents 
(from 5mA on small signal types to 
50mA and more on power types I 
Match similar type transistors by Ob 
serving and comparing dial readings, 
the higher the reading, the higher 
the gain Completely assembled - 
battery operated ("C" cell battery 
not included.) 




8080A/8080A SUPPORT DEVICES 

iNsaotOA cpu 

DPS212 1-Bit Input/Output 

DPI214 Priority Interrupt Control 

OPS216 B> Directional But Driver 

DPS224 Clock Generator/Driver 

DPS22* But Driver 

DPS22* Syttem Controller/But Driver 

DPS2.it Syttem Controller 

INSS243 I/O Expander for 41 Series 

INSS2S0 Atynchronout Comm. Element 

DPS2S1 Prog. Comm. I/O (USART) 

DPS2S3 Prog. Interval Timer 

OPS2S6 Prog. Peripheral I/O (PPl) 

DP1257 Prog. DMA Control 

DPS2S9 Prog. Interrupt Control 

DPt27S Prog. CRT Controller 

OP6279 Prog. Keyboard/Display Interface 

DP8J00 Octal But Receiver 

DPSJ03 Syttem Timing Element 

DPS304 5 Bit Bi Directional Receiver 

DPS307 S-BIt Bi-Olrectional Receiver 

DP130S t-BIt Bi Directional Receiver 

6800/6800 SUPPORT DEVICES - 

MPU 

MPU with Clock and RAM 

121x1 Static RAM 

Peripheral Inter. Adapt (MCU20) 

Priority Interrupt Controller 

1024xt-Blt ROM (MCMA30-I) 

Atynchronout Comm. Adapter 

Synchronous Serial Data Adapter 

0-600bpt Digital MODEM 

2400bps Modulator 

Quad 3 State But. Trant. (MCST2S) 

MICROPROCESSOR CHIPS 

ZK (710C) CPU (MK3M0N) (2MHz) 

2I0A (7i0-l) CPU (MK3elON-4)(4MHl) 

CDPM02 CPU 

2650 MPU 

IDM2901ADC CPU 4-Bit Slice (Com. Temp. Grade) 



6.50 

3.2S 

S.9S 

3.49 

3.96 

3.49 

4.96 

5.95 

9.96 

16.95 

7.9S 

14.96 

9.96 

19.96 

14.96 

49.95 

19.96 

6.96 

6.96 

3.96 

3.96 

3.96 



DATA ACQUISITION (CONTINUED)- 



ADC0S09CCN l-BIt A/D Converter (6-Ch. Multl.) 

ADC0S17CCN S-BIt A/D Converter (16-Ch. Multi.) 

D AC 1000LC N 10-Bit D/A Conv. Micro. Comp. (0.06%) 1 

DAC10MLCN 10-Bit D/A Conv. Micro. Comp. (0.20%) 

DAC 1020LCN 10-Bit D/A Converter (0.06% Lin.) 

DAC1022LCN 10-BltD/A Converter (0.20% Lin.) 

DAC1222LCN 12-Bit D/A Converter (0.20% Lin.) 

CD4061N l-Channel Multiplexer 

AVS-1013 30K BAUD UART 

RAM'S 




14.96 
19.95 
4.96 
7.49 
10.96 
14.96 
6.96 
6.96 
10.96 
12.96 
2.26 



^CLOSE OU17 __ __ 

Trans-Check "yrrXTrrrT. $9.95 



EPROM Erasing Lamp 




• Erases 2708. 2716. 1702A. 5203Q, 5204Q, etc. 

• Erases up to 4 chips within 20 minutes. 

• Maintains constant exposure distance of one inch. 

• Special conductive foam liner eliminates static build-up. 

• Built-in safety lock to prevent UV exposure. 
. Compact - only 7-5/8" x 2 7/8" x 2" 

• Complete with holding tray for 4 chips. 

UVS-11E $79.95 



JOYSTICKS 



JS-6K 





JS-5K 

JS100K 

JVC-40 



JVC-40 



5K Linear Taper Pots $5.25 

100K Linear Taper Pots $4.95 

40K (2) Video Controller in case . . . $5.95 



6-Digit 
Clock Kit 




• Bright .300 ht. comm. cath 
ode display 

• Uses MM5314 clock chip 

• Switches for hours, minutes 
and hold modes 

• Hrs. easily viewable to 20 ft 

• Simulated walnut case 

• 115 VAC operation 

• 1 2 or 24 hr. operation 

• Incl. all components, case & 
wall transformer 

• Size: 6V," x 3 1/8" x %%" 



JE701 $19.95 




NEW 




13.96 
15.95 
19.95 
16.95 
19.96 
11.96 
16.95 
19.95 
24.95 
24.95 
29.96 
19.96 
29.95 
49.95 



MCS6502 MPU w /Clock (6SK Bytes Memory) 

INSI0J5N-6 MPU l-BIt (6MH2) 

INSI0J9N-6 CPU Sgl. Chip 8-Bit (12toytet RAM) 

INSS040N-6 CPU (266 Bytes RAM) 

INSI070N CPU— «4 Bytes RAM 

INSS073N CPU w/Batlc Micro Interpreter 

PSOSS CPU 

INSS900 CPU— 16-Bit 

TMS9900JL MPU-lt-Bit 

SHIFT REGISTERS 

MMS00H Dual 26-Bit Dynamic .50 

MM503H Dual 60-Bit Dynamic SO 

MM506H Dual 100-Bit Static .SO 

MMS10H Dual 64-Bit Accumulator .SO 

MM1402 256-Bit Dynamic 3.95 

MM5013 1024-Bit Dynamic/Accumulator 1.96 

MM5016H 500/512-Blt Dynamic t9 

MM5034N Octal 10-Bit 9.95 

MM503SN Octal 10-Bit 9.96 

2504V(1404A) 1024-Bit Dynamic 3.95 

251SN Hex 32-Bit Static 4.96 

2S22V Dual 132-Bit Static 296 

2524V 512-Bit Dynamic .99 

2525V 1024-Bit Dynamic 2.95 

2527V Dual 256-Bit Static 2.9S 

2521V Dual 250-Bit Static 4.00 

2529V Dual 240-Bit Static 4.00 

2532M Quad 10-Bit Static 2.96 

3341PC Flfo (Dual K) 6.96 



1101 266x1 Static 

1103 1024x1 Dynamic 

2101 (1101) 256x4 Static 

2102 1024x1 Static 
21L02 1024x1 Static 

2111 (1111) 255x4 Static 

2112 266x4 Static MOS 
2114 1024x4 Static 450ns 
2114L 1024x4 Static 450ns Low Power 
21143 1024x4 Static 300ns 
2U4L-3 1024x4 Static 300ns Low Power 
2117 16.364x1 Dynamic 550ns (house marked 
4U6N-4 (UPD416) 16K Dynamic 250ns (MM5290N-4) 

64K Dynamic 250ns 

4096x1 Fast 70ns 

256x4 Static 

1024x1 Dynamic Fully Decoded 

2Kxl Dynamic 

4096x1 Dynamic 



4164 

MM2147J 

5101 

MM5261 

MM5262 

MM52SO/2107 

MM5290N-2 (4116) 16K Dynamic ISOns (UPD416C-3) 



MM529SJ-3A 

MM5799NAA/N 

UPD414/MK4027 

TMS4044-46NL 

TMS4045 



1.49 

.99 

3.95 

1 75 

1.96 

3.95 

4.96 

5.96 

6.96 

7.49 

7.96 

) 4.96 

3.95 

49.95 

19.96 

7.96 

.99 

.26 

4.96 

5.25 

4.96 

9.95 

4.96 

14.96 

14.96 



1702 A 

270* 

TMS2716 

2716lntel(2616)TI 

2732lntel(2S32)TI 

2761 

6203 

*2S23(74S1M) 

S2S115 

S2S123(74S2M) 

I2S1I6 



2513(2140) 
2513(3021) 
2616N 

MMS230N 



IK Dyn. 200ns (lower Vi of MM5290J) 
Controller Oriented Processor 
4K Dynamic 16-pin 
4K Static 
1024x4 Static 

- PROMS/EPROMS 

2K UV Erasable PROM 5.95 

IK EPROM 5.96 

16K EPROM (-5V. »5V. *12V) 19.96 

16K EPROM (Single «SV) 10.96 

32K EPROM 19.96 

IK EPROM (4S0nt) (Single «5V) 7.96 

2041 PROM 14.96 

32x1 PROM (Open Collector) 4.96 

4096 Bipolar PROM 19.96 

32x1 Trl State Bipolar PROM 4.96 

IK PROM 29.95 

ROM'S 

Character Generator (Upper Case) 9.96 

Character Generator (Lower Case) 9.96 

Character Generator 10.96 

2048-Bit Read Only Memory 1.96 



NMOS READ ONLY MEMORIES" 

MC M66710P 12ex9x 7 ASC 1 1 Sh if ted w/G reek 

MCM6S740P 121x9x7 Math Symbol L Pictures 

MCM66750P 121x9x7 Alpha. Control Char. Gen. 

MICROPROCESSOR MANUALS - 



13.50 
13.50 

13 SO 



M-ZI0 

M CDP1I02 

M-2650 



■ DATA ACQUISITION 



AF100-1CN Universal Active Filter 2.5% 6.95 

AF121-1CJ Touch Tone Low Pass Filter 19.96 

AF122-1CJ Touch Tone Low Patt Filter 19.95 

LM30IAH Super Gain Op Amp 1.00 

LM334Z Constant Current Source 1.30 

LM335Z Temperature Transducer 1.40 

LF3S6N JFET Input Op Amp 1.10 

LF39IN Sample t Hold Amplifiers 3.95 
LM399H Temp. Comp. Prec. Ref. (.5ppm/C°) 4.95 

ADCOKMLCN 1-Bit A/D Converter (1 LSB) 4.95 

DAC0S06LCN 1-Bit D/A Converter (0.71% Lin.) 2.26 



DS0026CN 

DS0026CN 

INS1771N-1 

INS2661N 

MM5I167N 

MM5I174N 

COP402N 

COP402MN 

COP4 70N 



User Manual 
User Manual 
User Manual 

SPECIAL FUNCTION 

Dual MOS Clock Driver (6MZ) 
Dual MOS Clock Driver (5MZ) 
Floppy Disc Controller 
Communication Chip 
Microprocessor Real Time Clock 
Microprocessor Compatible Clock 
Microcontroller with 64-Digit RAM 
and Direct LEO Drive 
Microcontroller with 64-Digit RAM 
1 Direct LED Drive w/N Buss Int. 
32-Seg.VAC Fluor. Driver (20-pin pkg 



7.50 
7.60 
6.00 



■TELEPHONE/KEYBOARD CHIPS 



AY-s-9100 Push Button Telephone Dialer 

A V 5-9200 Repertory Dialer 

AV-5-9500 CMOS Clock Generator 

AY-5-2376 Keyboard Encoder (U keys) 

HD0166-5 Keyboard Encoder (16 keyt) 

74C922 Keyboard Encoder (16 keyt) 

74C923 Keyboard Encoder (20 keyt) 

MM53190N Push Button Puis* Dialer 

MM57499N 96/144-Key Serial Keyboard Encoder 



3.50 

1.95 
24.96 
19.95 

1.96 
11.95 

6.96 

7.49 
) 3.25 

14.96 
14.95 
4.95 
11.96 
7.96 
5.49 
5.75 
7.96 
1.95 



il 

.937 O.D. X 
1.201 Length 



ELECTRONIC TOY MOTORS 



Typical 
Soutca 


Operating 
Voltage 
Hang* 




T V f> 1 C A 
NO LOAD 


L CHARACTERISTICS 

AT MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY 


SMALL 
TORQUE 


Volte*. 


Speed 


Currant 


Speed 


Currant 


r Torque 


Output 


Eff 


BPM 


AMP 


HPM 


AMP 


o^ in 


w 


% 


OZ IN 


DBV CELL 


1 5 6 


30 


9 200 


20 


6.750 


90 


260 


1 30 


57 


097 



MABUCHI RE280 $.99 each . . .10/$7.50. . .10G7$50.00 



DESIGNERS' SERIES 
Blank Desk-Top Electronic Enclosures 

C/C/ 




JE215 Adjustable 
Dual Power Supply 

General Description: The JE215 is a Dual Power 
Supply with independent adjustable positive and nega- 
tive output voltages. A separate adjustment for each 
of the supplies provides the user unlimited applications 
for IC current voltage requirements. The supply can 
also be used as a general all-purpose variable power 

Supply. FEATURES 

• Adjustable regulated power supplies, 
pos. and neg. 1.2V DC to 15VDC. 

v « • Power Output (each supply): 

5VDC & 500mA, 10VDC® 750mA, 
12VDC@ 500mA, and 
15VDC® 175mA. 

• Two, 3 terminal adj. IC regulators 
with thermal overload protection. 

• Heat sink regulator cooling 

• LED "on" indicator 

• Printed Board Construction 

• 120VAC input 

• Size: 3 1/2"w x 5 1/16"L x 2"H 

JE21 5 Ad). Dual Power Supply Kit (as shown) . . $24.95 

(Picture not shown but similar in construction to above) 
JE200 Reg. Power Supply Kit (5VDC, 1 amp) . . $14.95 
JE205 Adapter Brd. (to JE200) •5, -9 8, t12V. $12.95 
JE210 Var. Pwr. Sply. Kit. 5-15VDC. to1.5amp. $19.95 



CONSTRUCTION: 

The "DTE" Blank Desk Top Electronic Enclosuresare designed to blend and complement 
today's modern computer equipment and can be used in both industrial and home. The 
end pieces are precision molded with an internal slot (all around) to accept both top and 
bottom panels. The panels are then fastened to V*" thick tabs inside the end pieces to 
provide maximum rigidity to the enclosure. For ease of equipment servicing, the rear/ 
bottom panel slides back on slotted tracks while the rest of the enclosure remains in- 
tact. Different panel widths may be used while maintaining a common profile outline. 
The molded end pieces can also be painted to match any panel color scheme. 




Enclosure 
Modal No. 


Panel 
Width 


PRICE 


DTE -8 


8.00" 


$29.95 


DTE-11 


10.65" 


$32.95 


DTE-14 


14.00" 


$34.95 



$10.00 Min. Order - U.S. Funds Only 
Calif. Residents Add 6% Sales Tax 
Postage -Add 5% plus $1 Insurance 



^41 



Spec Sheets - 254 

Send 52d Postage for your 

FREE 1981 JAMECO CATALOG 




ameco 



ELECTRONICS 



PHONE 

ORDERS 

WELCOME 

(415) 592-8097 



7/81 



MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS - WORLDWIDE 

1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



Bourns Potentiometer ^ 

3/4 Watt Single Turn 

(TOP ADJUSTMENT) 

Values. 500ft 1K 2.5K 5K 10K 
25K 50K 100K 250K 500K 5Meg 

INDIVIDUAL PRICING: 
149 50-99 100-999 IK up 

.19 .17 .15 .12 
GB174 $1.95/lot 

(25 pieces all 11 asst. values) 

Specify Bourns 3355 - (Value desired) 




AC and DC Wall Transformers 




Ideal lor uw with clocks 
gamct. power supplies or 
any other typ« of AC or 
0C application 



Part No. 



AC 250 
AC 500 
AC1000 
AC1700 
DV 9200 
DC 900 



Input 



Output 



117V/60HZ 
117V/60HZ 
117V/60HZ 
117V/60HZ 
117V/60HZ 
120V/60HZ 



12 VAC 250mA 

12 VAC 500mA 

12 VAC 1 amp 

9 VAC 1.7 amp 

9 VDC 200mA 

9 VDC 500mA 



Price 
$3.95 
$4.95 
$5.95 
$6.95 
$3.25 
$3.95 



CONNECTORS 




DB25P D-Subminiature Plug $2.95 

DB25S D-Subminiature Socket $3.50 

DB51226 Cover for DB25P/S $175 

22/44SE P.C. Edge (22/44 Pin) $2.95 

UG88/U BNC Plug $1-79 

UG89/U BNC Jack $3.79 

UG175/U UHF Adapter $ .49 

S0239 UHF Panel Recp $1-29 

PL258 UHF Adapter $160 

PL259 UHF Plug $1 60 

UG260/U BNC Plug $179 

UG1094/U BNC Bulkhead Recp $1.29 

TRS-80 
16K Conversion Kit 

Expand your 4K TRS-80 System to 16K. 
Kit comes complete with: 

* 8 ea. MM5290 (UPD416/4116) 16K Dyn. Rams (*NS) 

* Documentation for Conversion 

TRS-16K2 *150ns $39.95 

TRS-16K4 '250NS $29.95 

JE610 ASCII 
Encoded Keyboard Kit 




The JE610 ASCII Keyboard Kit can be interfaced into 
most any computer system. The kit comes complete 
with an industrial grade keyboard switch assembly 
(62-keys), IC's, sockets, connector, electronic compo- 
nents and a double-sided printed wiring board. The 
keyboard assembly requires +5V @ 150mA and —12V 
<s> 10 mA for operation. Features: 60 keys generate the 
126 characters, upper and lower case ASCII set. Fully 
buffered. Two user-define keys provided for custom 
applications. Caps lock for upper-case-only alpha charac 
ters. Utilizes a 2376 (40-pin) encoder read-only memory 
chip. Outputs directly compatible with TTL/DTL or 
MOS logic arrays. Easy interfacing with a 16-pin dip or 
18-pin edge connector. Size: 3'/i"H x 14VW x 8%"D 

JE610/DTEAK ItSS^SXli .. .$124.95 

ie*«A i/u 62-Key Keyboard. PC Board, * 7QQ r 
JbblU Ixlt & Components (no easel * /».»0 

K62 62-Key Keyboard (Keyboard only) . . .$ 34.95 

DTE-AK (case only - 3V»"HxU"Wx8V4"D)$ 49.95 



JE212 - Negative 12VDC Adapter Board Kit 
-/NEW!? for JE610 ASCII KEYBOARD KIT 

Tww^' Provides -12VDC from incoming 5VDC 



JVV/rVH, 

4 NEW!? 



$9.95 



JE600 
Hexadecimal Encoder Kit 



FULL 8-BIT 
LATCHED OUTPUT 
19 KEY KEYBOARD 







The JE600 Encoder Keyboard Kit provides two separate 
hexadecimal digits produced from sequential key entries 
to allow direct programming for 8-bit microprocessor 
or 8-bit memory circuits. Three additional keys are pro- 
vided for user operations with one having a bistable 
output available. The outputs are latched and monitored 
with 9 LEO readouts. Also included is a key entry strobe. 
Features: Full 8-bit latched output for microprocessor 
use. Three user-define keys with one being bistable 
operation. Oebounce circuit provided for all 19 keys. 
9 LED readouts to verify entries. Easy interfacing with 
standard 16-pin IC connector. Only +5VOC required 
for operation. Size: 3V."H x 8%"W x 8VD 

JE600/PTE-HK i?&tiVSTSS£> $99.95 



lr/ . nn *,.^ 19-Key Hexadec. Keyboard, * KQ Q a- 

JE600 Kit PC BoardACmpnts. (no case) . .5>D».»0 

K19 19-Key Keyboard (Keyboard only) .... $14.95 
DTE-HK (case only -3V2"Hx8V4"Wx«*4"D) $44.95* 



184 Microcomputing, July 1981 




SN7400N 


.25 


74C 


10 


SN74156N 


.79 


SN7401N 


.20 






SN 74157 N 


.69 


SN7402N 


.25 


SN7472N 


.29 


SN74160N 


.89 


SN7403N 


.25 


SN7473N 


.35 


SN74161N 


.89 


SN7404N 


.25 


SN7474N 


.35 


SN74162N 


.89 


SN7405N 


.29 


SN7475N 


.49 


SN74163N 


.89 


SN7406N 


.35 


SN7476N 


.35 


SN74164N 


.89 


SN7407N 


.35 


SN7479N 


5.00 


SN74165N 


.89 


SN7408N 


.29 


SN7480N 


.50 


SN74166N 


1.25 


SN7409N 


.29 


SN7482N 


.99 


SN74167N 


2.79 


SN7410N 


.25 


SN7483N 


.69 


SN74170N 


1.95 


SN7411N 


.29 


SN7485N 


.89 


SN74172N 


4.95 


SN7412N 


.35 


SN7486N 


35 


SN74173N 


1.39 


SN7413N 


.40 


SN7489N 


1.75 


SN74174N 


.99 


SN7414N 


.69 


SN7490N 


.49 


SN74175N 


.89 


SN7416N 


.29 


SN7491N 


.59 


SN74176N 


.79 


SN7417N 


.29 


SN7492N 


.45 


SN74177N 


.79 


SN7420N 


.25 


SN7493N 


.45 


SN74179N 


1.49 


SN7421N 


.29 


SN7494N 


.69 


SN74180N 


.79 


SN7422N 


.45 


SN749SN 


.69 


SN74181N 


2.25 


SN7423N 


.29 


SN7496N 


.69 


SN74182N 


.79 


SN7425N 


.29 


SN7497N 


3.00 


SN74184N 


2.49 


SN7426N 


.29 


SN74100N 


1.49 


SN74185N 


2.49 


SN7427N 


.25 


SN74107N 


.35 


SN74190N 


1.25 


SN7428N 


.49 


SN74109N 


.39 


SN74191N 


1.25 


SN7430N 


.25 


SN74116N 


1.95 


SN74192N 


.89 


SN7432N 


.29 


SN74121N 


.39 


SN74193N 


.89 


SN7437N 


.25 


SN74122N 


.55 


SN74194N 


.89 


SN7438N 


.40 


SN74123N 


.59 


SN74195N 


.69 


SN7439N 


.25 


SN7412SN 


.49 


SN74196N 


.89 


SN7440N 


.20 


SN74126N 


.49 


SN74197N 


.89 


SN7441N 


.89 


SN74132N 


.75 


SN74198N 


1.49 


SN7442N 


.59 


SN74136N 


.75 


SN74199N 


1.49 


SN7443N 


1.10 


SN74141N 


.99 


SN 74221 N 


1.25 


SN7444N 


1.10 


SN74142N 


3.25 


SN 74251 N 


.99 


SN7445N 


.89 


SN74143N 


3.49 


SN74276N 


1.95 


SN7446N 


.79 


SN74144N 


3.49 


SN74279N 


.79 


SN7447N 


.69 


SN74145N 


.79 


SN 74283 N 


1.49 


SN7448N 


.79 


SN74147N 


1.95 


SN74284N 


3.95 


SN74S0N 


.20 


SN74148N 


1.29 


SN74285N 


3.95 


SN7451N 


.20 


SN74150N 


1.25 


SN 74365 N 


.69 


SN7453N 


.20 


SN74151N 


.69 


SN74366N 


.69 


SN7454N 


.20 


SN74152N 


.69 


SN74367N 


.69 


SN7459A 


.25 


SN74153N 


.79 


SN74368N 


.69 


SN7460N 


.20 


SN741S4N 


1.25 


SN74390N 


1.49 


SN7470N 


.29 


SN74155N 


.79 


SN74393N 


1.49 


74LS0O 
74LS01 


.29 
.29 


74LS 


74LS192 
74LS193 


1.15 
1.15 


74US02 


.29 


74LS92 


.75 


74LS194 


1.15 


74LS03 


.29 


74LS93 


.75 


74LS195 


1.15 


74LS04 


.35 


74LS95 


.99 


74LS197 


1.19 


74LSOS 


.35 


74LS96 


1.15 


74LS221 


1.19 


74LS08 


.29 


74LS107 


.45 


74LS240 


1.95 


74LS09 


.35 


74LS109 


.45 


74LS241 


1.95 


74LS10 


.29 


74 LSI 12 


.45 


74LS242 


1.95 


74LS11 


.75 


74 LSI 13 


.49 


74LS243 


1.95 


74LS12 


.35 


74 LSI 14 


.49 


74LS244 


1.95 


74LS13 


.59 


74LS122 


.89 


74LS245 


2.95 


74LS14 


.99 


74LS123 


1.25 


74LS247 


1.19 


74LS15 


.35 


74LS125 


.89 


74LS248 


1.19 


74LS20 


.29 


74LS126 


.55 


74LS249 


1.19 


74LS21 


.35 


74LS132 


.99 


74LS251 


1.49 


74LS22 


.35 


74LS133 


.89 


74LS253 


.99 


74LS26 


.35 


74LS136 


.49 


74LS257 


.89 


74LS27 


.35 


74LS138 


.89 


74LS258 


.99 


74LS28 


.35 


74LS139 


.89 


74LS260 


.69 


74LS30 


.29 


74LS151 


.89 


74LS266 


.69 


74LS32 


.35 


74LS153 


.89 


74LS273 


1.95 


74LS33 


.59 


74LS154 


1.75 


74LS279 


.75 


74LS37 


.45 


74LS155 


1.19 


74LS283 


1.09 


74LS38 


.49 


74LS1S6 


1.19 


74LS290 


.99 


74LS40 


.35 


74LS157 


.89 


74LS293 


.99 


74LS42 


.89 


74LS158 


.99 


74LS298 


1.25 


74LS47 


.89 


74LS160 


1.15 


74LS352 


1.29 


74LS48 


1.15 


74LS161 


1.15 


74LS353 


1.29 


74LS49 


1.15 


74LS162 


1.15 


74LS365 


.75 


74LS51 


.29 


74LS163 


1.15 


74LS366 


.75 


74LS54 


.29 


74LS164 


1.25 


74LS367 


.75 


74LS55 


.29 


74LS165 


1.25 


74LS368 


.75 


74LS73 


.45 


74LS168 


1.19 


74LS373 


1.95 


74LS74 


.45 


74LS169 


1.19 


74LS374 


1.95 


74LS75 


.59 


74 LSI 70 


2.49 


74LS375 


.89 


74LS76 


.45 


74 LSI 73 


1.39 


74LS386 


.69 


74LS78 


.49 


74 LSI 74 


.99 


74LS393 


2.49 


74LS83 


.89 


74LS175 


.99 


74LS399 


2.49 


74LS85 


1.25 


74LS181 


2.95 


74LS670 


2.49 


74LS86 


.45 


74LS190 


1.25 


81LS95 


1.95 


74LS90 


.59 


74LS191 


1.25 


81LS97 


1.95 



74SO0 

74S02 

74S03 

74S04 

74S05 

74S08 

74S09 

74S10 

74S11 

74S15 

74S20 

74S22 

74S30 

74S32 

74S38 

74S40 

74S51 

74S64 

74S65 

74S74 

74S86 

74SU2 

74S113 

74S114 



.50 
.50 
.50 
.55 
.55 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.55 
.69 
.55 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.79 
.79 
.79 
.79 
.79 



74S124 
74S133 
74S134 
74S135 
74S136 
74S138 
74S139 
74S140 
74S151 
74S153 
74S157 
74S158 
74S160 
74S1 74 
74S175 
74S188 
74S194 
74S195 
74S196 
74S240 
74S241 
74S242 



74S 



2.49 
.55 
.69 
1.19 
1.75 
1.35 
1.35 
1.15 
1.35 
1.35 
1.35 
1.35 
1.95 
1.59 
1.59 
4.95 
1.95 
1.95 
3.95 
2.95 
2.95 
3.25 



74S243 
74S244 
74S251 
74S253 
74S257 
74S258 
74S260 
74S280 
74S287 
74S288 
74S373 
74S374 
74S387 
74S471 
74S472 
74S473 
74S474 
74S4/S 
74S570 
74S571 
74S572 
74S573 
74S940 
74S941 



CA30UJH 
CA3013H 
CA3023H 
CA3035H 
CA3039H 
CA3046N 
CA3059N 



1.07 
2.15 
3.25 
2.48 
1.35 
1.30 
3.25 



| CA-L1NEAR 



CA3060N 


3.25 


CA3080H 


1.25 


CA3081N 


2.00 


CA3082N 


2.00 


CA3083N 


1.60 


CA3086N 


.85 



CA3089N 
CA3096N 
CA3130H 
CA3140H 
CA3160H 
CA3401N 
CA3600N 



CD4000 


.39 




CD4001 


.39 


CD- 


CD4002 


.39 




CD4006 


1.19 


CD4041 


CD4007 


.25 


CD4042 


CD4009 


.49 


CD4043 


CD4010 


.49 


CD4044 


CD4011 


.39 


CD4046 


CD4012 


.25 


CD4047 


CD4013 


.49 


CD4048 


CD4014 


1.39 


CD4049 


CD4015 


1.19 


CD40SO 


CD4016 


.59 


CD4051 


CO4017 


1.19 


CD4052 


CD4018 


.99 


CD4053 


CD4019 


.49 


CD40S6 


CD4020 


1.19 


CD4059 


CD4021 


1.39 


CD4060 


CD4022 


1.19 


CD4066 


CD4023 


.29 


CD40&8 


CD4024 


.79 


CO4069 


CD4025 


.23 


CD4070 


CD4026 


2.95 


CD4071 


CD4027 


.69 


CD4072 


CD4028 


.89 


CD4073 


CD4029 


1.49 


CD4075 


CO4030 


.49 


CD4076 


CD4034 


3.49 


CD4078 


CD4035 


.99 


CD4081 


CD4040 


1.49 


CD4082 
CD4093 



1.49 
.99 
.89 
.89 
1.79 
2.50 
1.35 
.49 
.69 
1.19 
1.19 
1.19 
2.95 
9.95 
1.49 
.79 
.39 
.45 
.55 
.49 
.49 
.39 
.39 
1.39 
.55 
.39 
.39 
.99 



CD 4098 

CD4506 

CD4507 

CD4508 

CD4S10 

CD4511 

CD4512 

CD4514 

CD4515 

CD4516 

CD4518 

CD4519 

CD4520 

CD4526 

CD4528 

CD4529 

CD4543 

CD4562 

CD4566 

CD4583 

CD4584 

CD4723 

CD4724 

MC14409 

MC14410 

MC14411 

MC14412 

MC14419 

MC 14433 

MC 14538 

MC14541 



3.25 

3.25 

1.45 

1.45 

1.35 

1.35 

.79 

2.95 

4.95 

4.95 

3.49 

3.49 

5.95 

19.95 

19.95 

19.95 

21.95 

21.95 

7.95 

7.95 

19.95 

19.95 

3.15 

3.15 

3.75 
3.95 
1.39 
1.25 
1.25 
.59 
3.50 



2.49 

.75 

.99 

3.95 

1.39 

1.29 

1.49 

3.95 

2.95 

1.49 

1.79 

.89 

1.29 

1.79 

1.79 

1.95 

2.79 

11.95 

2.79 

2.49 

.75 

1.95 

1.95 

14.95 

14.% 

14.95 

11.95 

4.95 

13.95 

2.49 

1.95 




AP PRODUCTS 



DIP JUMPERS 




• Mate with Standard IC 
Sockets 

• Fully Assembled and Tested 

• Integral Molded On Strain 
Relief 

• Line By Line Probeability 

Dip Jumpers are used for jump 
ering within a PC Board; inter 
connecting between PC Boards, 
backplanes and mother boards; 
and interfacing input/output 
signals. 



P«rt 

924102 12 
924102 24 
924102 36 
924106 12 
924106 24 
924106 3b 
924112 12 
924112 24 
924112 36 
924116 12 
924116 24 
924116 36 
924122 12 
924122 24 
924122 36 
924126 12 
924126 24 
924 1 26 36 
924132 12 
924132 24 
924132 36 



No ol w -.- 



16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
40 
40 
40 



unqtr tnd 
sinqle *nri 
tinql* end 

double end 
dout>le tnd 

vqie •■"'! 
unqle end 
ltnqle end 

double end 

Vr,uL- '-"(I 

MI0B rrxl 
vnq,» end 

double end 
double end 
double end 

Wujl* .nil 

s.nqlr end 



12 

?4 

36 

12 

24 ■■ 

36 

12 

24' 

36 

12 

24 

36 

12 

24 

36 

12 

24 

36 

12 

24 

36 



SI 51 

1 92 

2 33 
261 
102 

3 43 

1 67 

2 13 

2 69 
2B8 

3 34 
3 BO 
260 

3 30 
400 
460 
6 20 
590 

4 3S 
553 
6 71 



DISCRETE LEDS 



XC556R 

XC556G 

XC556Y 

XC556C 

XC22R 

XC22G 

XC22Y 

MV10B 



.200" 
.200" 
.200" 
.200" 
.200" 
.200" 



red 

green 

yellow 

clear 

red 

green 

.200" yellow 

.170" red 



5/$l 
4/51 
4/$l 
4/$l 
5/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 
4/J1 



MV50 

XC209R 

XC209G 

XC209Y 

XC526R 

XC526G 

XC526Y 

XC526C 



.085" red 
.125" red 
.125" green 
.125" yellow 
.185" red 
.185" green 
.185" yellow 
.185" clear 



6/$l 
5/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 
5/$l 
4/$l 
</$l 
4/$l 



XC111R .190" red 5/$l 

XC111G .190" green 4/$l 

XC111Y .190" yellow 4/$l 

XC111C .190" clear 4/$l 



•C^' 



XC554 RED LED, METAL 
MTG. MDW. *-•" LEADS. 

RL-2 . .$.39ea.or3/$1.00 



C. A. - Common Anode DISPLAY LEDS C -C. - Common Cathode 



Type Polarity Ht Price 

MAN 1 C.A.— red .270 2.95 

MAN 2 5x7 D.M.— red .300 4.95 

MAN 3 C.C.— red .125 .25 

MAN 52 C. A.— green .300 1.25 

MAN 54 C.C.— green .300 1.25 

MAN 71 C.A.— red .300 .75 

MAN 72 C.A.— red .300 .75 

MAN 74 C.C.— red .300 1.25 

MAN 82 C. A.— yellow .300 .49 

MAN 84 C.C.— yellow .300 .99 

MAN 3620 C. A.— orange .300 .49 

MAN 3630 C. A.— orange 1 1 .300 .99 

MAN 3640 C.C.— orange .300 .99 

MAN 4610 C. A.— orange .400 .99 

MAN 6610 C.A.— orange— DD .560 .99 

MAN 6630 C. A.— orange I 1 .560 .99 

MAN 6640 C.C.— orange— DD .560 .99 

MAN 6650 C.C.— orange ± 1 .560 .99 

MAN 6660 C. A.— orange .560 .99 

MAN 6710 C.A.— red— DD .560 .99 

MAN 6750 C.C.— red ± 1 .560 .99 

MAN 6780 C.C.— red .560 .99 

DLO304 C.C.— orange .300 1.25 

DLO307 C. A.— orange .300 1.25 

DLGSOO C.C.— green .500 1.25 



Type 

DLG507 

DL704 

DL707 

DL728 

DL741 

DL746 

DL747 

DL750 

DL0847 

DLO850 

DL33B 

FND358 

FND359 

FND503 

FND507 

HDSP-3401 

HDSP-3403 

5082-7751 

5082-7760 

5082-7300 

5082-7302 

5082-7304 

4N28 

LIT-1 

MOC3010 



Polarity Ht Price 

C.A. —green .500 1.25 

C.C.— red .300 1.25 

C.A.-red .300 1.25 

C.C.— red .500 1.49 

C.A.— rea .600 1.25 

C.A.— red ± 1 .630 1.49 

C.A.-red .600 1.49 

C.C.— red .600 1.49 

C. A. orange .800 1.49 

C.C.— orange .800 1.49 

C.C.— red .110 .35 

C.C. ± 1 .357 .99 

C.C. .357 .75 

C.C. (FNDSOO) .500 .99 

C.A. (FND510) .500 .99 

C.A.-red .800 1.50 

C.C— red .800 1.50 

C.A..R.H.D.— red .430 1.25 

C.C.R.H.D.— red .430 1.75 

4x7 sgl. dig. RHD .600 22.00 

4x7 sgl. dig. LHD .600 22.00 

Overnge. char. (±1) .600 19.95 

Photo XslstorOpto-lsol. .99 

Photo Xsistor Opto-lsol. .69 
Optically Isol.Triac Driver 1.25 



SOCKETS 



Test 



TEXTOOL 




Sockets 



RECEPTACLES 



ZERO INSERTION FORCE 



* Nickel Boron Plating 
*G.F. PSF Plastic Body 

* For testing IC's 

Part No. Pins Price i Part No. Pins Price 

214-3339 14 pin 5.95 222-3343 22 pin 9.95 
216-3340 16 pin 6.49 224-3344 24 pin 9.75 
218-3341 18 pin 7.95 228-3345 28 pin 11.95 
220-3342 20 pin 8.95 | 240-3346 40 pin 12.95 



r 



LOW PROFILE 
(TIN) SOCKETS 



1-24 



26-49 



8 pin LP 
14 pin LP 
16 pin LP 
18 pin LP 
20 pin LP 
22 pin LP 
24 pin LP 
28 pin LP 
36 pin LP 
40 pin LP 



50-100 



.17 
.20 
.22 
.29 
.34 
.37 
.38 
.45 
.60 
.63 



.16 
.19 
.21 
.28 
.32 
.36 
.37 
.44 
.59 
.62 



.15 
.18 
.20 
.27 
.30 
.35 
.36 
.43 
.58 
.61 



1 



* Nickel Boron Plating 

* G.F. PSF Plastic Body 

* Wire Wrap Contacts 

Part No. Pins Price i Part No. Pins Price 

214-3592 14 pin 9.75 222-3596 22 pin 12.95 
216-3593 16 pin 9.95 224-3597 24 pin 12.75 
218-3594 18 pin 10.95 228-3598 28 pin 13.95 
220-3595 20 pin 11.95 I 240-3599 40 pin 15.95 



IT r 17 IT 



SOLDERTAIL 
STANDARD (TIN) 



1-24 



25-49 



TrTmT 

8 pin SG 
14 pin SG 
16 pin SG 
18 pin SG 
24 pin SG 
28 pin SG 
36 pin SG 
40 pin SG 



SOLDERTAIL (GOLD) 
STANDARD 



1-24 



25-49 



50-100 



.39 

.49 

.54 

.59 

.79 

1.10 

1.65 

1.75 



.35 

.45 

.49 

.53 

.75 

1.00 

1.40 

1.59 



.31 
.41 
.44 
.48 
.69 
.90 
1.26 
1.45 



14 pin ST 
16 pin ST 
18 pin ST 
24 pin ST 
28 pin ST 
36 pin ST 
40 pin ST 



50-100 



.27 
.30 
.35 
.49 
.99 
1.39 
1.59 



.25 


.24 


.27 


.25 


.32 


.30 


.45 


.42 


.90 


.81 


1.26 


1.15 


1.45 


1.30 




WIRE WRAP SOCKETS 
(GOLD) LEVEL #3 



1-24 



25-49 



50-100 



8 pin 
10 pin 
14 pin 
16 pin 
18 pin 
20 pin 
22 pin 
24 pin 
28 pin 
36 pin 
40 pin 



WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 



.59 

.69 

.79 

.85 

.99 

1.19 

1.49 

1.39 

1.69 

2.19 

2.29 



.54 


.49 


.63 


.58 


.73 


.67 


.77 


.70 


.90 


.81 


1.08 


.99 


1.35 


1.23 


1.26 


1.14 


1.53 


1.38 


1.99 


1.79 


2.09 


1.89 



1/4 WATT RESISTOR ASSORTMENTS -5% 



ASST. 1 5ea. 



10 Ohm 12 Ohm 15 Ohm 18 Ohm 22 Ohm 
27 Ohm 33 Ohm 39 Ohm 47 Ohm 56 Ohm 



50 pes. $1.95 



ASST. 2 5ea. 



68 Ohm 82 Ohm 100 Ohm 120 Ohm 150 Ohm 
180 Ohm 220 Ohm 270 Ohm 330 Ohm 390 Ohm 



50 pes. $1.95 



ASST. 3 5ea. 



470 Ohm 560 Ohm 680 Ohm 820 Ohm IK 
1.2K 1.5K 1.8K 2.2K 2.7K 



50 pes. $1.95 



ASST. 4 5ea. 



3.3K 
8.2K 



3.9K 
10K 



4.7K 
12K 



5.6K 
15K 



6.8K 
18K 



50 pes $1.95 



ASST. 5 5ea. 



22K 

56K 



27 K 
68K 



33 K 
82 K 



39K 
100K 



47K 
120K 



50 pes. $1.95 



ASST. 6 5ea. 



150 K 
390 K 



180K 
470K 



220 K 
S60K 



270K 
680 K 



330K 
820K 



50pcs. $1.95 



ASST. 7 5ea. 

ASST. 8R 



1M 
2.7M 



1.2M 
3.3M 



1.5M 
3.9M 



1.8M 
4.7M 



2.2M 
5.6M 



50 pes. $1.95 

Includes Resistor Assts. 1-7 (350 pes.) $10.95 ea. 



$10.00 Min. Order - U.S. Funds Only 
Calif. Residents Add 6% Sales Tax 
Postage — Add 5% plus $1 Insurance 





Spec Sheets - 25tf 
^>41 Send 52 tf Postage for your 

FREE 1981 JAMECO CATALOG 

PHONE 

ORDERS 

WELCOME 

(415)592-8097 



7/81 



ameco 



ELECTRONICS 



MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS - WORLDWIDE 

1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



DIMinEif^OIL 



Part No. Function Price 

7045IPI CMOS Precision Timer 14.95 

7045EV/KU* Stopwatch Chip, XTL 22.95 

7106CPL 3Vz Digit A/D (LCD Drive) 16.95 

7106EV/Kit* IC, Circuit Board, Display 34.95 

7107CPL 3Vj Digit A/D (LED Drive) 15.95 

7107EV/Kit* IC, Circuit Board. Display 28.95 

7116CPL 3V? Digit A/D LCD Dis. HLD. 18.95 

7117CPL 3V2 Digit A/D LED Dis. HLD. 17.95 

7201IDR Low Battery Volt Indicator 2.25 

720SIPG CMOS LED Stopwatch/Timer 12.95 

720SEV/Kit* Stopwatch Chip. XTL 19.95 

7206CJPE Tone Generator 5.15 

7206CEV/KU* Tone Generator Chip. XTL 9.95 

7207AIPD Oscillator Controller 6.50 

7207AEV/Kit* Freq. Counter Chip, XTL 11.10 

72081 PI Seven Decade Counter 17.95 

7209IPA Clock Generator 3.95 

7215IPG 4 Func. CMOS Stopwatch CKT 13.95 

7215EV/Kit* 4 Func. Stopwatch Chip, XTL 19.95 

7216AUI 8-Digit Univ. Counter C.A. 32.00 

7216CIJI 8-Dlgit Freq. Counter C.A. 26.95 

7216DIPI 8-Digit Freq. Counter C.C. 21.95 

7217IJI 4-Digit LED Up/Down Counter 12.95 

7218CIJI 8-Digit Univ. LED Drive 10.95 

7224IPL LCD 4Vj Digit Up Counter DRI 11.25 

/226AIJL 8-Digit Univ. Counter 31.95 

7226AEV/KU* 5 Function Counter Chip, XTL 74.95 

7240IJE CMOS Bin Prog. Timer/Counter 4.95 

7242IJA CMOS Divide-by-256 RC Timer 2.05 

7250IJE CMOS BCD Prog. Timer/Counter 6.00 

7260IJE CMOS BCD Prog. Timer/Counter 5.25 

7555IPA CMOS 555 Timer (8 pin) 1.45 

7556IPD CMOS 556 Timer (14 pin) 2.20 

7611BCPA CMOS Op Amp Comparator 5MV 2.25 

7612BCPA CMOS Op Amp Ext. Cmvr. 5MV 2.95 

7621BCPA CMOS Dual Op Amp Comp. 5MV 3.95 

7631CCPE CMOS Tri Op Amp Comp. 10MV 5.35 

7641CCPD CMOS Quad Op Amp Comp. 10MV 7.50 

7642CCPD CMOS Quad Op Amp Comp. 10MV 7.50 

7660CPA Voltage Converter 2.95 

8038CCPD Waveform Generator 4.95 

8048CCPE Monolithic Logarithmic Amp 21.60 

8069CCQ SOppm Band GAP Volt Ref. Diode 2.50 

8211CPA Volt Ref/lndicator 2 50 

8212CPA Volt Ref/lndicator 2 50 



74C00 
74C02 
74C04 
74C08 
74C10 
74C14 
74C20 
74C30 
74C42 
74C48 
74C73 
74C74 
74C85 
74C86 
74C89 
74C90 
74C93 
74C95 



.39 

.39 

.39 

.39 

.39 

.7S 

.39 

.39 

1.39 

1.95 

.79 

.79 

1.95 

.99 

6.95 

1.29 

1.29 

1.59 



74C 



74 C 106 
74C107 
74C151 
74C154 
74C157 
74C160 
74C161 
74C162 
74 C 163 
74 C 164 
74C173 
74C174 
74C175 
74 C 192 
74C193 



.75 
1.89 
2.95 
3.95 
2.25 
1.69 
1.60 
1.49 
1.69 
1.59 
1.39 
1.39 
1.39 
1.69 
1.69 



74C195 

74C221 

74C240 

74C244 

74 C 373 

74C374 

74C901 

74C903 

74C911 

74C912 

74C915 

74C917 

74C922 

74C923 

74C925 

74C926 

80C95 

80C97 



1.59 

1.95 

2.25 

2.25 

2.49 

2.59 

.89 

1.15 

10.95 

10.95 

1.69 

10.95 

5.49 

5.75 

7.50 

7.50 

.79 

.79 



LH0002CN 

LM10CLH 

LM11CLH 

LH0070-OH 

TL071CP 

TL072CP 

TL074CN 

LH0082CD 

TL082CP 

TL084CN 

LH0094CD 

LM300H 

LM301CN/H 

LM302H 

LM304H 

LM305H 

LM307CN/H 



6.85 

4.50 

4.75 

6.05 

-79 

1.39 

2.49 

35.80 

1.19 

2.19 

36.80 

.99 

.35 

1.95 

1.95 

.99 

.45 



LM308CN/H 1.00 



LM309H 

LM309K 

LM310CN 

LM311H/CN 

LM312H 

LM317MP 

LM317T 

LM317K 



1.95 
1.25 
1.75 
.90 
2.49 
1.15 
1.75 
3.95 



LM318CN/H 1.95 



LM319N 

LM320K-5 

LM320K-12 

LM320K-15 

LM320T-5 

LM320T-12 

LM320T-15 

LM323K-5 

LM324N 

LM329DZ 

LM331N 

LM334Z 

LM335Z 

LM336Z 

LM337T 

LM337MP 

LM338K 

LM339N 

LM340K-5 

LM340K-12 

LM340K-15 



1.95 
1.35 
1.35 
1.35 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 
5.95 
.99 
.65 
3.95 
1.30 
1.40 
1.75 
1.95 
1.15 
6.95 
.99 
1.35 
1.35 
1.35 



LINEAR 


LM702H 
LM703CN 


.79 
.89 


LM340T-5 


1.25 


LM709N 


.49 


LM340T-12 


1.25 


LM710N 


.79 


LM340T-15 


1.25 


LM711N 


.79 


LM341P-5 


.75 


LM723N 


.69 


LM341P-12 


.75 


LM733N/H 


1.00 


LM341P-1S 


.75 


LM739N 


1.19 


LM342P-5 


.69 


LM741CN 


.35 


LM342P-12 


.69 


MC1741SCG 


3.00 


LM342P-15 


.69 


LM747N/H 


.79 


LM348N 


1.25 


LM748N/H 


.59 


LM350K 


5.75 


LM1014N 


2.75 


LF351N 


.60 


LM1310N 


1.95 


LF353N 


1.00 


LM1458CN 


.59 


LF355N 


1.10 


LM1488N 


1.25 


LF3S6N 


1.10 


LM1489N 


1.25 


LM358N 


1.00 


LM1496N 


1.95 


LM359N 


1.79 


LM1556V 


1.75 


LM370N 


4.49 


LM1800N 


2.95 


LM373N 


3.25 


LM1877N-9 


3.25 


LM377N 


2.95 


LM1889N 


3.20 


LM380N 


1.25 


LM1896N 


1.75 


LM381N 


1.95 


LM2002T 


1.49 


LM382N 


1.79 


LM2877P 


2.05 


LM384N 


1.95 


LM2878P 


2.25 


LM386N-3 


1.29 


LM2896P-1 


2.25 


LM387N 


1.4S 


LM3189N 


2.95 


LM389N 


1.35 


LM3900N 


.69 


LM392N 


.69 


LM3905CN 


1.25 


LF398N 


4.00 


LM3909N 


1.15 


LM399H 


5.00 


LM3914N 


3.95 


TL494CN 


4.49 


LM3915N 


3.95 


TL496CP 


1.75 


LM3916N 


3 95 


NE510A 


6.00 


RC4136N 


1.25 


NE529A 


4.95 


RC4151NB 


3.95 


NE531H 


3.95 


RC4194TK 


5,95 


NE536H 


6.00 


RC4195TK 


5,49 


NE540H 


6.00 


KB4428 


4.25 


NE544N 


4.95 


KB4429 


5.95 


NE550A 


1.30 


LM4500A 


3.25 


NE555V 


.39 


ICL8038B 


4.95 


LM556N 


.99 


LM13080N 


1.29 


NE564N 


3.95 


LM13600N 


1.49 


LM565N 


1.2S 


7S138N 


1.95 


LM566CN 


1.95 


75450 N 


.89 


LM567V 


1.25 


75451CN 


.39 


NE570N 


4.95 


75492 


.89 



CAPACITOR CORNER 



Value 

10 pf 

22 pf 

47 pf 

100 pf 

220 pf 

470 pf 

.OOlmf 
.0022mf 
.0O47mf 
,01mf 



50 VOLT CERAMIC DISC CAPACITORS 



1-9 10-99 100+ 
08 .06 .05 

.06 

.06 

.06 

.06 

.06 



.08 
.08 
.08 
.08 
.08 



.05 
.05 
.05 
.05 
.05 



Value 

.OOluF 

.004 7uf- 

.01|iF 

.022mF 

.047uF 

• IMF 



1-9 10-99 100+ 
.08 .06 .05 

.06 

.06 

.07 

.07 

.12 



.08 
.08 
.09 
.09 
.15 



100 VOLT MYLAR FILM CAPACITORS 



.05 
.05 
.06 
.06 
.10 



.12 
.12 
.12 
.12 



.10 .07 

.10 .07 

.10 .07 

.10 .07 



.022m f 
.047mf 
.lmf 
.22m f 



.13 
.21 
.27 
.33 



.11 
.17 
.23 
.27 



.08 
.13 
.17 
.22 



+20% DIPPED TANTALUMS (Solid) CAPACITORS 



.1/35V 
. 15/35 V 
. 22/35 V 
. 33/35 V 
.47/35V 
. 68/35 V 
1.0/35V 



.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 



.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 



.29 
.29 
.29 
.29 
29 
.29 
.29 



1.5/35V 
2.2/35V 
3. 3/25 V 
4.7/2SV 
6.8/2SV 
15/25 V 
22/6 V 



.41 
.51 
.53 
.63 
.79 



.37 
.45 
.47 
.56 
.69 



1.39 1.25 
.79 .69 



.29 
.34 
.37 
.45 
.55 
.95 
.55 



MINI. ALUMINUM ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS 



Axial 
.4 7/50 V 

1.0/50V 

3.3/50V 

4.7/25V 

10/25V 

10/50 V 

22/25 V 

22/50V 

47/25V 

47/50V 

100/25 V 

100/50V 

220/25 V 

220/50V 

4 70/25 V 

1000/16V 

2200/16V 



1-99 100-499 500- 
.16 .14 

.16 

.15 

.15 
15 

.16 

.16 

.20 

.21 

.25 

.24 

.37 

.34 

.45 

.49 

.69 

.79 



Radial 



.19 
.17 
.18 
.18 
.19 
.19 
.24 
.25 
.29 
.28 
.41 
.39 
.49 
.54 
.79 
.89 



.10 


.47/25V 


.12 


.47/50V 


.11 


1.0/16V 


.11 


1.0/2SV 


.11 


1.0/SOV 


.12 


4. 7/16 V 


.12 


4. 7/25 V 


.18 


4.7/SOV 


.19 


10/16V 


.23 


10/25 V 


.22 


10/S0V 


.34 


4 7/50 V 


.33 


100/16V 


.41 


100/25 V 


.45 


100/50 V 


.61 


220/16V 


.69 


4 70/25 V 



1-99 100-499 
.15 .13 



.16 
.15 
.16 
.17 
.15 
.16 
.17 
.15 
.16 
.17 
.25 
.21 
.25 
.37 
.25 
.35 



.14 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.21 
.17 
.23 
.34 
.21 
.31 



500 + 

.12 

.13 

.12 

.13 

.14 

.12 

.13 

.14 

.12 

.13 

.14 

.19 

.14 

.21 

.31 

.19 

•27. 



See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 185 



VAK-2 8K STATIC RAM 
VAK-4 1BK STATIC RAM 




We also carry: 

SYM-1 $229 00 

AIM-65 w/1K $389 00 

AIM-65 w/4K $439 00 

We also do custom 

hardware and software 

for the 6502 microprocessor 



SPECIAL PRICE: 

VAK-4 $295 00 

For prepaid orders only 

Offer expires 7/30/81 



PRICE: 

VAK-4 J&3&*~ 

VAK-2 $239 00 

Add $4 50 for UPS 

Shipment in continental U.S. 

All others call or write 

for shipping charges 




The VAK-2/4 was specifically designed for use with the KIM-1, SYM-1 and the AIM 65 Microcomputer Systems. The VAK-4, 
16K Ram Board, consists of two (2) separate 8K blocks. Each block has it's own address, write protect and block enable switches. 

The VAK-2, 8K Ram Board, is identical to the VAK-4 with sockets for all 16K of Ram, but it has only one of the 8K blocks 
populated with IC's. Therefore, the VAK-2 is user expandable to a full 16K with the purchase of the VAK-3 Expansion Kit. 

Both the VAK-2 and the VAK-4 Boards are made with 1st quality, Industry Standard 450 nsec. 2114 RAM Chips. They plug 
directly into the VAK-1 Motherboard, or with addition of voltage regulators plug into the KIM-4* Motherboard. 

SPECIFICATIONS: 

Completely assembled, tested and burned-in. 

All IC's are in sockets 

Fully buffered address and data bus 

Standard KIM-4* Bus (both electrical Pin-out and card size) 

Designed for use with a regulated Power Supply such as our VAK-EPS, but has provisions for adding regulators for use 

with an unregulated Power Supply. 

Each 8K Block Address is independent and switch selectable. 

Separate write-protect switch for each 8K block. 

Board size: 10 in. Wide x 7 in. High (including card-edge) 

Power requirements: VAK-2— 5V.DC @ 1.2 AMPS. 
Power requirements: VAK-4— 5V.DC @ 2.4 AMPS. 

* KIM-4 is a product of MOS Technology/C.B.M. 



We have moved to a new, 

larger facility. Please make 

note of our new address. 




ENTERPRISES 

INCORPORATED 



^52 



4030 N. 27th Avenue, Suite D 
Phoenix, AZ 85017 
(602) 265-7564 




# 




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m* 







M17 

the memory that took 
18 months to hatch 

18 months ago, we designed RAM 17 around a brand new 16K static RAM from Hitachi that not only had 
the reliability and speed of static memory, but also consumed less power than dynamics. 

Unfortunately, pricing on this VLSI chip back then was such that we didn't feel RAM 17 would meet our 
tough standards for cost-effectiveness. In the past few months, however, volume production has lowered chip 
prices to where RAM 17 now represents an exceptional value in S-100 memory. 

Features include a stunningly low 250 mA typical power consumption, guaranteed operation (no wait 
states) at 6 MHz with CPU Z and 10 MHz with CPU 8085/8088, full compliance with all IEEE 696/S-100 
specifications (including 24 bit addressing and standard board size), four optional 2K windows to accommodate 
memory mapped disk controllers, pinout compatibility with 2716 EPROM (allows RAM/ROM mix on a single 
board), plus all the other features that make CompuPro memory the first choice of system designers world-wide. 

$1595 CSC (2 year limited warranty), $1395 A/T (1 year limited warranty), $1095 Unkit. 




These features may appear to be those of a dream memory of the future. . . 
butCompuPro is delivering RAM 17 now at finer computer stores near you. 




uPro 



TM 




^42 



division of 



BOX 2355, OAKLAND AIRPORT, CA 94614 (415) 562-0636 




MEMBEB 






EPSON MX-80 
Now in stock! 

The MX30 dot matrix printer. 
Unequalled Epson reliability. Has 
all the features of the MX-70 plus 
more power and extra functions 

CALLUS 

C-ITOH STARWRITER: LETTER 
QUALITY PRINTING FOR UNDER 
$2000!/This daisywheel printer 
gives high quality at a low price. 
25 cps. Parallel and serial inter- 
faces available. CALL 



NEC SPINWRITER FROM THE 
FIRST NAME IN LETTER QUALITY 

PRINTERS/Compumart offers 
beautiful print quality with NEC 
Spinwriter Terminals. We carry all 
models from RO THRU KSR WITH 
NUMERIC KEYPAD -55 10- 5530. All 
versions give unsurpassed hard 
copy output ! CALL FOR PRICES 



NEW INTEGRAL DATA'S 560 
PRINTER/ All the exciting features 
of the 400 series plus 141/2" paper 
capacity. 132 col. graphics printer. 
IDS 445. Priced lower than the 440 
and equipped with a better print 
head. With & w/o graphics. 
IDS 460. Features include corre- 
spondence quality printing, high 
resolution graphics. 

CALL FOR PRICES 



I 





CENTRONICS PRINTERS 
MODEL 737/The closest thing to 
letter quality print for under $1000. 
List $899. SPECIAL $795. 

737-1 Parallel Interface 

SALE PRICE $695. 

PLUS EXCITING REBATE OFFER 
ON CENTRONICS PRINTERS. 

OMNI 810 PRINTER FROM TEXAS 
INSTRUMENTS CALL US 

The 820 RO PACKAGE includes 
machine mounted paper tray and 
cable. A compressed print option 
and device forms control are 
standard features. 
THE 820 KSR PACKAGE includes 
fully ASCII Keyboard plus all of the 
features of the RO. 

CALL FOR PRICES 



CLEARANCE ZENITH COLOR 
VIDEO MONITOR $349. 



SUPER SELLING TERMINALS FROM 
LEAR SIGLER/We have the follow- 
ing Lear Siegler terminals in stock 
at prices too low to print! Call for 
quotes. 

ADM-3 A/Industry's favorite dumb 
terminal for some very smart 
reasons/ 
ADM-3A + NEW from Lear Siegler. 

CALL! 

IT IS HERE! It is the new Intermedi- 
ate Terminal from Lear Siegler. 

CALL FOR DETAILS 

SANYO MONITORS AT LOW COM- 
PUMART PRICES /Sanyo's new line 
of CRT data display monitors are 
designed for the display of alpha- 
numeric or graphic data. 

9"SANYOB/W $169. 

12" SANYO B/W CALL 

12" SANYO W/ 

GREEN SCREEN CALL 

1 3" SANYO COLOR CALL 



NEC MONITOR/RECEIVER/ 

Composite video using BNC con- 
nectors, 8-Pin connector for VCR/ 
VTR video loop In/ Out and 
television reception. CALL US! 



Visit our giant 

ANN ARBOR STORE 

1250 North Main Street 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 




FREE 

MICRO/DEC LS1-11 

CATALOGS 

Send for them! 




HP-41C CALCULATORS 
MEMORY MODULES for storing 
programs of up to 2000 lines of 
program memory. 
"EXTRA SMART" CARD READER. 
Records programs and data back 
onto blank magcards. 
THE PRINTER. Upper and lower 
case. High resolution plotting. Port- 
able thermal operation. 
APPLICATION MODULES 

CALL FOR PRICES ON ALL 

NEW SUPER 41-CV SYSTEMS with 

Quad RAMS built-in. Maximum 

memory on-board leaves slots 

open for Application Pacs and 

peripherals. 

+ CARD READER 

+ CARD READER + PRINTER 

QUAD RAMS equivalent to four 

Memory Modules all packed 

into one CALL ON ALL 

MATROX PRODUCTS/Compumart 
stocks the complete line. 

CALL ON SPECS 

DEC LSl-11/Compumart now 
offers the entire product line. 
CALL FOR PRICES AND DELIVERY 



NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC MO- 
DEM Answer Originate. CALL 

NEW! D-CAT Direct Connect Mo - 
d em from Novation. CALL 



RM EXPANSION ACCESSORIES 

FOR AIM- 
CALL SPECS AND PRICES 

APPLE HI IS IN STOCK/Apple HI 

Information Analyst Package— 
128K Apple III, Black and White 
Monitor 12", and information ana- 
lyst software. CALL 



TOP SOFTWARE PACKAGES FROM 
COMPUMART 



VISICALC/FOR APPLE/FOR HP/ 
FOR COMMODORE/FOR ATARI 
SOFTWARE FROM APPLE/ Apple 
Plot (the perfect graphic comple- 
ment for Visicalc/ Dow Jones News 
& Quotes/ Apple Fortrom/ Apple 
Writer/Pascal Language System/ 
Controller Business System CALL 
PERSONAL SOFTWARE/ Visidex/ 
VisiTrend/VisiPlot/VisiTerm CALL 
MUSE/Super Text CALL 







NEW! GILTRONDI RS 232 SWITCH/ 

The ultimate in flexibility. You can 
connect three peripherals to one 
computer or three computers to 
one peripheral. Switches the eight 
most important RS Wfflfflfan 



DYSAN DISKETTES/Single side, 
single density. Hard or Soft Sector 

$5. ea. 

MEMOREX 3401*8/51/4 disks $3. 2 5. 
/with hub ring for Apple $3.50. 

MEMORY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS/ 

Call for quantity discounts when 
ordering over 50 units. CALL 

MOTOROLA 4116 (200 Nano- 
second Plastic) $ 4 50 




., 



MOUNTAIN COMPUTER/ 

Expansion accessories for Apple/ 
Super Talker/The Music System/ 
ROM plus board with Keyboard 
filter/ ROM Writer/ Clock Calen- 
dar/ AtoD and D to A Converter/ 
Clock for Apple/CPS Multifunction 
Board CALL 

VIDEX/ Video Term (80 col. x 24 
line, 7x9 Matrix plug in compati- 
ble board for Apple II) w/wo 
graphics EPROM/SSM Serial & 
Parallel, Apple Interface/ ABT's 
Numeric Key Plan/ California 
Microcomputer Keyboard CALL 



\ 



IMPORTANT ORDERING INFORMATION 

CALL 8CO 343-5504, in Massachusetts: (617) 491-27CO, phones open 
from 8:30 am to 7CO p.m Mon-Fri 1LOO am to 4CO p.m. Sat. 
PO's. Accepted from Dun 8c Bradstreet rated companies— shipment 



contingent upon receipts of signed purchase order. 
SALE PRICES Valid for month of magazine date only— all prices sub 
ject to change without notice. Our Ann Arbor retail store is open 
11 CO a m to 700 pm Tues-Fri 1QOO a.m. to 500 p.m on Saturdays 







L« 



$1895. 



SAVE OVER $200 ON OUR BEST 
SELLING APPLE SYSTEM/ System 
includes a 48K Apple II, Apple 
Disk. DOS 3.3 and Controller and a 
Sup R MOD RF Modulator. 

List $2209. 
EXCLUSIVE FOK THE APPLE: 
Magic Wand. Videx, Z-80 softcard 
(Requires 48K Apple and disk). 

COMPLETE SYSTEM $925. 

SAVE $200 ON APPLE ACCESSO- 
RIES WITH PURCHASE OF AN 
APPLE II. 

CHOOSE FROM: Silentype Printer 
w/x face/Light Pen/Easy Writer 
(80 col. need a Videx )/C lock for 
Apple. 

FROM MICROSOFT: 16K RAM 

Board/FORTRAN. 

FROM MOUNTAIN HARDWARE: 

Card Reader. 

FROM COMPUTER STATION: 

Hi-Res Dump for 460 Printer. 



$4995. $4249. 




CRISP LETTER QUALITY OUTPUT 
UNSURPASSED EASE OF 
OPERATION 

This Compumart/Commodore 
system includes a COMMODORE 
8032 32K CPU, a 4040 DUAL DISK, 
a C-ITOH PRINTER and x/face and 
WORD PRO 4 PLUS (all cables in- 
cluded). List $5685. 
CALL FOR DETAILS AND 
LOW PRICES 

A COMPLETE SYSTEM: includes 
a DUAL DISK DRIVE /TRACTOR 
PRINTER and an 80 COLUMN 
32K CPU. No interfaces needed. 
Cables included. List $3985. 

COMPUMART $3635. 
SAVE $200 ON COMMODORE 
ACCESSORIES WITH PURCHASE 
OF A 32K PET-SAVE $100 WITH A 
16K PET. 

CHOOSE FROM: Visicalc/Word Pro 
4/Wordcraft 80/Ozz the Informa- 
tion Wizzard/Tax Preparation 
Planner/ Dow Jones Portfolio Mgmt 
System/ Personal Tax Calculator/ 
Assembler Development Package. 



This Basic System from Hewlett- 
Packard includes HP-83/ROM 
DRAWER/MASS STORAGE ROM/ 
51/4" SINGLE MASTER FLEXIBLE 
DISK DRIVE /HP- IB INTERFACE 
MODULE/2 METER HP-IB CABLE. 
SAVE $400 ON HP-85 SERIES AC- 
CESSORIES WITH THE PURCHASE 
OF AN HP-85. 

CHOOSE FROM: PERIPHERALS; 
Disk Drives to Graphics Plotters 
ENHANCEMENTS; Basic Training/ 
General Statistics/ Financial Deci- 
sion/Math/Linear Programming 
($95 EA) ACCESSORIES; Enhance- 
ment ROM's/ ROM drawer/Over- 
head Transparency Kit SUPPLIES; 
Plotter Pens/Tape Cartridges 
INTERFACE MODULES; HP- IB Inter- 
connect Cables/Serial (RS-232C) 
Interface Module. 




$795. 



FROM ROCKWELL 

Our AIM Starter System for Educa- 
tional & Laboratory use includes 
4K AIM/BASIC & ROM/ASSEMBLER 
& ROM/POWER SUPPLY EG1 EN- 
CLOSURE/CRAIG TAPE RECORDER. 

We also carry RM Expansion 
Accessories for the Aim-65. 

CALL FOR SPECS AND PRICES 

ACCESSORIES FOR AIM STARTER: 

PL 65 High Level Language/ Paper 
for the Aim (roll)/ Rockwell's 4 slot 
Motherboard/ 

CALL 




OUR APPLE INVENTORY IS COM- 
PLETE. WE'VE GOT IT ALL- 
CALL US FOR PRICES 



WE CARRY EVERY PERIPHERAL 
MADE FOR THE HP-85. 

CALL US FOR PRICES 



EDUCATORS TAKE NOTE: COM- 
MODORE HAS EXTENDED ITS 
3 FOR 2 DEAL UNTIL 6-30-81. 




Systems 



800-343-5504 



IN MASS CALL 617-491-2700 





COMPUMART. 

65 Bent Street, Dept 127, 

PO Box 568, Cambridge, MA 02139 



From THE LEADER... 

We just might be the largest independent small systems dealer in the country. Here's why 
COMPUMART has been serving the computer needs oi industry since 1971. 
We stock, tor immediate shipment, only those products from the finest micro-computer 

manufacturers. 

And any product, except software, can be returned within 10 days for a full refund— even 
if you just change your mind. 

We also honor all manufacturers' warranties. Our expert technicians will service any 
product we sell that cannot be better, or faster, serviced by the manufacturer's local service 
center. 

Call us for more information on products, product configuration and service. Our phones 
are open Monday thru Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. and Saturday 1LOO am to 400 pm 

We have a staff of highly knowledgeable sales people waiting to hear from you, and 
to help. Because service is what we're all about. 



INTELLIGENT VIDEO I/O FOR S-100 BUS 




VIO-X 

The VIO-X I/O Interface for the S-100 bus 
provides features equal to most intelligent 
terminals both efficiently and economically. 
It allows the use of standard keyboards 
and CRT monitors in conjunction with 
existing hardware and software. It will 
operate with no additional overhead in 
S-100 systems regardless of processor or 
system speed. 

Through the use of the Intel 8275 CRT 
controller with an onboard 8085 processor 
and 4k memory, the VIO-X interface 
operates independently of the host system 
and communicates via two ports. The 
screen display rate is effectively 80,000 
baud. 

The VIO-X1 provides an 80 character by 
24 line format using a 7 x 9 dot matrix to 
display the full upper and lower case ASCII 
alphanumeric 96 printable character set 
(including true descenders) with special 
characters for escape and control charac- 
ters. An optional 2732 character generator 
is available which allows an alternate 7X9 
contiguous graphics character set. 




The VIO-X2 offers an 80 character by 25 
line format using a 9 x 9 dot matrix 
allowing high-resolution characters to be 
used. This model also includes expanded 
firmware for block mode editing. 

Both models support a full set of control 
characters and escape sequences, includ- 
ing controls for video attributes, cursor 
location and positioning, cursor toggle, 
light pen location, and scroll speed. 

Video attributes provided by the 8275 in 
the VIO-X include: 

• FLASH CHARACTER 

• INVERSE CHARACTER 

• UNDERLINE CHARACTER or 

• ALTERNATE CHARACTER SET 

• DIM CHARACTER 

The above functions may be toggled 
together or separately. 

The board may be addressed at any port 
pair in the S-100 host system. Status and 
data ports may be swapped if necessary. 
Inputs are provided for parallel keyboard 
and for light pen as well as an output for 
audio signalling. The interrupt structure is 
completely compatible with Digital 
Research's MP/M 



FEATURES 

HIGH SPEED OPERATION 
PORT MAPPED S-100 INTERFACE 
FORWARD/REVERSE SCROLL or 
PROTECTED SCREEN FIELDS 
CONVERSATIONAL or BLOCK MODE 
INTERRUPT OPERATION 
CUSTOM CHARACTER SET 
CONTROL CHARACTERS 
ESCAPE CHARACTER COMMANDS 
INTELLIGENT TERMINAL EMULATION 
TWO PAGE SCREEN MEMORY 

VIO-X1 80X24 7X9 A&T $295.00 
Conversational & Limited Block Modes 

VIO-X2 80X25 9X9 A&T $345.00 
Conversational & Block Modes 



i f 



xn 




I MC*«0*"C| 

T 



1 



VIO-X S 100 I/O INTERFACE 



»^285 



FULCRUIVI Distributed by 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS WW COMPONENT SUPPLY INC. 1 771 JUNCTION AVENUE 



SAN JOSE, CA 951 12 • (408)295-7171 



190 Microcomputing, July 1981 



DIGITAL RESEARCH: PARTS 



\\ 



TOP QUALITY PARTS FOR LESS 



9 Watt Stereo 
Amplifier 

Brand New! 





4 Digit -12 Hour D.C. 

Clock Module 



Fantastic! 

One of the neatest Items we have 
come up with. Operates on 8 to 20V. 
A.C. or D.C. (on board diodes). 

• Separate tone control pots 

• Balance control 
•Volume control 

Separate Inputs for phono, radio, 

recorder, etc. Separate jack for head 

phones. 

Replace your car stereo amp. Easy 

hook up — approximately 10 mln. 

with our "how to" instructions. 

Transformer for above — $3.50 




Video Game 
Board 



4 



00 



or 3 for 10 50 



^0$ 



IC Specials! 

LM1889-2 28 

MC1310-1 i0 

LM3820-A.M. 
Radio on a chip 91-00 
w/specs. ** ■ 

16 Pin Header 

HiiiitlUhHl 

■■■■■■ft 4/1 00 



Voltage 
Regulator 



LM309K 




On board time base using popular 
MM5369. Operates on 12 Volt D.C. 
Display can be blanked. 
Draws 30 MA-Display On. 13 MA - 
Display Off. Includes standard 3x4 
Matrix control board (not shown). 
Module measures 2% x 1%. Extra 
bright magnified digits. Display con- 
tains 2 extra digits for custom appli- 
cations (calendar, lap counter, or ?). 




4 



45 



Power Transistor 
TO220 Case 



3/1 




1 Amp 30 Watts 100 Volt 
TIP30C(PNP) 
TIP29C(NPN) 



5 Volt - 1 Amp Regulator 
T03 Case. Super Special! 



Sprague RFI Filter 
3 M or 3/9 00 

Perfect for Computers, or any- 
thing that needs to be "glitch" 
free. By the #1 name in filter- 
ing, Sprague. JN17-5109B. 
Has I.E.C. Power Line Con- 
nector. 2x3 Amp. 1 15/220 VAC 
60 Hz. 2%" x 2V 2 " x 3" deep. 



3for12 00 



Hockey • Tennis • Handball 

• General Instruments AY3-8500 

• Features Exciting Sounds 

• On Screen Scoring 

• Speed & Paddle Controls 

• 1 or 2 Players 

• Works on 8-15 Volts D.C. 

Each board comes with RF Modulator 
(Ch. 3 or 4) and schematic. The only 
parts needed to complete game are 
speaker, 2-1 Meg Pots & Switches. 



Gold Wire 
Wrap Sockets 

Not Gold 
Inlay as Sold 
By Others. 

Super 3 Level 
Gold Wire Wrap. 

14Pin-10/3 M ,25/8 78 
16 Pin -10/4 M , 25/11" 




Switch Banks 




[Rectifier Diode/ 

IN4007 j£ 

11/1 00 



/ 



1000 Volts, 1 Amp 
DO-41 Case • Prime • 
Long Lead • Marked. 



RCA Triac 

79° 

5 for 3 50 

T2800M-TO220 Case 
6 Amp 600 Volt 




• Non Canceling O50 

• DPDT-PC or Solder ^ 

• Switches Easily Removed 

• Push On/Push Off 
THAT'S INCREDIBLE! 



Video Paddle 
Controls 

2 for 1 oc 

1 Meg 

Can be used with 
game board above. 




Telephone 
Accessories 

by Edwards 



JFETOPAMP 

Super High Input Impedance 
(10 12 OHMS) — High Frequen- 
cy Response. TO 4 MHZ. 
Large DC Voltage Gain 106 DB 
— New generation OP-AMP 
with Vastly Superior Features! 

LF356BH-75«or3/2 00 



48 V 
Loud 




Micro Mini 
Toggle Switch 

£ 99« 




6 for 5 00 

SPDT • Made in USA 
with Hardware 



DON'T MISS THE 7205 TOSHIBA POWER AUDIO AMP ON PAGE 13 OF OUR FREE CA TALOG! 



TERMS < 

Add SO (tostiqe w pay balance. Order? under IS add 75 handlmq. No 
COO W" irrv\>i Visa MasterCard and American Express ^rds. Te« kes. 
add S Tar Foreign orders (Canada 10 ) add 20 P H. H 



• VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS • 



Digital Research: Paris 

P.O. Box 401247 • Garland, T«xai 75040 

(214) 271-2461 



Accessories for Apple 



Disk Drives 




MX-80 - Epson 

1.V2 column. 9x9 dot matrix, multiple fonts 
PRM-27080 Save $100.00 Call 

MX-70 
PRM-27070 With Graftrax II Call 

Interface & Cable for Apple $110.00 




SPINWRITER - NEC 



6.5 cps, hi directional, letter quality printer with deluxe 

tractor mechanism, both parallel and serial interfaces on 

board. 16K buffer, ribbon, print thimble, graphics, micro 

space justification, data cable, and self test diagnostic 

ROM. 

PRD-55511 without 16K buffer ... $2795.00 

PRD-55512 with 16K buffer $2895.00 



Accessories for TRS-80 




DISK DRIVES for TRS-80 

tSFIk more storage. 8 times faster. 40 track with free patch, 120 

day warranty. 

MSM-12410C Save $125.00 !!! $325.00 

8" DISK DRIVES for MODEL II 

2 double density drives with cabinet, power supply, & cables 
END-000433 Kit $1050.00 

END-000434 Assembled $1250.00 

WC A -5036 A Cable (required) $29.95 



Special Purchase - Save $50.00 

Novation Cat Modem 

300 baud, answer and originate 




(We have 
only JS€C 265 
availible at this 

special price) 

IOM-5200A List price $189.95 $139.95 

D-CAT300 baud, direct connect modem 

IOM-5201 A Special sale price $189.00 

AUTO-CAT Auto answer ongiate. direct connect 
IOM-5230A Special sale price $239.95 




16K MEMORY UPGRADE 

Add 16K of RAM to your TRS-80, Apple, or Exidy in just 
minutes. We've sold thousands of these 16K RAM 
upgrade* which include the appropriate memory chips (as 
specified by the manufacturer), all necessary jumper 
blocks fool proof instructions, and our 1 year guarantee. 
MEX-16100K TRS-80 kit $29.00 

MEX-16101K Apple kit $29.00 

MEX-16102K Exidy kit $29.00 

16K RAM Card - Microsoft 

(There is life after 48 K) 
MEX-16300A A&T $174.95 

Z-80* CARD for APPLE 

Two computers in one. Z-80 & 6502, more than doubles the 
power & potential of your Apple, includes Z-80* CPU card, 
CP M 2.2, & BASIC 80 
CPX-30800A A&T $279.95 



Atari 800 $799.95 



APPLE CLOCK - Cal Comp Sys 

Real time clock w battery backup 
IOK-2030A A&T $109.95 

APPLE STICK - Micromate 

Joy stick with pots for Apple II 
SYA-1510A A&T $49.95 

VISICALC - Personal Sftwr 

The ultimate program for your Apple II 
SFA-24101005M Complete package $139.95 

DOS 3.3 UPGRADE - Apple 

Upgrade your old DOS to the improved 3.3 
IOD-2233A Complete kit $64.95 

DISK DRIVE for APPLE 

5'//" disk drive with controller for your Apple 

MSM-12310C with controller $475.00 

MSM-123101 w/ out controller $375.00 



8" DRIVES for APPLE 

Controller. DOS. two 8" double densisty drives, cabinet, 
power supply, & cables 

Special Package Price Kit $1399.95 

PRINTER INTERFACE - CCS. 

Centronics type I O card w/ firmware 
IOI-2041A A&T $99.95 

AIO, ASIO, APIO - S.S.M. 

Parallel & serial interface for your Apple (see Byte pg ID 

IOI-2050K Par & Ser kit $129.95 

IOI-2050A Par & Ser A&T $159.95 

IOI-2052K Serial kit $89.95 

IOI-2052A Serial A&T $99.95 

IOI-2054K Parallel kit $69.95 

IOI-2054A Parallel A&T $89.95 

A488 - S.S.M. 

IEEE 488 controller, uses simple basic commands, 
includes firmware and cable, 1 year guarantee, (see April 
Byte pg 11) 

IOX-7488A A&T $399.95 



JADE's new dual disk sub-assemblies include: 
Handsome metal cabinet with proportionally 
balanced air flow system, assembled & tested 
dual drive power supply, quiet whisper type 
cooling fan, power-cable kit, lighted power switch, 
approved fuse assembly, line cord, Never-Mar 
rubber feet, and all necessary hardware to mount 
2-8" disk drives it's all American made, 
guaranteed for six months, and it's in stock! 
Dual 8" Sub-Assembly Cabinet 

END-000421 Cabinet kit $225.00 

END-000420 Bare cabinet $59.95 

Single sided, double density disk drive sub-system 
END-000423 Kit w 2 8" drives $975.00 

END-000424 A&T w/2 8" drives $1 195.00 

Double sided, double density disk drive sub-system 
END-000426 kit w/2 8" drives $1495.00 

END-000427 A & T w/2 8" drives $1695.00 

8" DISK DRIVES 

Highly reliable double density floppy disk drives 

Shugart 801 H single sided, double density 

MSF-10801R SA-801R $425.00 

Special Sale Price 2 for $790.00 

Shugart 851 R double sided, double density 
MSF-10851R SA-851R $595.00 

Special Sale Price 2 for $1150.00 

Siemens PDD100-8D2 single sided, double density 

MSF-201 120 6 mo warranty $385.00 

Special sale price 2 for $750.00 

Qume Datatrak 8 double sided, double density 
MSF-750080 SA-851R compatible .. $599.95 
Special sale price 2 for $1160.00 

JADE DISK PACKAGE 

Double density controller, two 8" double density floppy 
disk drives, CP M 2.2 (configured for controller), hardware 
and software manuals, boot PROM, cabinet, power supply, 
fan, & cables 
Special Package Price Kit $1395.00 



Diskettes 



DISKETTES - Jade 

Bargain prices on magnificent magnetic media 
single sided, single density, box of 10 
MMD-51 10103 Soft sector $27.95 

MMD-51 1 1003 10 sector $27.95 

MMD-51 1 1603 16 sector $27.95 

5 1 ," double sided, double density, box of 10 

MMD-5220103 Soft sector $39.95 

8" single sided, single density, box of 10 

MMD-8110103 Soft sector $33.95 

8" single sided, double density, box of 10 

MMD-8120103 Soft sector $39.95 

8" double sided, double density, box of 10 
MMD-8220103 Soft sector $49.95 



Video Monitors 



13" COLOR MONITOR - Zenith 

The hi res color you've been promising yourself 

VDC-201301 $449.0< 

12" GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

20 MHz, P.'il phosphor video monitor with audio, 
exceptionally high resolution ■ A fantastic monitor at a\ 
very reasonable price 

VDM-651200 12" monitor $259.9^ 

Leedex / Amdek 

Reasonably priced video monitors 
VDM-801210 Video 100 12" B&W . $149.9* 
VDM-801230 Video 100-80 12" B& W $189.9i 
VDM-801250 12" Green Phospor .... $189.91 
VDC-801310 13" Color I $399.91 



S-100 CPU 



S-100 Memory 



S-100 Disk Controller 




HI 

CB-2 Z-80 CPU - S.S.M. 

2 or 4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with provision for up to 8K of 
ROM or 4K of RAM on board, extended addressing, IEEE 
S-100, front panel compatible. 

CPU-30300K Kit $239.95 

CPU-30300A A&T $299.95 

THE BIG Z* - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchable Z-80* CPU with serial I/O, 
accomodates 2708, 2716, or 2732 EPROM, baud rates from 
75 to 9600 

CPU-30201K Kit $145.00 

CPU-30201A A&T $199.00 

CPU-30200B Bare board $35.00 

2810 Z-80* CPU - Cal Comp Sys 

2 / MHz Z-80A* CPU with RS2H2C serial 1 Oport and on- 
board MOSS 2.2 monitor PROM, front panel compatible. 

CPU-30400A A & T $269.95 

SBC-200 - SD Systems 

4 MHz Z-80* CPU with serial & parallel I O ports, up to 8K 
of onboard PROM, software programmable baud rate 
generator, IK of on board RAM, Z-80 CTC. 

CPC-30200K Kit $339.95 

CPC-30200A Jade A & T $399.95 



S-100 I/O 




1/0-4 - S.S.M. 

2 serial I O ports plus 2 parallel I/O ports 

IOI-1010K Kit $159.95 

IOI-1010A A & T $219.95 

IOI-1010B Bare board $35.00 

S.P.I.C. - Jade 

Our new I O card with 2 SlO't, 4 CTC's. and 1 PIO 



IOM045K 2 CTC's, 1 Sl(). 1 PIO . 

1O1-1045A A & T 

IOI-1046K 4 CTC's, 2 SIO's, 1 PIO 

IO1-1046A A & T 

IOI-1045B Bare board w manual 
)I-1045D Manual only 



$199.00 
$259.00 
$259.00 
$319.00 
$59.95 
$20.00 



Motherboards 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple, and on gale a better motherboard 

6 Slot (5 'A" x 8%") 

IMBS-061B Bare board $19.95 

MBS-061K Kit $39.95 

IMBS-061A A & T $49.95 

12 Slot (9*4" x 8%") 

IMBS-121B Bare board $29.95 

MBS-121K Kit $69.95 

IMBS-121A A & T $89.95 

IS Slot (14'/j" x HVm") 

[MBS-181B Bare board $49.95 

MBS-181K Kit $99.95 

lMBS-181 A A & T $139.95 

■■■■iHHilllli^HHMMI^HMiil^^^ 



«»"#!?* «. >s 



I " W' 

r - r 



1^ 
EXPANDORAM II - S D Systems 

4 MHz RAM board expandable from 16K to 64K 

MEM-16630K 16K kit $275.95 

MEM-32631K 32 K kit $295.95 

MEM-48632K 48K kit $315.95 

MEM-64633K 64K kit $335.95 

Assembled & tested add $50.00 

64K RAM - Calif Computer Sys 

4 MHz bank port bank byte selectable, extended 
addressing, 16K bank selectable, PHANTOM line allows 
memory overlay, 8080 Z-80 front panel compatible. 

MEM-64565A A & T $575.00 

MEMORY BANK - Jade 

/ MHz, IEEE S-100, bank selectable, 8 or 16 bit, 
expandable from 16K to 256 K 

MEM-99730B Bare board $55.00 

MEM-99730K Kit, no RAM $219.95 

MEM-16730K 16K kit $249.95 

MEM-32731K 32K kit $289.95 

MEM-48732K 48K kit $324.95 

MEM-64733K 64 K kit $359.95 

Assembled & tested add $50.00 

32K STATIC RAM - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz expandable static RAM board uses 21 NL's 

MEM-16151K 16K4MHzkit $169.95 

MEM-32151K 32K 4 MHz kit $299.95 

Assembled & tested add $50.00 

16K STATIC RAM - Cal Comp Sys 

2 or 4 MHz 16K static RAM board, IEEE S-100, bank 
selectable. Phantom capability, addressable in 4K blocks 
MEM-16160A I6K 2 MHz A&T ... $286.95 
MEM-16162A 16K 4 MHz A & T . . . $289.95 
MEM-16160B Bare board $50.00 



S-100 PROM Boards 





DOUBLE-D - Jade 

Double density controller with the inside track, onboard Z- 
80A*, printer port, IEEE S-100, can function on an 
interrupt driven buss 

IOD-1200K Kit $299.95 

IOD-1200A 8" A&T $389.95 

IOD-1205A 5%" A&T $389.95 

IOD-1200B Bare board $65.00 

DOUBLE DENSITY - Cal Comp Sys 

5' i" and 8" dish controller, single or double density, with 
on board boot loader ROM, and free CP M 2.2* and 
manual set. 

IOD-1300A A&T $369.95 

VERSAFLOPPY II - SD Systems 

New double density controller for both 8" & 5'A" 

IOD-1 160K Kit $339.95 

IOD-1 160A A&T $379.95 



S-100 Video 



VB-3 - S.S.M. 

80 characters x 24 lines expandable to 80 x 48 for a full page 
of text, upper & lower case, 256 user defined symbols. 160 x 
192 graphics matrix, memory mapped, has key board 
input. 

IOV-1095K 4 MHz kit $345.00 

IOV-1095A 4 MHz A&T $395.95 

IOV-1096K 80 x 48 upgrade $39.95 

VDB-8024 - SD Systems 

80 x 24 I () mapped video board with keyboard I O, and 
on board Z-80 A*. 

IOV-1020K Kit $399.95 

IOV-1020A Jade A&T $459.95 



VIDEO BOARD - Jade 

64 characters x 16 lines, 7x9 dot matrix, full upper lower 
case ASCII character set, numbers, symbols, and greek 
letters, normal reverse blinking video, S-100. 

IOV-1050K Kit $99.95 

IOV-1050A A&T $125.00 

IOV-1050B Bare board $29.95 



2114L Low Power 4MHz 



PB-1 - S.S.M. 

2708, 2716 EPROM board with built in programmer 

MEM-99510K Kit $139.95 

MEM-99510A A&T $199.95 i 

PROM- 1 00 - SD Systems H 

2708, 2716, 2732, 2758, & 2516 EPROM programmer 

MEM-99520K Kit $219,95 1 

MEM-99520A Jade A&T $269.95 | 

EPROM BOARD - Jade 

16K or 32K uses 2708's or 2716's, IK boundary 

MEM-16230K Kit $79.95 

MEM-16230A A&T $119.95 



1 - 19 

$3.35 



20 - 99 
$2.99 



100 or more 

$2.50 



Place Orders Toll Free 

Continental U.S. Inside California 

800-42 1-5500 800-626- 1710 

For Technical Inquires or Customer Service call: 

213-973-7707 



• 48 





Computer Products 



Mainframes 



MAINFRAME - Cal Comp Sys 

12 slot S 100 mainframe with 20 amp power supply 
ENC 112106 A&T $429.95 



I 




4901 W. Rosecran.s, Hawthorne, Ca 90250 

TKKMS of SALK: Cash, checks, credit cards, or 
Purchase Orders from qualified firms and institutions. 
Minimum Order $15.00. California residents add »i 
tax. Minimum shipping & handling charge $3.00. 
Pricing & availihility subject to change 




ROCOMPUTING 



T.M. 



Peterborough NH 03458 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



121 A B Computers 68 

273 ABM Products 168 

91 Aardvark Technical Services 55 

498 Abacus Software 208 

261 Ackerman Digital Systems, Inc 205 

495 Advanced Management Strategies 206 

393 Adventure International 72,73 

311 Alpha Byte Stores 83 

249 American Software & Systems, Inc 58 

56 American Square Computers 211 

187 AncieLabs 170 

387 Apple Orchard 65 

• Applied Analytics 19 

192 Audio Video Systems 112 

193 Aurora Software 93 

96 Automated Equipment 219 

389 Automated Equipment 200 

55 Automated Simulations 15 

473 Axlon, Inc 199,200 

124 B.T. Enterprises 199 

99 John Bell Engineering 142 

466 Bluebird's Computer Software 210 

471 Braemar Computer Devices, Inc 203,204 

494 Harry H. Briley 209 

110 CFR Associates 76 

476 CGRS Microtech, Inc 199 

256 The CPU Shop 115 

79 C&S Electronics 221 

299 Calif ornia Data Corp 146 

483 California Digital Engineering 206 

470 Centronics Data Computer Corp 198 

165 Charles Mann & Assoc 161 

492 Charles Mann & Assoc 206 

170 Chips & Dale 70 

376 Communications Electronics 179 

90 CompuCover 113 

43 Compumart 188,189 

42 CompuPro 187 

58 The Computer Answer 14 

320 Computer Case Company 82 

18 Computer Design Labs HI 

120 Computer Discount of America 121 

370 Computer Dynamics 146 

384 Computer Mail Order 129 

362 Computer Plus 169 

• Computer Reference Guide 31 

36 Computer Shopper 103 

283 The Computer Stop 60 

105 The Computer Stop 149 

176 Computer Trader 196 

336 The Computerist, Inc 199 

227 Computers Wholesale 145 

6 Computronics 47 

197 Compuware Corporation 218 

297 Concord Computer Products 182 

486 Connecticut Information Systems 207 

346 Courseir Computer Corp 173 

141 Custom Electronics, Inc 172 

• Cybernetics 103 

293 D & N Micro Products 172 

210 Data Ed, Inc 91 

480 Dataroyal, Inc 198 

379 Datasearch, Inc 156 

35 Datasoft - 23 

63 Davis Systems 123 

• Digital Research Computers 180,181 

342 Digital Research, Inc CIII 

• Digital Research Parts 191 

61 Digital Systems Engineering 171 

212 Digital Systems Engineering 213 

250 Discount Software Group 62 

34 Dr. Daley 77 

87 DwoQuongFokLokSow 221 



467 ESI Lynx 202,203 

82 Ecosoft 68 

93 Electronic Specialists 123 

47 Electronic Systems 178 

• Electrovalue Industrial 146 

493 Elliam Associates 210 

272 Ellis Computing 21 

116 Epson America 37 

254 Erickson Communications 134 

327 Essex Publishing 163 

70 FMGCorp 131 

191 Floppy Disk Service 151 

469 G & G Engineering 204 

135 Galactic Software Ltd , 122 

392 General Videotex Corp 205 

22 Gimix, Inc 90 

301 Gimix, Inc 205 

42 Godbout Electronics 187 

5 Hanley Engineering 135 

243 Happy Hands 70 

236 Heath Company 49 

• Heath Company 48 

209 Ian Electronics 112 

223 Inmac 131 

382 Innovative Software Applications 195 

40 Instant Software 27,159,164,165 

75 Instant Software 112,118,140,148,196,218 

77 Integrand Research Corp 76 

151 Interface, Inc 14 

3 Intertec Data Systems 3 

203 J.C. Datatron 38 

180 J.E.S. Graphics 103 

92 J.P.C. Products 123 

126 JR Inventory Company 39 

48 Jade Computer Products 192,193 

41 Jameco 184,185 

353 Jini Microsystems 207 

247 Joe Computer 127 

222 Kalglo Electronics 70 

198 LNW Research 214 

• L & S Computer Ware 155 

355 Leading Edge Products 11 

23 Level IV Products, Inc 69,137 

312 Lifeboat Associates 79 

373 Logical Devices 143 

330 Logical Systems, Inc 201 

316 MCP Computer Products 131 

190 MI-8 172 

234 Magnolia Microsystems 218 

485 Manhattan Software 209 

• McGraw-Hill Book Company 30 

161 Meta Technologies Corp 7 

308 Micro 80, Inc 122 

108 Micro Architect 106 

487 Microcom, Inc 208 

488 Microcomputer Consultants 207 

260 The Microcomputer Warehouse 58 

248 Microdome 213 

468 Micro-Expander, Inc 198 

• Micro Journal 200 

68 Micro Mail 78 

100 Micro Management Systems 45 

134 Micro Matrix 205 

• Microsette 139 

154 Micro Technology Unlimited 107 

465 Microtek, Inc 203 

150 Midwest Computer Peripherals 119 

144 Midwest Scientific Instruments 124,125 

• Mikos 183 

255 Miller Microcomputer Services 128 

391 Minis 'n Micros 205 

304 Mini Micro Mart HO 

238 Mini Micro Mart 223 



C kiloboud -t w\ 
MICROCOMPUTING ) 



Reader Service Number Page 

50 Mini Micro Mart 224 

226 Mini Micro Mart 225 

37 Mullen Computer Products 114 

81 Multi Business Computer Systems 136 

491 Muse Software 207 

496 MuSYS 209 

378 Natural Language Systems 196 

Netronics R & D Ltd 210,22,130 

474 Newtech Computer Systems, Inc 204 

286 Nibble 144 

356 The OLCTD 12 

• Oasis Systems 208 

4 Ohio Scientific CIV 

365 OkidataCorp 87 

130 Olensky Brothers, Inc 82 

89 Omega Sales Company 40 

140 Omnitek Systems 70 

475 Onyx Distribution, Inc 200 

310 Orange Micro 97 

368 Osborne Computers 25 

489 PhD Associates, Inc 208 

129 PM Computers 27 

246 Pacific Exchanges 112 

172 Pacific Exchanges 51 

274 Pacific Exchanges 106 

153 Pacific Off ice Systems 123 

71 Pan American Electronics 213 

1 Percom Data Company CII 

472 Percom Data Company 200,202 

98 Peripherals Plus 38 

266 Perry Oil& Gas 157 

303 Personal Computer Systems 18 

499 Personal Software, Inc 206 

202 Progressive Computing 203 

44 Quest Electronics 177 

52 RNB Enterprises 186 

482 RKS Enterprises 204 

390 R.W. Electronics 138 

101 Racet Computes 136 

• Rainbow Computing 161 

142 Random Access, Inc 147 

102 Rand's Inc 141 

479 Raster Graphics 202 

• Realty Software Company 112 

74 Rondure Company 27 

146 Scelbi Publications 173 

374 Select Information Systems, Inc 71 

497 Select Information Systems, Inc 210 

386 Simutek 8 

132 Sixty-eight Micro Journal 205 

• Snapp, Inc 13 

484 Softronics 206 

385 Software Concepts 209 

213 Software Consultants 205 

306 Spectrum Software 27 

217 Standard Software Corp. of America 148 

288 The Stocking Source 33 

244 Sun Research 57 

367 System Software Design, Inc 140 

189 Tab Sales Company 151 

• Taranto & Associates 166 

233 Tarheel Software Systems 173 

139 Tecmar, Inc 147 

328 Texas Computer Systems 203 

VR Data Corp 53 

214 Vanhorn Office Supply 156 

200 Votrax 17 

285 W. W. Components Supply 190 

• Wameco, Inc 1 83 

• West Side Electronics 30 

284 White River Products 171 

163 WintekCorp 140 

45 Wordcraft 171 

122 World Wide Electronics 205 






For further information from our advertisers, please use the Reader Service card. 



'This advertiser prefers to be contacted directly. 



194 Microcomputing, July 1981 



READER 
SERVICE 

Please help us to bring you a better 
magazine — by answering these questions: 



1. What is your age ? 

2. What is your annual Incoma? 



00 
3. What is your education level? 









you own a microcomputer? 



5. What kind of system? 



What was the cost? 
$1 000 



What is the primary use of your 
computer? 












8. What Is your occupational field? 






9. Does your employer own a 
computer? 

10. Do you work with the company 
computer? 

11. Do you have any influence on the 
use of the company computer? 

12. Do you have any influence over or 
make the decisions on the purchase 
of computer equipment for your 
employer? 

13. If you are not a subscriber, please 
circle 500 




Kilobaud Microcomputing* July 1981 



Reader Service: Return this card to receive full information on the products 
advertised in this issue. Refer to the ad. You will find numbers near the logo of 
each advertiser. Each represents the advertiser's mdividual Reader Service 
number. Circle the corresponding numbers on one of the cards on this page, in- 
clude your name, address & zip, and drop in a mailbox. In 4-6 weeks you'll hear 

from the advertiser directly. 

This card valid until September 30, 1981 
























141 146 
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<•-* 



LETTERS 



(from page 32) 

On Thursday, September 10, 1981, we 
will be devoting our "Media Network" 
program to the subject of home comput- 
ers and how they can be of use to the ac- 
tive shortwave listener. As well as an in- 
troduction to microcomputing, we will 
also be including a short computer pro- 
gram in three different formats, broad- 
cast in machine readable form over the 
air. Providing the signal strength is suffi- 
cient in the listener's area, we hope that it 
will be possible to record the computer 
program (off the air) onto cassette tape 
and play it back into a home computer. 
Preliminary experiments indicate that 
the system should work, but the purpose 
of the experiment is to gauge whether at- 
mospheric noise is low enough in most of 
our target areas to enable the scheme to 
work. If successful, then the idea might 
be repeated on a more regular basis. 
Three computer programs, of use to the 
shortwave listener, and compatible with 
Tandy Radio Shack, Apple and Commo- 
dore PET microcomputers, will be trans- 
mitted. 

We invite readers to tune in to our 
shortwave programs from Holland at the 
times and frequencies listed in Table 1. 
The program runs for 30 minutes. Lis- 
teners who hear the broadcast and try 
out the computer program are encour- 
aged to write in and report their results to 
the following address: 
Computer Experiment 
Media Network 
Radio Netherlands 
PO Box 222 
1200 JG Hilversum, Holland 

J. Marks 

Producer 

Media Network 

Hilversum, Holland 



Better Red than Dead? 

Your paragraph on Phyllis Schlafly 
("Micro-Scope," April 1981) exemplified 
a decades-long characteristic of this cul- 
ture (denouement imminent): what this 
culture scorns most is to think beyond 
the immediate moment to avoid national 
suicide. 

Daniel M. Howard 
Oakland, CA 



Souped-up TRS-80 

While thumbing through some back is- 
sues of Kilobaud Microcomputing, I 
came across Ronald W. Cowart's excel- 
lent article, "More TRS-80 Horsepower- 
Adding Level III BASIC" (October 1979). I 
read with interest the third section of the 
article, "Modifications for Level III BA- 
SIC." Since I own one of the "early mod- 
el" TRS-80s which contain two Level I 
ROMs, I was rather disappointed to dis- 
cover I couldn't add Level III because the 
modification was for the "later models" 
containing only one Level I ROM. With 
much apprehension, I decided to impro- 
vise. 

I followed the directions exactly as they 
were presented in the article with several 
exceptions: 

1 . I connected contact 5 of the switch 
to Z34-20, not Z33-20. (See Fig. 2, p. 75.) 

2. I connected contact 4 of the switch 
to the feedthrough just below the cut for 
the trace at Z34-20, not Z74-9. (See Fig. 
2, p. 75.) 

By making a "piggy back" chip out of 
ROM a and ROM b, I was able to bypass 
my obstacle of having two Level I ROMs 
instead of only one. Caution: Be sure to 
secure the bottom ROM in several layers 
of aluminum foil before soldering, since 
this acts as a heat sink, preventing dam- 
age to the chips. Plug the "piggy back" 
Level I ROM into socket Z34, double- 
check all connections and mount the 
switch as shown. Voila— Level III. 



Short-wave Frequency (kHz) 


Target Area 


9770,9715 


Australia 


9715 


Australia 


15560, 11930, 9895, 6045, 


Europe 


5955 




17605. 1 1930, 9895, 6045, 


Europe 


5955 




11735, 15560, 21480 


Southeast Asia 


15220. 6020 


East Africa 


21685, 17695, 17605, 15220, 


West and central Africa 


9715 


(frequencies also audi- 




ble in Europe) 


9590, 6165 


Eastern North America 


9715,6165 


Western North America 



07.47 
08.47 
09.47 

13.50 

14.47 
18.47 
20.47 



02.47* 

05.47* 

•Note, this and the next transmission are shown as early Friday morning GMT, but it 

is still Thursday evening in the target area. 

Table 1 . 




ELLGUARD 



Spelling Checker 
for Professionals. 

SPELLGUARD eliminates 
spelling and typographical 
errors in documents pre- 
pared with CP/M 1 or CDOS 2 
word processors. 

SPELLGUARD is a 
unique program that leads 
the microcomputing indus- 
try in its efficiency, ease of 
use, and reliability. 

FAST 

• Proofreads 20 pages in under 
one minute.* 

POWERFUL 

• 20,000 word dictionary, ex- 
pandable with single keystroke. 

• Properly handles hyphens and 
apostrophes. 

• Allows multiple, technical 
dictionaries. 

RELIABLE 

• Over 500 shipped by March 
1981. 

• 30-day money-back limited 
warranty. 

• Industry leading Softguard 
feature ensures diskette copy of 
program is undamaged. 

EASY TO USE 



• On-line help feature. 

• Misspelled words marked 
in text for easy, in-context 
correction. 

• Examples of all functions in 
120 page manual. 

COST EFFECTIVE 



• SPELLGUARD S unique speed 
and accuracy easily recovers the 
suggested S295 price. 

"Time estimates based on double density 
8 diskettes and 4Mhz system. 

Trademarks: 'Digital Research, Cromemco 

Contact your local dealer or write 
ISA for a SPELLGUARD brochure. 



The fast, accurate 
proofreader. 

INNOVATIVE SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS 

P.O. Box 2797, Menlo Park, CA 94025 
(415)326-0805 ,^382 



^See List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 195 



UNIDEP™ 
Asset Management Program 

Designed for you. Adapts to your 
accounting system & hardware. You 
choose: 

• depreciation type 

• length of term 

• reporting period 

• when to print reports 

• when to update values 

Change any value any time. 
Includes investment credit, bonus 
depr. $99 for Apple II (32K) or TRS 
80 Mod 1 1 (64 K), 1 Disk. 



Another UNIFACE® product from 

Natural Language Systems. Inc 

411 Barber Ave 

Ann Arbor, Mich 48103 

(313)668-1806 



^378 



Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc 
TRS 80 is a registered trademark of Radio Shack 



BUY! SELL! TRADE! 

COMPUTER & HAM EQUIPMENT 

\2 COMPUTER 
T TRADER „«■ 

"GREEN SHEETS" 

Mailed 1st class, 1st and 15th of every month 

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Send Ads and Subscriptions with remittance to: 

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For ads count name and address, words and numbers 

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Although I don't use Level I very often, 
it's still nice to know it's there whenever I 
have the urge to "return to the grass 
roots." 

Bob Wesley 

Plattsburgh, NY 



IDS Update 

Several changes of interest have taken 
place since my article, "A Tale of Two 
Screen Dumps" (April 1981, p. 174), was 
written. Integral Data Systems (IDS) re- 
cently stopped manufacture of the Model 
440 printer and replaced it with the less 
expensive 445. It is totally compatible 
with the older 440, since most of the 
changes involve a new head, ribbon and 
head drive motor. IDS also began ship- 
ment of the new 460 and 560 printers. 
They are definitely not compatible soft- 
ware-wise with the screen dumps de- 
scribed. Computer Stations, however, is 
now delivering another software package 
identical to the enhanced version to drive 
the 460 and 560 printers. I have person- 
ally used this package on the 460 printer 
and found it to perform identically with 
the 440 version. (The 560 printer is es- 
sentially a "stretch" version of the 460 
and will take wider paper. It is otherwise 
identical with the 460 printer.) 

There is, however, a tremendous differ- 
ence in the graphic output quality. The 
460 printer can truly make a white piece 
of paper black, and leave white dots for 
the graphic output. (See Example 1.) Al- 
so, the image printed by the 460 will have 
the correct aspect ratio (i.e., circles on the 
Apple screen will be printed as circles on 
the 460). 

Computer Stations has advised me 
that they now offer a similar package for 
use with Pascal (Pascal Tigergraphics) 
and either the 440/445 or 460/560 print- 



ers. I haven't used either of these pack- 
ages, and merely make note of their avail- 
ability for those of you with interest in 
Pascal. 

Jim Hansen 
Lebanon, NH 



Dynamic Software for MSI 

I have been using Software Dynamics 
software exclusively for the past several 
years on my Midwest Scientific Instru- 
ments computer and would like to share 
with your readers the many benefits 
available from the system. 

SDBASIC Version 1.4 has been opti- 
mized for use with SDOS, SD's proprie- 
tary operating system, which is available 
for many 68xx-based machines. As such 
it is about one-third faster than previous 
versions, and programs are more com- 
pact. However, five unique features war- 
rant its consideration over any other 
higher-level language currently avail- 
able: the use of long variable names, la- 
bels to replace line numbers, subroutines 
and multi-line user definitions similar to 
FORTRAN and Pascal, unusually power- 
ful string-handling capabilities and jump 
table access to the run-time-package 
floating point routines. While many lan- 
guages offer one or more of these fea- 
tures, I know of none available for micro- 
computers which offers all. 

The total SD package is also unique in 
many respects. Two editors (line and 
screen), an assembler and several appli- 
cation programs all designed to work 
with SDOS are available. Expected in the 
next few months are a relocating assem- 
bler and linker, which will support the 
powerful potential of the externally de- 
fined subroutine and user definition ca- 
pabilities. 

SDOS itself has features which will be 



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Example 1 . Print sample on the enhanced package disk printed on the 460 printer 
in the "picture" mode to show how the printer can print a solid black background 
leaving white graphics. 



196 Microcomputing, July 1981 



much appreciated by anyone who has 
tried to modify an operating system in a 
unique way. It consists of three parts. 
The main part, SDOS proper, cannot eas- 
ily be manipulated, but there is no real 
need to do so because its function is to in- 
terpret system calls and handle system 
architecture such as disk device and file 
drivers unique to SDOS. Because of this, 
however, the interface between the hard- 
ware and SDOS, the I/O package, is avail- 
able to the user in source code form to 
add, delete or modify devices as he sees 
fit. The third part, the command inter- 
preter, is written primarily in BASIC. 
This means any command you want to 
add or modify can be written in BASIC, 
although the user retains the option to 
use assembly language as well. For ex- 
ample, the standard FILES command 
does not have a date search routine. I 
added a BEFORE, AFTER and FOR 
<date> extension in a couple of hours, en- 
tirely in BASIC. 

Robert B. Peirce 
McMurray , PA 

It's Not in the Stars 

I wish to protest the inclusion of the ar- 
ticle "Astrology and the Microcomputer" 
(p. 124) in your March 1981 issue. I think 
the inclusion of an article on such a dubi- 
ous subject has no place in a serious pub- 
lication. 

I have no desire to give any refutation 
of astrology. Organizations such as the 
American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science's Committee for the In- 
vestigation of the Paranormal have done 
a more complete job than I could present 
here, including a disconfirmation of Gau- 
quelin's supposed correlations. 

What I consider more important is the 
editorial policy of your journal. I do not 
understand how anyone involved in such 
a rational subject as computing could, 
with integrity, publish an article on such 
antiscientific subjects as astrology. Su- 
perstition has no place in serious journals. 

H. Sey werd 
Scarborough, Ontario 

Response: 

The reference Mr. Seywerd makes is to 
the committee which published "The 
Zetetic." The statistical approach used 
was not always flawless, and further, a 
number of the "hypotheses" tested had 
nothing in common with astrology as 
practiced. (For a refutation of one exam- 
ple of the statistics as published, see Guy 
le Clercq, "CAO Times" 3(4), 1977.) 

As a member in good standing of the 
American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science and the New York Acad- 
emy of Sciences, my evaluation of the 
work of the "scientists" who have chosen 
to attack astrology is that their knowl- 
edge of astrology is too superficial for 
them to be able to say anything intelli- 
gent on the subject. I did not claim in my 



article, nor do I believe, that astrology is a 
science; it lacks any paradigm system. 
Hence, it is inappropriate to label it anti- 
scientific; more properly, it is nonscien- 
tific. However, I do find it interesting that 
Mr. Seywerd's letter is loaded with emo- 
tionalism, albeit disguised by appropri- 
ate invective ("rational"? "dubious"? 
"serious"?), which would seemingly be in- 
admissible in a truly scientific discussion. 

Dr. J. Lee Lehman 
New York, NY 



Computer Use Down Under 

Since writing my article, "The Micro 
Down Under" (February 1981, p. 69), I 
have learned of the good work of the An- 
gle Park Computing Center in Adelaide, 
South Australia, in promoting the use of 
computers in schools in that state and in 
the adjacent Northern Territory. Al- 
though sparsely populated, these two re- 
gions cover a total area equal to one-third 
of the continental U.S. and serve 300 
schools as far apart as Darwin and Mount 
Gambier — a distance further than Minne- 
apolis to Houston. 

The Angle Park Center operates a mi- 
crocomputer loan system to more than 
70 schools and offers over 100 education- 
al packages. In 1980 they conducted 
courses at the Center for 9000 students 
and more than 1000 teachers. 

Quite clearly the efforts of Australia's 
least densely populated states, Tasmania, 
West Australia and South Australia (plus 
the Northern Territory), put the remain- 
ing states of Australia to shame in the use 
of computers in schools. 

Right now a fierce argument is raging 
in Australia on questions of literacy (par- 
ticularly the lack of it) among our school 
leavers. I believe that this skill is assisted 
by exposure to computing in schools, es- 
pecially if the computers are skillfully in- 
corporated into remedial teaching. 
Therefore, I hope Australia's most popu- 
lated states, New South Wales, Queens- 
land and Victoria, will soon follow the 
lead of Tasmania and South Australia 
and give the micro its rightful place in 
their education systems. 

Colin Keay 
Newcastle, N.S.W., Australia 

A Prank Assessment 

I disagree strongly with Thomas 
Franks' review of William Barden's How 
to Program Microcomputers (January 
1 98 1 , p. 24 1 ). It is an excellent book for a 
novice programmer. That book, together 
with TSC's well-commented source list- 
ings, taught me most of what I know 
about assembly-language programming 
—not a good subject to learn without a 
teacher, but I did it, thanks to Barden's 
book. 

Tom Boyd 
Surrey, England 



Call 
For 



Manuscripts 

Kilobaud Microcomputing is 
looking for business articles! 

Businessmen in all fields are be- 
ginning to take notice of the micro- 
computer. They are eager to know 
which computers, peripheral equip- 
ment and applications software will 
let them take full advantage of this 
new tool. What knowledge do you 
have to share? 

Here are the kinds of articles that 
we want you to write for us: 

• Are you a businessman with a 
system up and running? We want to 
know how it works. What were your 
expectations? Have they been ful- 
filled? Did you find the software that 
you wanted? What problems have 
you had? How did you overcome 
them? What recommendations do 
you have for other businessmen? 

• We want reviews from a busi- 
nessman's perspective of specific 
hardware and software. If you've re- 
cently bought a new product and 
want to tell others how great— or 
poor — it is, Microcomputing will 
provide you with a forum. 

• What programs have you written 
to meet your specific needs? Per- 
haps another businessman can use 
them, too. Even if he can't, your pro- 
gram may serve as a springboard 
for other ideas. 

• Perhaps you aren't using your mi- 
cro for business, but know a com- 
pany that is. Trot on down with your 
pencil and notebook, and find out 
what they're up to. While they might 
not have the time to write up their 
experiences, they might be more 
than willing to tell somebody else 
about them. And an outside obser- 
ver will often be able to see things 
with a unique and valuable perspec- 
tive. 

Don't worry if you're not a profes- 
sional writer. That's what we editors 
are here for. And we'll be more than 
happy to send you a copy of our 
writer's guidelines. 

Send your manuscripts and cor- 
respondence to: 
Kilobaud Microcomputing 
Pine St. 
Peterborough, NH 03458 






Microcomputing, July 1981 197 



NEW PRODUCTS 



Edited by Linda Stephenson 



New Printers from Centronics and Dataroyal 

Business Computer 

PET Floppy Disk 

Atari Memory Expansion 



Graphics Printer 

Centronics Data Computer 
Corp., Hudson, NH 03051, 
has announced its Model 739 
printer. The new printer pro- 
duces correspondence print- 
ing for text and data process- 
ing, plus graphics designed to 
meet the needs of the small- 
business-system user. Stan- 
dard features include pin-ad- 
dressable graphics with a res- 
olution of 74 dots per inch 
horizontal by 72 dots per inch 
vertical, a monospaced print 
speed of 100 cps and an 
acoustical cover that provides 
improved single-sheet paper 
loading and reduces noise. 

The Model 739 prints 7x8 
dot matrix characters with 
true underline at 10 and 16.5 
characters-per-inch for stan- 
dard data processing tasks, 
and generates N x 9 dot ma- 
trix proportional characters 
with true descenders for text 
editing applications. The 
printer creates subscripts and 



superscripts by performing 
forward and reverse half-line 
steps under manual or soft- 
ware control. It accepts 
8-1/2x11 inch cut sheet, 9 
inch pin-to-pin fan-fold and 
roll paper to 8-1/2 inches 
wide. Model 739 serial ver- 
sions include a standard 2K 
buffer suitable for screen 
dump applications. 

The new printer is priced 
under $1000. Reader service 
number 470. 



Intelligent Matrix 
Printer 

The IPS-5000-C intelligent 
dot-matrix printer offers in- 
creased programmable mem- 
ory, graphics, international 
character sets, print-style se- 
lection and other features to 
handle complex printing ap- 
plications and communica- 
tions protocol. Thanks to its 
open-ended direct-memory- 



r 






Centronics Model 739 printer. 



Dataroyal 's new IPS-5000-C high-capacity printer. 



access architecture, the IPS- 
5000-C printer has the poten- 
tial for unlimited memory ex- 
pansion. The standard IPS- 
5000-C contains up to 12K of 
EPROM and 4K of RAM. The 
80-column printer costs 
$1510; 130-column unit is 
$1695. 

Dataroyal, Inc., 235 Main 
Dunstable Road., Nashua, NH 
03060. Reader service num- 
ber 480. 



Versatile Business 
Computer 

The Expander S-100 com- 
puter is built around a single 
board that contains a Z-80A 
CPU, keyboard circuitry, in- 
terrupt, video circuitry, real- 
time clock, parallel printer in- 
terface, RS-232 serial inter- 
face and full color circuitry. It 
requires a video display and 
media storage for operation. 
Features include standard 



80 x 24 screen format, upper/ 
lowercase, 4K ROM monitor, 
64K RAM (expandable to 
512K), video output and color 
graphics using 256 colors and 
a complex tone generator 
with internal speaker. Key- 
board capabilities include cal- 
culator keypad, two program- 
mable function keys and four 
cursor control keys. 

The versatile Expander 
functions as a process control 
or monitoring system, as a 
data communications termi- 
nal or for other applications 
that do not require a video dis- 
play. It has room for several 
S-100 boards, so the comput- 
er can be configured to per- 
form word processing and 
high resolution color graph- 
ics. All CP/M and MP/M soft- 
ware written for the Z-80 will 
run on the Expander. It is sold 
with 24K Microsoft BASIC-80 
(disk version) and 10K Micro- 
soft BASIC-80 (cassette tape 
version). Price is $2200. 

Micro-Expander, Inc., 6835 



198 Microcomputing, July 1981 




The Expander from Micro-Expander, Inc. 



W. Higgins Ave., Chicago, IL 
60656. Reader Service num- 
ber 468. 



Floppy-Disk System 
for PET 

PEDISK II is a low-cost, 
high-performance floppy -disk 
system for the Commodore 
PET. It is available with 5-1/4- 
inch or eight-inch disk drives. 
A small disk controller board 
mounts inside the machine 
and contains the PDOS soft- 
ware ROM and all the disk 
control circuitry. One, two or 
three drives connect to the 
PEDISK II controller board, 
providing a fast mass-storage 
system for the 2000, 4000 or 
8000 series PET. PEDISK II is 
compatible with all Commo- 
dore disk systems, and both 
can be used simultaneously 
in the same machine. With 
appropriate software, files can 
be transferred from one disk 
system to the other. The eight- 
inch PEDISK II system can ex- 
change diskettes with large 
computers. The PDOS soft- 



ware links the resident BASIC 
to the disk system by adding a 
new repertoire of disk com- 
mands. 

The 143K single-drive 
5-1/4-inch system sells for 
$595; the 572K dual-drive 
quad-density system is priced 
at $1195. 

CGRS Microtech, Inc., PO 
Box 102, Langhorne, PA 
19047. Reader service num- 
ber 476. 



Atari Memory 

System 

The Axlon 256 memory 
system increases storage ca- 
pacity of the Atari 800 com- 
puter from 48K of random ac- 
cess memory up to 256K, pro- 
viding a 500 percent expan- 
sion of the RAM memory cur- 
rently available in the Atari 
system. The new Axlon prod- 
uct functions as a very fast 
disk. When compared with 
the Atari 800 disk drive, the 
Axlon system improves disk 
transfer time from 756 bytes 
per second to 128,000 bytes 




MODEL III DISK 
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Catalogue your Diskettes with this easy 
to use Catalogue program for Model III 
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MODEL III SPEED UP! 



Load in the 500 Baud system tapes in 
1/3 the time with copy III. This utility 
will read in your 500 baud system tapes, 
and then write them out at 1 500 baud. 
This gives you backup protection as 
well as speeding up your tapes. A must 
for all Model III Cassette users! 

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If you are holding an AIM, SYM, KIM, PET or OSI, then 
you need our 1981 Product Guide to fill your hand. 

The Computerist deals only superior products: 

Dram Plus — RAM, EPROM, Programmer and I/O. 
Video Plus — Instant video up to 132 by 30, plus 

communication and keyboard ports. 
Mother Plus — Supports multi-board expansion, 

cassette control and more. 
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Power Plus — Triple voltage supply. 

Why stand when you can take a guaranteed hit? 

For the best deal in town, 
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^336 



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Microcomputing, July 1981 199 




The 6502/6809 Journal 



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Axlon 256 memory expansion system for the Atari 800. 



per second. The 256 system is 
plug-in compatible with the 
Atari 800. Installation is ac- 
complished by inserting the 
system interface card into the 
second RAM slot in the 800, 
and the PIA control cable into 
the Atari control jack. All in- 
terface hardware is included 
with the system and no modi- 
fications are required. Axlon 
also includes a modified DOS 
with the system. 

The system comes with two 
32K RAMCRAM modules. Ad- 
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ed until the full 256K capacity 
is achieved. Atari RAM mod- 
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Axlon system. The standard 
system, with 64K of RAM, is 
$895. 

Axlon, Inc., 170 N. Wolfe 
Road, Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 
Reader service number 473. 



Six-Megabyte Hard- 
Disk Micro 

The smallest and most in- 
expensive Onyx microcom- 
puter ever, featuring a 5-1/4- 
inch Winchester hard disk 
with a capacity of 6M, is now 
being offered by Onyx Distri- 
bution, Inc., 315 South Ellis, 



Wichita, KS 672 1 1 . The Onyx 
C5000 has a high-speed Z-80 
processor and high-density 
cartridge tape backup. It is 
compatible with COBOL, Pas- 
cal and FORTRAN. The C5000 
provides an alternative to 
floppy-disk systems for small 
businesses, and is priced at 
$9500. Reader service num- 
ber 475. 



RAM Expansion 
System 

A dynamic RAM card for 
System-50 (SS-50 bus) 680X 
computers is now offered by 
Percom Data Company, 211 
N. Kirby, Garland, TX 75042. 
The M48DSS can be strapped 
to reside in any of the 64K 
banks of a 1M memory space. 
Operating power for a fully 
populated card— 48K of RAM 
— is only 5 W maximum. 

It features block organiza- 
tion, with RAM ICs organized 
as three independent 16K 
blocks. Any block can be 
mapped into any of the four 
16K zones of a 64K address 
space. On-card circuitry per- 
mits deselection of any 8K 
block from the upper 32K ad- 
dress space. M48DSS cards 




The C5000 microcomputer from Onyx Distribution, Inc. 



200 Microcomputing, July 1981 



NOW FOR THE TRS-80 
MODELS I & 



TM 




LOGICAL SYSTEMS, INC. ANNOUNCES 




THE TRS-80" OPERATING SYSTEM WITH: 

* Double Sided & Double Density Support. 

* Hard Drive Support Up To 10 MEGS As A Single Drive. 

* Inter mix 5", 8" and Hard Drive Up To 8 Total Drives. 
A 250 Page Manual 
Complete Technical Information 
A TOLL-FREE 800 Number for Customer Service 
A Full Time Staff to Handle Customer Service 
A Bulletin Board on MicroNet 
A LDOS NEWSLETTER 
A Liberal Update Policy 
An ENHANCED BASIC 
A Complete Job Control Language 
Device Independent 
Media Compatible Model I to Model III 
A One Year Warranty 



• SPECIFIC HARDWARE IS REQUIRED TO UTILIZE THESE FEATURES. 



The Ultimate In Operating Systems Model i & 



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FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT THE DISTRIBUTOR NEAREST YOU: 



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(Central) 

GALACTIC SOFTWARE LTD. 

11520 N. Port Washington Rd. 

Mequon, Wl 53092 

(414)241-8030 



TRS-80" a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



(East) 

MISOSYS 

5904 Edgehill Dr. 

Alexandria, VA 22303 

(703)960-2998 

DEALER INQUIRES WELCOME 

LDOS is a product of LSI Inc. 



lee List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 201 



KB BOOK HOOK 



Special Pre-publication Offer!! 

3 NEW BOOKS 

From 

KILOBAUD 

Save $$ by reserving your 
copies now! 

ANNOTATED BASIC VOL I— BK7384- Purpose is the 
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You may learn digital electronics. . .or how to survey! If 
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PREPUBLICATION SPECIAL OFFER ONLY $9.45. 

(ALL BOOKS WILL BE SHIPPED IN AUGUST) 



'Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate 
piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book Department • Peterborough 
NH 03458 Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 

No COD. orders accepted. All orders add $1.00 handling. Please allow 4-6 weeks for 
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PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 







Percom Data's 48K dynamic RAM card. 



are fully tested and burned in 
The user's manual includes 
application instructions, 
schematics and other draw- 
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listings of 6800 and 6809 di- 
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grams. 

Prices are $499.95 for 16K, 
$599.95 for 32K and $699.95 
for the 48K card. Reader ser- 
vice number 472. 



Graphics and Text 
for Host Computers 

The RG-B1 512Hx480V 
Graphics Generator adds 
graphics capability to any 
computer via its RS-232 port. 
The RG-B1 is a smart, stand- 
alone graphics generator that 
accepts high level commands 
from a host computer and dis- 
plays text and graphics on a 
standard 525-line TV moni- 
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cludes point-to-point draw- 



ing, circles, reverse video, 
variable -sized ASCII charact- 
ers, selective erase and rec- 
tangular fill. Unit price is 
$1450. 

Raster Graphics, PO Box 
23334. Tigard. OR 97223. 
Reader service number 479. 



Direct-Connect 
Modem for Apple II 

A direct-connect telephone 
modem for use with Apple II 
and Apple II Plus microcom- 
puters has been introduced 
by ESI Lynx, 123 Locust St., 
Lancaster, PA 17602. It plugs 
into Apple's peripheral slots 
and the telephone line; no 
acoustic coupler is used. Its 
case is styled to match the Ap- 
ple II. Standard features in- 
clude originate/answer, pro- 
grammable word length, pari- 
ty, number of stop bits and 
full/half duplex. Auto-dial and 
auto-answer are extra. The 




RG-B1 graphics generator from Raster Graphics. 



202 Microcomputing, July 1981 




ESI Lynx direct-conned modem. 



Lynx package contains all 
needed hardware and soft- 
ware, plus an instruction 
manual that lists free bulletin- 
board telephone numbers and 
describes how to call these 
and other services, including 
The Source and CompuServe. 
Price is $289.95. Reader ser- 
vice number 467. 



Low-Cost Printer 

Microtek, Inc., 9514 Chesa- 
peake Drive, San Diego, CA 
92123, announces a new low- 
cost 80-column dot matrix 
printer. The Bytewriter-1 ac- 
cepts single sheet or roll paper 
up to 8-1/2 inches wide, and 
prints at 60 lines per minute 
using a 7 x 7 dot matrix. The 
Bytewriter- 1 interface is simi- 
lar but not identical to a Cen- 
tronics parallel interface, and 
has been designed to operate 
with the Apple II, Atari 400/ 



800 and all models of the 
TRS-80. The print mecha- 
nism and logic board are de- 
signed and manufactured in 
the U.S. Price is $299. Reader 
service number 465. 



Portable RS-232 

Memory System 

Braemar Computer De- 
vices, Inc., 11950 12th Ave., 
S., Burnsville, MN 55337, is 
now offering the MTL 900 
portable mini-cassette system 
for remote data gathering, 
memory down-loading and re- 
mote program updating. This 
new memory system unit uses 
a Braemar mini-digital cas- 
sette read/write unit with 
RS-232 interfacing. The nec- 
essary cable and connector 
assembly is included. Each 
miniature cassette holds up to 
86K at 800 bpi, and the sys- 




Bytewriter-1 from Microtek, Inc. 



TEXAS COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Offers Lowest Prices on 



COMPUTERS 



Model II 64K Free with purchase 
coo /in 1 Box of 10 Diskettes 

0>OO4y a $69 Value 



Epson Printers 

(Call 



Model III 16K 
$849 

Model III 32K 
2 Disks $2100 



Color Computer 
4K Lev. I $329 

16KEx. Basic 
$489 



Radio Shack 

Stereos. Radios 

Discounted Call for 

discount on orders 

over $100 



For fast, efficient service, we can air freight from Dallas 
to ma)or a/p near you Call for information 



Payment Money Order Cashier s Check Certified 
Check Personal checks take 3 wks VISA MC 
add 3% 



• Prices sublet to change any time 

• No tax out ol state Texans add 5% 

• Delivery subiect to availability 

• Shipping extra quoted by phone 



TEXAS COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Box 951, Brady Texas 76825 

Toll Free Number 800-351-1473 

Texas Residents 915-597-0673 



^328 



Z-FORTH IN ROM by Tom Zimmer 

5 to 10 times taster than Basic Once you use it. you'll 

never go back to basic! 

source listing add 

OSI FIG-FORTH True tig forth model for 0S65D with fig editor 
named files, string package & much more 

TINY PASCAL Operates in fig forth, an exceptional value 
when purchased with forth 
TINY PASCAL & documentation 
FORTH & TINY PASCAL 

SPACE INVADERS 100% machine code for all systems with 
64 chr video Full color & sound on C2. 4P & 8P systems The 
fastest arcade program available 

PROGRAMMABLE CHARACTER GENERATOR 

Use OSI s graphics or make a complete set of your own! Easy 
to use. comes assembled & tested 
2 Mhz boards 

PROGRAMMABLE SOUND BOARD 

Complete sound system featuring the AY 3-8910 sound chip 
Bare boards available 

32/64 CHARACTER VIDEO MODIFICATION 

Oldest and most popular video mod True 32 chr C1P. or 32/64 
chr C4P video display Also adds many other options 

ROMS!!! 

Augment Video Mod with our Roms Full screen editing, print 
at selectable scroll, and many more features 
Basic 4 & Monitor 
Basic 3 
All 3 for 

65D DISASSEMBLY MANUAL, by Software Consultants 
First class throughout A must for any 65D user 



$ 75 00 
$ 2000 



$ 45 00 



$ 45 00 
$ 65 00 



$ 1495 
$ 99 95 

$109.95 

$ 7495 

$ 29 95 

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$ 4995 
$ 18 95 
$ 65 00 



$ 24 95 





NUMEROUS BASIC PROGRAMS, UTILITY PROGRAMS AND GAMES 
ALONG WITH HARDWARE PROJECTS ALL PRICES ARE U S FUNDS 
Send for our $1 50 catalogue with free program (hardcopy) Memory Map and 
Auto Load Routine 



■ 






OSI Software & Hardware 

3336 Avonriale Crescent 

Windsor, Ontario. Canada N9E 1X6 

(519) 969-2500 

3281 Countryside Circle 

Pontiac Township. Michigan 48057 

(313) 373-0468 



^202 




sSee List of Advertisers on page 194 



Microcomputing, July 1981 203 




Braemar's portable MTL 900 mini-cassette system. 



tern has a data transfer rate of 
2400 baud. Power is normally 
supplied through the inter- 
face cable from the host equip- 
ment. Internal ac or battery 
power supplies are optional. 
The MTL 900 is priced at 
$425. Reader service number 
471. 



Surge Control 

A new power surge control 
unit, designed for use with ex- 
isting 120 V terminal (multi- 
ple outlet) strips, has been in- 
troduced by RKS Enterprises, 
Inc., 643 South 6th St., San 
Jose, CA 95112. The Surge 
Sentry Model SS-120-P pro- 
tects a number of small com- 
puters and data communica- 



tions, medical or other micro- 
processor-controlled equip- 
ment from destructive volt- 
age transients. It plugs into 
any one of the outlets on an 
existing terminal strip, pro- 
viding continuous surge pro- 
tection through each of the 
other outlets on that strip. 
The Model SS-120-P detects 
and shunts all unwanted or 
potentially dangerous voltage 
transients in picoseconds. 
Price is $69.50. Reader ser- 
vice number 482. 



One Megabyte 
8/16-Bit 
Development System 

Syst/M Four is an 8085/8088 
development system using 






1M of static RAM in a single 
enclosure. The IEEE S-100 
system takes advantage of a 
dual processor CPU card con- 
taining a 6-MHz 8085 and a 
6-MHz 8088 to allow running 
either eight- or 16-bit software 
from a single disk, providing 
an ideal environment for up- 
grading eight-bit programs to 
16 bits. Standard software in- 
cludes CP/M 2.2 and CP/M 86 
from Digital Research, eight- 
and 16-bit Pascal compilers 
from Sorcim, and Trans86 by 
Sorcim, which allows 8080 or 
Z-80 source to be translated 
into 8086 source. Standard 
hardware includes two dou- 
ble-density eight-inch floppy- 
disk drives and an eight-inch 
10M hard disk. Two program- 
mable interrupt controllers, a 
real-time clock/calendar with 
battery backup, three cascad- 
able 16-bit interval timers and 
a 95 1 1 math processor are al- 
so standard. Price is $19,950. 
G & G Engineering, 2806 
Marina Blvd., San Leandro, 
CA 94577. Reader service 
number 469. 



Percussion 
Synthesizer 

The Rhythm Box is a new 
computer peripheral that syn- 
thesizes the sounds of seven 



different percussion instru- 
ments—bass drum, wood 
block, snare drum, short cym- 
bals, long cymbals, hand-clap 
and tom-tom. It is easy to pro- 
gram in Level II BASIC or as- 
sembly language; a single 
OUT instruction generates 
any combination of percus- 
sion sounds plus a loudness 
control for rhythmic empha- 
sis. It was designed for game 
players, computer-music en- 
thusiasts, music teachers and 
professional musicians who 
want to create anything from 
a simple, repetitive rhythmic 
pattern to a long, continuous- 
ly varying percussion score. 
The Rhythm Box can be used 
alone or with other music pe- 
ripherals, and a second unit 
can be added for stereo. 

It comes with a phono jack 
for connection to your audio 
system, a UL listed power 
supply, 60-day warranty, us- 
er's manual including BASIC 
and assembly-language soft- 
ware examples, and a wide se- 
lection of rhythm charts for 
every rhythm from waltzes to 
rock. The Model RBX-S 
Rhythm Box connects to stan- 
dard 9600 baud serial inter- 
face. Price is $182. 

Newtech Computer Sys- 
tems, Inc., 230 Clinton St., 
Brooklyn, NY 11201. Reader 
service number 474. 



Surge Sentry from RKS Enterprises. 







Lauren Kawakami, a part owner o/G&G Engineering, with 
their Syst/M Four development system. 



204 Microcomputing, July 1981 



I.E.E.E.696 nrin 

S-100 BOARDS 






6809 C.P.U. CARD 
>J I PROM 



PROGRAMMING CARD 

SOUND EFFECTS CARD 

BREADBOARD CARD 

& MORE 






CALL OR WRITE: 

Ackerman 






Digital Systems, Inc. 
110 N. York Rd., Suite 208 
Elmhurst, IL 60126 ^261 
(312) 530-8992 



Designed for your . . . 

TRS-80™ 

the PHOTOPOINT™ Light Pen* 

a whole NEW concept in 
computer application 

• Just plugs into your TRS-80 with disk 
or without! (Does not void warranties.) 

• Programs with 3 lines in Basic! 

• Comes with two Programs 

• Complete instructions!! 

• Just point to play! 

• Often eliminates confusing keyboard from 
games, education, or multiple choice. 

All you need to get up and running the same day 
you receive your PhotoPoint is included. 
For only . . . 



*19 



.95 Order NOW from 
MICRO MA TR1X 
Complete P.O. Box 938 

Pacif ica, CA 94044 

* Dealer inquiries welcomed! 



^134 



|""^— CHEAP CHIPS ... ARE NO BARGAIN 

I BUYING ADD-ON MEMORY? 
I GET THE BEST!!! 

Memory failures cost you time and money Japanese 16k 
RAM chips have a one-to-ten in-service failure ratio to U.S. 
^ chips- -from a study by R. Anderson, Computer Div , 
9: Hewlett-Packard, reported in Tho Economist, 4-26-80 
o We offer 4116 chips by Fujitsu. NEC, Hitachi, Toshiba 
^j and Mitsubishi ... for most popular computers and o 

CO 




STATIC RAMS 

2114 450nsec $3 .30, 300nsec $3.90; 2101 $2.90. 
EPR0MS (450 nsec std; ask for hi-speed if required) 




o 



-< 
O 



< expansion memory boards, including: 

< 'Apple *AII TRS-80 s 'New Pet 'Heath H-89 
% 'Superbrain 'Expandoram 'Many Others 

S 4116 DYNAMIC RAMS THE BEST ^ 

o 200nsec Plastic $27.70, Ceramic $37.95 £ 

150nsec Plastic $31.95. Ceramic $41.95 i 



CD 



>- 

if 2708 $4 80; 2716 5V+12V $9 40; 2716 5V $9 70; 55 
2i 2732 $18 90 ™ 

CO -tj 

_) We'll beat any legitimate price for comparable chips. Hi- 5 
i^ volume users, dealers, or clubs, ask for quantity discounts, m 
£ SHIPPING: to $25, $2; to $50, $1; over $50. FREE. 

COD: +$1.40. 

DISCOUNTS ON TOTAL: over $100. 5%; over $200. 10% 

MINIS & MICROS INC. • 29486 T railway 
Agoura, CA. 91301 • (213) 342-4535 
CA. residents add 6% sales tax ^391 

2 YEAR WARRANTY • CALL US ANYTIME 



SOFTWARE AUTHORS 
AND VENDORS 

We are looking for programs of quality 
and usefulness for the TRS-80* Color 
Computer and Commodore VIC 20. Of 
particular interest are programs dealing 
with home finance and education. 
Please send documentation and/or sam- 
ple to: 

GENERAL VIDEOTEX CORPORATION 

377 PUTNAM AVENUE 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 02 I 39 ^392 

(617)491-3393 

Publishers of the Kussmaul Encyclopedia™ 
"So simple even a grownup can use it."™ 
* TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 
Encyclopedia is a trademark of 
General Videotex Corporation. 



FACTORY PRIME STATIC RAM CHIPS 

2114 Super Low Power 

200ns. 1Kx4 $ 2.90 

6514 CMOS 300ns. 1Kx4 $ 6.90 

6116 CMOS 200ns. 2Kx8 $22.50 

Add $5.00 Handling on Orders Under $200.00 

CAPTORY PRIMP From the same shipments used in 
rwi« I Un T mime GIM , X Pro t e ssional quality boards 

32KB STATIC RAM CARDS 

for the SS50 and SS50C BUS 

(16KB - $298.12), (24KB - 348.14) 

(32KB - $398.15) 

ME W! 64KB battery back up 

CMOS RAM CARDS 

Two independently addressable 32KB 
blocks, each with extended addressing 

(56KB - $994.56), (64KB - $1088.64) 

2MHZ 6809 56KB SS50 SYSTEMS $2498.29 

DISK SYSTEMS AVAILABLE 

Gimix ,„ <5i 

1337 W. 37th Place • Chicago, IL 60609 
(312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 
The Company that delivers. 

Quality Electronic products since 1975. 

GIMIX' and GHOST* are Registered Trademarks of GIMIX INC 



'68' MICRO 



TM 



JOURNAL 

6800-6809-68000 

• The only ALL 68XX Computer Magazine 

Foreign Orders — Add: 
Air Mail $35.00 Year-Surface $12.00 /Year 

Canada & Mexico Add $5.50 to USA Rate 

1-Year $18.50 2 Years $32.50 

3 Years $48.50 
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